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About this book

This book provides readers with a snapshot of cutting-edge methods and procedures in industrial design, with a particular focus on human-centered and user-experience design, service design, sustainable design and applications of virtual & augmented reality. Reporting on both theoretical and practical investigations aimed at improving industrial design through interdisciplinary collaboration, it covers a wide range of topics – from design strategies to product research and planning, exhibit design, as well as new materials and color research.

Based on the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Interdisciplinary Practice in Industrial Design, held on July 24–28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA, the book offers a timely guide for industrial designers, production engineers and computer scientists.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Emotional Evidence

Frontmatter

How Creative Mindset Is Involved in Positive Emotions and Attitude that Affects Creative Design Process

Creativity is an important problem-solving tool on the design context. People who are in design education treat creativity as an important component of their self-identity. Thus, it is imperative to develop and be mindful of creativity in design education. Most traditional design fields focus on creative outcomes that impact revenue, trends, and popularity. However, this current research shows that it is even more important to focus on people’s state of mind (mindsets) and attitude in building their creative ability. Depending on people’s attitudes toward their projects, some design solutions are more creative than others. The primary research objective of this study is to identify the presence of design students’ creative mindset and how it is manifested in their work. This research also seeks to determine how the creative mindset operates and develops with respect to students’ creative performance by incorporating the concept of the fixed/growth mindset toward creativity. The qualitative data established the fact that: (1) The creative mindset involves students’ attitude toward design projects and is manifested as a positive attitude, such as having an open mind and demonstrating readiness at the beginning of their design process; (2) A positive attitude from students’ creative mindset is closely related to learning goals, which is one of the main concepts of the growth mindset; (3) The creative mindset greatly affects the outcome of the design, and more specifically improves one’s design ability, which contributes to student success from a long-term perspective.

Joungyun Choi

Happiness on Instagram – Content Analysis and Engagement Based on Attention Theory

Instagram, a popular social networking platform, was ranked the number five most popular app by downloads in the first quarter of 2018 [1]. Instagram allows users to share happenings in their lives with other users by posting images and video content. Anyone with an Instagram account can also like and comment on others’ posts. Social media generates attention-seeking behavior and obsessions with getting more likes and positive comments. According to psychologist John Robert Anderson, attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on specific information while editing out non-essential information [2]. Which photography posts get more likes and comments? How frequently do people feel truly happy when they use hashtag #happy and/or #happiness on Instagram? How often do people give sincere comments on Instagram posts? In this research, we conducted a content analysis of photography posts tagged with the hashtag #happy and/or #happiness. We downloaded the 200 most recent posts from individual accounts between January 9–20, 2019 from age ranges 10 to 55 years old. 91% of posts were from young adults or millennials (18–35 years old) and only 2% of posts were from adolescent and 7% of posts were from middle-aged adults. The study examined different value of life in happiness on Instagram and user engagement based with different types of photography posts on Attention Theory. The study found that the physical appearance (36%) was considered to be the aspect of happiness that is 15% more than happiness from the relationship and 27% more than happiness from the achievement regardless of biological sex. In addition, the study suggests that females post comments 2.3 times more than males and females click like 1.7 times more than males. Regardless of biological sex, both males and females received significantly larger numbers of insincere comments (85.7%) than sincere comments (13.1%) on their posts.

Qiuwen Li, Young Ae Kim

A Journey of Taking Industrial Design Students into Uncharted Territories. Designing Crowd-Sourced Playful Interactions for a Public Art Event

