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About this book

This book discusses all aspects of advanced engine technologies, and describes the role of alternative fuels and solution-based modeling studies in meeting the increasingly higher standards of the automotive industry. By promoting research into more efficient and environment-friendly combustion technologies, it helps enable researchers to develop higher-power engines with lower fuel consumption, emissions, and noise levels. Over the course of 12 chapters, it covers research in areas such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion and control strategies, the use of alternative fuels and additives in combination with new combustion technology and novel approaches to recover the pumping loss in the spark ignition engine. The book will serve as a valuable resource for academic researchers and professional automotive engineers alike.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

General

Frontmatter

Horizons in Internal Combustion Research

With the major concern to increase the efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engines, various technologies and innovations have been implemented to improve efficiency and reduction of emissions. This monograph gives a detailed description of advanced IC engine concepts. The monograph is divided into advanced technology for IC engines, exhaust after-treatment and its heat recovery, simulations in the field of IC engine such as HCCI and GCI. Toward the end of this monograph, an overview has been presented related to future mobility solutions of Indian automotive industry. The latest research topics are included in this monograph which will be very useful to students, research scholars as well as industries working in IC engine.
Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Amitava Datta

Advanced Technology for Internal Combustion Engines

Frontmatter

Low-Temperature Combustion: An Advanced Technology for Internal Combustion Engines

Universal concerns about degradation of ambient environmental conditions, stringent emission legislations, depletion of petroleum reserves, security of fuel supply, and global warming have motivated R&D of engines operating on alternative combustion concepts, which have the capability of using renewable fuels. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) is an advanced combustion concept for internal combustion (IC) engines, which has attracted global attention in recent years. LTC is radically different from conventional spark ignition (SI) combustion and compression ignition (CI) diffusion combustion concepts. LTC technology offers prominent benefits in terms of simultaneous reduction of both oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in addition to reducing specific fuel consumption. However, controlling ignition timing and heat release rate (HRR) are primary challenges to be tackled before LTC technology can be implemented in automotive engines commercially. This chapter reviews fundamental aspects of development of LTC engines and their evolution, historical background, and origin of LTC concept and its future prospects. Detailed insights into preparation of homogeneous charge by external and internal measures for diesel like fuels are discussed. Combustion characteristics of LTC engines including combustion chemistry, HRR, and knock characteristics are also touched upon in this chapter. Emission characteristics are also reviewed along with insights into PM and NOx emissions from LTC engines.
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal

Characterization of Ringing Operation in Ethanol-Fueled HCCI Engine Using Chemical Kinetics and Artificial Neural Network

The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) strategy is an advanced engine combustion concept having higher thermal efficiency while maintaining the NO x and soot emission to an ultra-low level. Intense ringing operation in HCCI engine is one of the major challenges at high engine load conditions, which limit the HCCI engine operation range and can also damage engine parts. Ethanol is a promising alternative to conventional fuel, especially for utilization in advanced engine combustion modes such as HCCI. This chapter presents the overview of HCCI combustion along with its numerical simulation using stochastic reactor model. This chapter also presents detailed characterization of ringing operation, and HCCI operating range of ethanol-fueled HCCI engine. Ringing operation is typically characterized by either ringing intensity or peak pressure rise rate (PPRR). Characterization of PPRR and its prediction using artificial neural network (ANN) in ethanol-fueled HCCI engine is also presented. The ANN model is of utility to identify engine operating limits to avoid the ringing operation.
Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Mohit Raj Saxena

Variable Valve Actuation Systems

Internal combustion (IC) engines today represent a class of heat engines marked by their high power-to-weight ratio, making them the suitable choice for portable power solutions. Being reliable and robust, their widespread use in commercial vehicles is, therefore, implicitly justified. Being a heat engine, the efficiency and performance of an internal combustion engine are limited by the temperature of heat addition and rejection. Moreover, with the inherent irreversible and non-ideal nature of the various processes of the power cycle, a fraction of the ideal thermodynamic efficiency is realised accounting for the low overall thermal efficiency. The text that follows is centred around the gas exchange process in an IC engine. The working of conventional camshaft-driven valve train systems, which have been in use for quite a long time, has been discussed followed by its limitations and their repercussions on the performance and efficiency of an IC engine. The origins of the unavoidable pumping losses accompanying load control using a throttle valve have been explained. An overview of the various strategies and methods used in commercial vehicles to mitigate such losses (variable valve timing and variable valve lift) has been given while providing some insight into the working of some experimental variable valve actuation systems. The discussion then shifts to fully flexible camless valve actuation systems explaining the working of some popular actuation systems, highlighting their advantages and limitations. The basic control logic of such systems is then discussed followed by a list of some unique attributes and advantages of the same. Few experimental results from the literature have also been cited to substantiate the utility of variable valve actuation systems.
Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava, Abhimanyu Das, Nitish Kumar Singh