The field of industrial design is finding itself in a highly transitional state. While at its core, the traditional values of teaching visualization techniques, form, design research, human factors, and manufacturing methods remain critical to the creation of innovative artifacts of mostly singular nature, the world around us has changed both in added complexity and increased digitalization. The scope of designing future designers therefore calls for reevaluating better strategies to address a big picture approach of solving complex problems at the intersection of users, behaviors, and interactions, with a plurality of possible artifacts or systems. Traditional models of the underlying design process tend to treat the “Design” as a noun, emphasizing the final outcome (the artifact) as the ultimate goal of the undertaken creative process. In contrast to this approach, there is an increasing recognition towards embracing “design” as a verb, by shifting the focus and design contributions onto the process itself to ultimately leverage the realm of results [1].Either approach to the “big-D” or “small-d” design process models represents an important learning experience to the students. I tend to treat them as complementary rather than as exclusive to each other.As an industrial design educator, the gamut of my responsibilities towards learners therefore ranges from nurturing the skillset and mindset to embracing design thinking, practice, and understanding user behaviors and interactions at the very core of solving complex problems. One of these challenges presented itself for the 2018 Scottsdale Canal Convergence Event – An art festival along the downtown waterfront of the Arizona Canal drawing scores of internationally renowned artists to exhibit installations featuring light and sound. A grant was extended to the Arizona State University’s Design School to participate in an interdisciplinary collaboration between the Scottsdale Arts Commission, Interior Architecture, Industrial Design, and a local middle school, to envision interactive installations as reflections on the theme of community and water. While the field of Art is normally not considered to be a playground for industrial designers, this unique project collaboration served as an ideal model to exercise a fundamentally re-envisioned process-driven design studio course. This paper illustrates in-depth the classroom experience of an interdisciplinary design project centered around gathering crowd-sourced primary research, playful and explorative prototyping, form development, as well as the creation of functional interactive models. With an estimated 208.000 visitors after 10 days, the 2018 Scottsdale Canal Convergence event offered the students not only an opportunity to showcase their work to a broad audience, but also demonstrated the critical importance of observing and evaluating user-interactions of the created artifacts in the wild.

Magnus Feil, Milagros Zingoni

Teaching Industrial Design Through Real World Markets and Manufacturing

Traditionally, Industrial Design studio classes consist of teaching Industrial Design through completing a series of projects at school. But what if there was a way to leverage existing real-world wholesale markets and manufacturing facilities outside of school to teach students about the realities of taking a design from “art to part”? This paper presents a case study in which students were challenged to design a product that could be sold at the Dallas Market, an international home goods marketplace in Dallas, TX for retailers from all over the world.

George K. Chow

How Color Coding Encourages Emotional Interactions While Using Smartphones

Human cognition involves highly interrelated mental processes. The essential mental process is connected with the environmental influences that helps to store and remember. Color is the essential optical experience to user experiences as an influential communication channel to the human cognition, which is a meaningful position in improving memory performance. However, color coding can be detrimental under certain circumstances. Can color coding improve memory capacity? Can color coding influence emotional arousal? Can color coding help to create a mental map to navigate information in apps? This research discusses the relationship between colors, attention, memory, and emotional arousal. It addresses the color coding in similar and different settings, an exploration on the human memory, and the role of emotional arousal and memory while using smartphones.

Young Ae Kim

Design for Health and Wellness

Frontmatter

Experiencing Momentum Through an Effective Use of Technology in Museums

Technology can serve as a medium for visitors to feel connected throughout their museum experience. This creates an opportunity for both educators and museum facilitators to promote interactive viewing experience. This paper examines examples of the ways museum spaces have incorporated effective technology that has assisted with movement and identifies design considerations that provided positive user experience. These projects reveal that technology in museums can be used either as stationary devices to generate movement, or movement tracked by mobile technology. The literature includes studies in movement yet there is a dearth of research on the concept of momentum - continuous movement or energy - in museum spaces. Momentum is hard to maintain given the myriad of factors that may interrupt museum visitors from experiencing the momentum in their user experience. How do current museum spaces incorporate momentum in the visitor experience through an appropriate use of technology?

Anna Kabjin Kim, Eileen Harris

Better Mental Healthcare Through the Built Environment

This paper addresses the issue of the built environment’s effect on mental health. It begins with an overview of the state of mental health in Canada, and what factors cause mental illness. The subject of healthcare facility design is then addressed. How a mental healthcare facility may affect one’s mental health is discussed in regard to various factors. The subject of interdisciplinarity is introduced, and why healthcare facility design should be tackled interdisciplinarily is discussed. This is illustrated with two examples of interdisciplinary teams that design therapeutic environments.

Alanna Bamber

Leveraging Disciplinary and Cultural Diversity in the Conceptualization Stages of Design

This paper explores the involvement of increasingly diverse viewpoints in design and makes a case for how using low fidelity 3D prototyping in conceptualization stages might be able to leverage these viewpoints. It compares traditional uni-disciplinary methods with interdisciplinary and cross-cultural collaboration and explores why this might be relevant at this time. It also examines how participants can be embodied in the early design process to allow divergent cultural and disciplinary perspectives to emerge and develop more sophisticated and innovative designs with a global scope. The paper also explains some challenges with collaborative cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary approaches, and offers recommendations while suggesting areas of influence that could be looked at in further research.

Alex Close, Eileen Harris

Interdisciplinary Approach of the Design Process for the Application of New Materials in Wheelchair Design

The appropriation of new technology requires the design and development of products that are accepted by the market. Developing such products is a complex task that usually requires the integration of knowledge from multiple disciplines. In the field of new materials, developments that can be applied to assistive technology are constantly made. This work studies the collaboration between users and professionals from industrial design, engineering, human factors, and disability for the design of an all-terrain wheelchair. This product incorporates the use of magnesium alloys, a material with an excellent strength-to-weight ratio and good damping properties. With a human-centered design approach, tools such as interviews, focus groups, prototyping, and testing were used in several stages of the process. It allowed achieving a design that takes advantage of the properties of the new material and, at the same time, meets the mobility, stability and comfort requirements of the users.

Paula Chacon-Cifuentes, Alejandro Zuleta-Gil, Gustavo Sevilla Cadavid, Andres Valencia-Escobar, Esteban Correa-Bedoya, Felix Echeverria-Echeverria

Importance of Involving Children in Designing Recycling Facilities: A Case Study of Hong Kong Children Collecting and Recycling Recyclables

Given the importance of recycling to ensuring an environmentally sustainable future, it is imperative that children be taught to recycle at home. Yet in major metropolises such as Hong Kong, household recycling is still uncommon and relevant knowledge is not passed between generations. Based on a Hong Kong case study, the study reveals the importance of involving children through teaching children to design and make their own recyclable storage bags. The findings show that children who attended a lecture about environmental protection and/or workshops on making recyclable storage bags did not initially have recycling habits, but they were more eager to recycle afterwards. More involvement in designing recycling gadgets and facilities would result higher participation and motivation. The study thus provides strong evidence of the effect of children’s involvement in recycling activities through designing and making recycling-related items.

Kin Wai Michael Siu, Yi Lin Wong, Mei Seung Lam

The Role of Affective Design in Sustainability

As the changes in global climate become more evident, sustainable design, which is also known as green design, environment-friendly design or eco-design has become a major topic in many of the most recent forums and conferences. Sustainable design is defined by Zande (2010) as “a design philosophy that seeks to maximize the quality of the built environment, while minimizing or eliminating negative impact to the natural environment” [18]. In the field of architecture, the value of sustainability has also been highlighted, as it is considered a useful tool that can help to overcome the challenges of sustainable development. Nevertheless, it is common to associate this concept with sacrifice when addressed in practice, as stated by Fiore, Phillips and Sellers (2014) “society is asked to sacrifice quality of life to achieve some sustainable goal” [8]. In order to overcome this attitude, a new approach has been generated in the last decade. This new approach named hedonistic sustainability by Bjarke Ingles (2011), aims to address the limited scope of sustainable design by bridging two design methodologies- hedonistic (affective design) and sustainable design.

Guillermo Juarez

Using Gamified Solutions in Pediatric Diabetes Self-management: A Literature Review

Gamification, the use of game elements and techniques, is increasingly being used in healthcare field. This paper reviews the literature on the application of design and technology in improving the quality of healthcare services using gamification, specifically on diabetes self-management. It proposes the use of game elements to help diabetic children better manage their lifelong condition. The paper concludes by presenting a design proposal for further research on the potential use of gamification to promote adherence to a recommended diabetic protocol.

Maryam Attef, Eileen Harris

Application of 3D Scanning to Product Design

Frontmatter

The Application of the Performance Hand Wear and Tools Innovation Approach: Road Cycling Gloves

Over the last twenty years, the apparel industry has modernized the design process, by integrating digital design tools and technologies to collect and analyze body measurements, draft patterns, conduct fittings and manufacture. However, for performance hand wear and tool design, many of the methods used today are outdated and limit innovation opportunities. By integrating digital design tools from the apparel industry, there is an opportunity to develop products, to improve fit, performance and safety. This is especially important for users that rely on products for hand protection and accuracy, including, athletes, military personal, surgeons, construction and fire service workers. The following paper demonstrates how a performance hand wear and tools innovation approach developed by the author, was used by a graduate student to create a new glove for road cycling. Future work using the approach will aid in designing products for other users and help manufacturers improve safety and overall performance.

Susan L. Sokolowski, Christel Thue Hoegsted

3D Hand Scanning to Digital Draping for Glove Design

New technologies such as 3D simulation and digital prototyping offer endless design opportunities for gloves. One potential application is digitally draping, which can be used to improve glove fit. A pilot study with one subject was conducted to examine the feasibility of this approach applied to glove design and fit. The subject completed a fit survey and then had their hand 3D scanned. A glove was digitally draped on the subject’s hand scan in EFI Optitex®. The pressure map and mesh tool in Optitex were utilized to aid expert fit evaluations.The findings of this pilot study show that the 3D glove simulation can provide a robust understanding of fit. Designers can use this visual and quantifiable information as a way to improve glove fit during early design iterations, thereby potentially sparing resources. Additionally, better fitting gloves could potentially be an effective way at combating common hand injuries.

Linsey Griffin, Emily Seifert, Chris Curry, Susan Sokolowski

The Variability of U.S. Women’s Plus Size Product Sizing and Self-Identified Size 18 Bodies

In 2016, the apparel market value for plus sizes in the U.S., was estimated at 20.4 billion dollars. As there is a lack of accessible measurement and sizing standardization in the U.S. for this body type, retailers have developed their own unique systems. This pilot study will explore how a sample of 65 plus size women, through 3D body scans, fit into the top U.S. retailer’s measures and sizes. The retailers investigated, included: Walmart, Kohl’s, JC Penney, Target, Macy’s and Lane Bryant. The findings established that none of the retailers are meeting the needs of the plus size body. Future research must consider methods to improve access to measurements, apparel sizing and product development for this growing demographic.

Susan L. Sokolowski, Linsey Griffin, Jessie Silbert

Interdisciplinary Practice for Automobile Design

Frontmatter

Extracting Contour Shape of Passenger Car Form in Rear View Based on Form Similarity Judgement by Young Chinese Consumers

It explores how to extract a contour shape to reveal underlying vital parts of passenger car form in rear view based on young Chinese consumers’ form similarity judgement. By defining 21 character lines and their 75 segments for eighty representative forms selected from similarity judgement by young Chinese consumers, the slope values of all segments are calculated as an input for factor analysis and 13 common factors are extracted. The findings show that (1) the passenger car form in rear view can be extracted and presented as a reduced but recognizable contour shape with around forty-four percent loss of information on the form in rear view; and (2) the contour shape is mainly consisted of character lines defining such basic design parts as roof and side windows, the C-type contour of taillights, the U-type edges of sunken license plate area, the U-type boundary and the turning edge between the horizontal and vertical surfaces of trunk lid, the horizontal transitional edge on the upper rear bumper, and the contour of the corner area on rear bumper in rear view.

Chunrong Liu, Minghua Zhang

Research on Evaluation of CMF Based on Vision in Automobile Seat Design

CMF design is the key to improve the quality of product design, which has been widely used in electronic consumer products, household appliances, product design for special users, interior design, and other aspects. This research is the CMF design of automobile seat in user’s vision. Firstly, the main CMF elements of automobile seat and CMF combination scheme are investigated. Secondly, the most representative CMF combination scheme is defined by questionnaire and focus group discussion. Thirdly, with the help of the theory of fuzzy sets, the comprehensive level of users’ satisfaction with the color, material and surface decoration of representative CMF combination schemes is counted, and the user preferences of CMF design of automobile seat based on vision are obtained. Finally, a new idea of CMF design of automobile seat is hoped to be provided.

Canqun He, Xue Sun, Weizhen Xiao

Study on the Design Elements of Shape and Interface of Modern Agricultural Machinery

To improve the interfacial configuration and the core competitiveness of domestic agricultural machinery equipment. Using the concept of design science, this dissertation summarizes the methods of shape and interface design of modern agricultural machinery, mainly exploring from the modeling, color and enterprise VI design. In conclusion, the application of design science in the equipment of agricultural machinery can effectively improve the ergonomic effect of the interfacial form, enhance the aesthetic quality and additional value of the products.

Yitong Liu, Huabin Wang

Interdisciplinary Design and Education

Frontmatter

Exploring a New Future in Collaborative Design Processes in Education

The design process… what is it? How do we teach it in industrial design programs within the US? What is the role of users and how does the design process influence collaboration? There are many similarities yet also differences in how we approach teaching at undergraduate and graduate levels between universities. This paper discusses the experience of design educators from two universities in the US exploring assistive and medical device design projects and begins to explore where do we go from here.

Joyce Thomas, Jerrod Windham, Suresh Sethi, Manish Arora

Industrial Design Participation in Project/Matrix Management

Team management often referred to as concurrent design/engineering and matrix management is now embracing this practice as a proven methodology. Empowerment, the main ingredient is given to the team to make decisions collectively, thus eliminating total approval from the next level of management. Allowing the team to make decisions minimizes delays and moves the product to market faster. The industrial designer’s role in team management is different from most other members in that they are dealing with an area that is often viewed as subjective. Most businesses are not acutely aware of the importance of design. Industrial designers are often considered to be just visual people and not actually concerned with practical elements. On the contrary, the industrial designer is very practical, their problem-solving methods and a holistic view is a tremendous asset in business today, especially in design thinking. Design cannot be avoided, no matter what the company or organization produces.

Randall Bartlett

Moving from Dependency, Wastefulness and Risk Toward Sustainability and Resilience Through Designed Systems

Technology, automation, and their related systems, have been put in place to add efficiency and convenience to our lives, allowing modern cultures to live prosperous and “easy” lives compared to most cultures throughout history. Our lives of ease have many desirable attributes but, we have simultaneously developed a high level of dependency and a lack of resilience in the face of many common challenges. Through intentional and strategic design, our society could be nudged into a philosophical shift toward a life of resilience, independence, and greater humanness.

Carlton R. Lay

Designing Under the Influence: Exploring the Motivations and Obstacles of Young Design Students

Industrial design education takes its cues from the profession of Industrial Design. A century old discipline blending human science, engineering, and art. For better and worse, the design profession’s flexibly and obscurity make it difficult for design students to find their way. This paper will analyze the motivations and obstacles that design students face during their academic career. Both internal motivations and external obstacles will be viewed through the lens of the influential people and the presence of existing systems. Concluding the discussion of influential people and existing systems will be three key implementations that can aid design students in maintaining their motivations and outpacing their obstacles.

Benjamin Bush

Lessons from the Archive: Still Relevant 50 Years Later

Human interaction and sustainability represent huge concepts impacting design practice in multiple disciplines. Because of this impact on design practice, the conversations around these concepts is critical to the profession. The discipline of Industrial design in the making of objects has a rich history of applying these guiding principles, while by comparison graphic design in the making of communications has more recently started to address some of these concepts. This paper highlights bits of conversation from present to 50 years ago about the role of human interaction and sustainability in industrial and graphic design. For the contemporary designer it is important to recognize and embrace these ideas, so that the next generation of designers do not have to rediscover them.

David Smith

Collaboration Models for Teaching Design Within Specialized Contexts

While there exists a wealth of human-centered design projects in which students can successfully render their creative skills while producing a compelling portfolio piece, it is often problematic for faculty to frame and organize a product design collaboration obscured within a space of limited experience or access. This paper will compare and contrast three collaboration models employed in teaching design to undergraduate students on projects that required an in-depth understanding of unfamiliar contexts. Strengths and weaknesses observed through each of these approaches will be outlined, as well as the learning and design outcomes from projects focused on assistive technologies, commercial construction, and the healthcare sector. Faculty and team leaders will gain insights in how to structure their teaching collaborations to maximize student interactions, learning, and design results on specialized projects.

Shea Tillman

Design Embracing Information Science, Intention and Experience

Frontmatter

Should the Environment Be a Human Factor?

For many decades, we recognized four human factors: physical, cognitive, social, and cultural. Approximately at the turn of the millennium, we increasingly began to recognize, based on a variety of evidence from psychology, physiology, neurophilosophy, and other fields, that affect should be added as a new category. To understand the human, the argument went, we were missing an important component if we left out emotion. That perspective has been sufficiently well accepted that the dedicated society and conference for the topic, Design and Emotion, was able to declare success, and held its last event in Amsterdam, then closed its doors in 2016.In this paper, we argue that we should recognize that another aspect of being human is the environment itself. As ecological psychologist Gibson famously said, “Do not ask what is in your head. Ask instead what your head is in” [1]. In order to more completely understand the human factors that are relevant to a particular design, we should be systematically studying the surrounds. These will include everything from the many microscopic symbiotes that make up the human system, to the infrastructure designed and developed by people, to the natural support provided by the planet. Although not typically recognized as part of being human, it is unreasonable to think of people as somehow being apart from the environment that they inhabit. The tendency to separate the two into distinct categories has arguably resulted in some of the worst effects of human activity, as has become increasingly recognized by the people interested in post-human design (e.g. [2–5]).

Stan Ruecker, Claudia Grisales, John A. Capozzo, Juan Alfonso De La Rosa, Gerry Derksen, Priscilla Boff Ferronato, Thais Cristina Sehn, Cliff Shin

Quantitative Research on the Relationship Between Design Elements and Kansei Image of Electric Vehicle Styling

In order to meet the needs of users’ emotional experience, quantitative research is carried out on the relationship between product form design elements and Kansei image. The whole research process consists of five steps. Firstly, product samples and Kansei words are collected and selected. Secondly, a new tool is proposed to measure Kansei image, called “Image Circumplex”. Thirdly, the form design elements are extracted comprehensively based on Morphological Analysis and Protocol Analysis. Fourthly, Quantification Theory Type I is applied to build the relationship between design elements and Kansei words, and the mathematical model is constructed to support product form design. Finally, the proposed approach is presented and illustrated using a case study of electric vehicle design. The quantitative results of the relationship between form design elements and Kansei image can provide effective support for product form design, evaluation and decision-making.

Mingzhu Li, Canqun He, Zhangping Lu, Liqing Huang

Research on Modeling Design of Modern Agricultural Machinery Based on Soft System Methodology

In order to meet the requirements of domestic users for the increasingly improved comprehensive quality of modern agricultural machinery and improve the current situation of the insufficient perceptual function of modern agricultural machinery in China, an innovative design method of modern agricultural machinery based on Soft System Methodology (SSM) was proposed by using SSM and product design theory. Firstly, through the application of SSM, the seven logical steps of the SSM are: the stage 1 no structural problem scenario; Stage 2: The situation in which the problem is expressed: a description of the status of the bad structure; the root definition of the Stage 3 related system: Initially clarify and improve various factors related to the status quo and their relationship; Stage 4 related system conceptual model construction: use structural model or language model to describe the current status of the system; Stage 5 conceptual model and problem perception comparison: discuss and find the gap and difference between problem perception and conceptual model; Stage 6 Finding expected and feasible change: Identifying reform paths or options that are in line with the intent and feasibility of the decision maker; Stage 7 action to improve the problem scenario and use SSM to solve the new problem scenario based on changes after the action, summarize it into four application ideas, stage 1: perceive the problem situation, and clarify the relevant system root definition; Stage 2: Establish relevant conceptual models; Stage 3: Compare conceptual models and current status; Stage 4: In-depth study and verification of the rationality and feasibility of conceptual models and implementation of proposed reforms. Then use this idea to analyze the soft problems of modeling aesthetic feeling in modern agricultural machinery modeling design layer by layer, and divide the soft problem system into three subsystems: color beauty, form beauty and craft beauty. Then investigation and analysis of domestic and foreign agricultural machinery design situation and describe the current situation of the modern agricultural machinery modelling aesthetic problems, and then through the six elements “CATWOE” form clear problems of modern agricultural machinery modelling aesthetic feeling, and combining the theory of ergonomics, aesthetics, color theory, an analysis of the various product modeling design, the concept of modern agricultural machinery design model is established. Finally, the crawler self-propelled rotary tiller based on this conceptual model is compared with the current product by fuzzy evaluation method. A conceptual model of modern agricultural machinery innovation design based on SSM is proposed, and innovative design of crawler self-propelled rotary tiller. SSM is a human activity system as the core of system theory, and the product modeling design is built around the user as the center of design activities, use of human-centered common between them, SSM with product modeling design related theory, to design practice, crawler self-propelled rotary cultivator and a conceptual model of modern agricultural machinery innovation design is verified and the feasibility and rationality of and provide important reference for the related agricultural machinery product design.

Huabin Wang, Baoping Xu

Research-Driven Design

Frontmatter

A Critical Usability Problem-Solving Case of MazeCube Through Design Exploration Based on Scientific Experiments

This study presents a design development case in which a critical design problem raised in a commercialization process was solved through design exploration based on scientific experiments. A critical usability problem-solving case of MazeCube is described. MazeCube is a toy designed for commercialization via testing and experiment without compromising the functionality and aesthetics of the design. During the usability test with working prototypes, a critical usability problem was found. As such, several working principles were considered to solve the problem. The purpose was to select the appropriate one to adopt and conducted a series of experiments to verify and to determine the design specification of the implementation. This study demonstrates how usability testing and design exploration can be incorporated into a design process to improve the finished design more user-friendly. This study concludes that the case can be considered as an example of research-driven design.

Jihyeon Yang, Hwisu Jeon, Muhammad Tufail, KwanMyung Kim

Project Pilot Run: A Sewn Collaboration

Flatland BMX is performed on flat surfaces without ramps or jumps resulting in less wear and tear on the bike than is common to extreme BMX. There are many niché products but in the world of flatland BMX, an appropriate air travel bicycle bag is missing. It costs upwards of $150, each way, to check a bicycle on a plane. In this sponsored project, 21 students designed the means of safely and cost-effectively transporting a Flatland BMX bicycle by air. Students worked with a local professional rider and consulted with a sewn goods designer both of whom assisted students in the development of their designs and manufacturing strategies. At the end of the project, a select group of students was chosen to deliver a working prototype to the professional rider. This pedagogical paper follows the progress of the students from the initial pitch through the final presentation of the product.

Adam Feld

Discomfort with Low-back Pain Relief Exercise Training for Older Adult Women

Low-back pain is a common health problem in older adult women. Due to various health problems, they cannot continue the use of medications for low-back pain. Recently, specific exercise training are considered as more promising and widely used interventions for low-back pain. However, participation in exercise training remains low among older adult women. The main reason is that these training cause discomfort to other parts of the body due to which they quit the training in its early stage. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of specific exercise training on low-back pain intensity and overall body parts discomfort. A group-based training for muscles around the spine was arranged in a martial art club. An empirical study with 8 older adult women was conducted for the duration of five weeks. The findings showed a significant difference in the pain intensity and body parts discomfort over the specified duration. Body parts discomfort score was gradually and relatively decreased along with the pain intensity score. The findings revealed that the pain intensity and overall all body parts discomfort remain unchanged in the first and second weeks of the exercise training. However, the pain intensity and body parts discomfort was influenced in the later weeks. This study suggests that exercise training should be strategized to encourage devotion, enable group-based exercise activities, and educate self-efficacy for exercise training.

Muhammad Tufail, Sangjin Park, Haebin Lee, Yang Gyu Moon, KwanMyung Kim

From Digital to Analogue: An Interdisciplinary Case Study to Enhance the Communication of Design Products Through Physical Constraints

Emerging technologies have the potential to make everyday life easier with an increasing number of benefits. However, it is argued that digital products are developed from a techno-centric perspective rather than being human-centered. With the complicated structures they have, they may also cause dissatisfaction and difficulty in their use, due to the unfamiliarity to the mental models of the users. In the area of human-computer interaction, many learning and outcomes have been achieved. This research aims to explore how this knowledge can be benefited for the design of products that are controlled by analogue means. Within the scope of the research, 5-week workshop was planned and applied to Communication Design senior students, who had many design experience with digital media. The outcomes revealed that, when user-centered design method and metaphorical thinking are integrated in the design process, the products’ cognitive, physical, sensory and functional affordance improved.

Simge Esin Orhun

Innovative Product Design for Hand-muscle Weakness Therapy in the Elderly People

Currently, the structure of population all over the world seems to become more of aging society. Elderly people in Thailand are rapidly increasing in number as well and this affects many aspects of the country, including economics and society. More than 40% of health degrading problems make the elderly become dependent on others because they are unable to help themselves. Weakening of hand muscle from aging is caused by the damage of muscles or tendons directly related to the movement of hands and fingers. The weakening happens gradually; sometimes it can be temporary symptom and sometimes it can become more severe. Designing products for occupational therapy of hand muscle exercising in elderly people originates from the idea of decelerating the weakening of the hand muscle to enable the elderly to live and do day-to-day activities more conveniently so they may have better quality of life. The process of designing consists of: interviewing about the needs of 10 elderly persons, and using the inspiration from the shape of Siamese fighting fish to specify the size and the usage of the product. This type of fish has strong fighting instinct. It symbolizes obstacles fighting in the past experience of a person. The color and swimming manner of the fish were also used as the inspiration in designing the products according to 3 types of occupational therapy. Then, the products were tested and satisfaction of users was evaluated after 3 product prototypes had been used. Percentage calculation was used in analyzing the data from the questionnaire. As for the analysis of data from satisfaction evaluation form, the researcher used statistical method of finding mean and standard deviation (S.D.). It was found that the product “neck-supporting pillow” received the highest satisfaction ( $$ \bar{x} $$  = 4.6) (S.D. = 0.69). The product “plier” received second highest satisfaction ( $$ \bar{x} $$  = 4.5) (S.D. = 0.59). The product “knuckle” received high satisfaction ( $$ \bar{x} $$  = 4.3) (S.D. = 0.60). Therefore, this designing resulted in the products for hand muscle exercising that can effectively decelerate the weakening of hand muscle in elderly people.

Parichart Rattanapol

Backmatter

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