Performance, Combustion, and Emissions Characteristics of Conventional Diesel Engine Using Butanol Blends

Energy security concern and stringent emission legislations norms demand a clean and high fuel conversion efficiency engines. Diesel compression ignition (CI) engines are more preferred over the spark-ignition (SI) engines in commercial applications due to their higher fuel conversion efficiency. Present chapter focuses on the effect of butanol addition in the diesel fuel on the combustion and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine. Butanol has inimitable properties, which makes it more suitable candidate fuel for diesel engine in comparison to other alcohol fuels such as ethanol and methanol. Combustion characteristics of the engine are analyzed from heat release analysis of measured in-cylinder pressure data at different engine operating conditions. Combustion stability is also discussed with respect to diesel engine operation with butanol blends. Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission characteristics of diesel engine using butanol blends are discussed in this chapter. Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of particulate emission (soot particle numbers) in diesel engine with butanol blends.
Mohit Raj Saxena, Rakesh Kumar Maurya

Hydrogen-Enriched Compressed Natural Gas: An Alternate Fuel for IC Engines

Depleting fossil fuel resources is forcing the transport sector to look for renewable fuels. CNG, being produced from fossil as well as natural resources, is a good alternative to liquid fossil fuels. It is relatively abundant and easily available compared to hydrogen. However, it has lower flame speed, shorter flammability range and other limitations, which make it a sub-optimum fuel for IC engines. Hydrogen, which can also be produced from renewable resources, is a possible solution to some of these issues. However, hydrogen has its own limitations in terms of low storage density. It occupies very large volume as a gas, and storing it in liquid form is extremely energy-intensive. There is a sharp contrast in vital properties of both these fuels; therefore, this study explores using mixtures of hydrogen and CNG as alternative fuel. This fuel exhibits merits of hydrogen as well as CNG. Hence, hydrogen-enriched CNG, also known as hythane or HCNG, is being investigated worldwide. This fuel is storable, energy-efficient and emits fewer emissions compared to both constituent fuels individually. One way to produce HCNG blends is to mix the gases using Dalton’s law of partial pressures and store them as premixed blend. This method is time-consuming and cumbersome. With this method, it becomes difficult to investigate all the HCNG blends. It does not have the flexibility to change the mixture ratio, while the engine is operating. Hence, in the current research, a dynamic gaseous fuel mixing system was developed by which one can change the proportions of hydrogen and CNG of the HCNG blends dynamically without necessarily stopping the engine. Validation of the system developed was done by theoretical methods and experimental investigations. We used this mixing system to investigate the technical feasibility of various HCNG blends ranging from 0% H2 to 100% H2 in HCNG. Combustion, performance end emission characteristics were compared. HCNG blend with 30% hydrogen showed better performance and superior anti-knocking characteristics.
Sadaraboina Moses Vidya Sagar, Avinash Kumar Agarwal

Characterization of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in Conventional Diesel Engine Using Wavelets

Higher cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion engines lead to efficiency losses, engine roughness, lower power output, and higher exhaust emissions. Cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion engines are typically characterized by several techniques such as statistical method, symbol sequence statistics, chaotic methods, and wavelet analysis. Each strategy for cyclic variation characterization has its benefits and limitations depending on the application. Wavelet transform has a potential to analyze non-stationary signal in time domain as well as frequency domain simultaneously. This strategy has better temporal and spectral resolution; thus, wavelet analysis can be used to analyze the periodicities as well as magnitude of variations in the engine combustion cycles. This chapter presents the characterization of cycle-to-cycle variations in conventional diesel engine using statistical technique as well as wavelet technique. Cyclic variations in various combustion parameters (such as indicated mean effective pressure, total heat release rate, and peak pressure) are discussed in diesel engine operated at different operating conditions with diesel as well as butanol/diesel blends. Typically, cyclic variations in indicated mean effective pressure, peak pressure, and total heat release rate are found higher at lower engine loads and decrease with increase in engine load.
Mohit Raj Saxena, Rakesh Kumar Maurya

Exhaust After-Treatment and its Heat Recovery

Frontmatter

Recent Advancements in After-Treatment Technology for Internal Combustion Engines—An Overview

The increasing health problems due to engine exhaust and tightening of emission norms for engine exhaust force us to use exhaust after-treatment techniques. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, unburnt hydrocarbon, particulate matter, and oxides of nitrogen are main automobile engine exhaust emissions. Most commonly, diesel oxidation catalysis effectively reduces unburnt hydrocarbon emission, diesel particulate filter reduces particulate matter emission, and selective catalytic reduction and NO x trap technology reduce NO x emissions. Recent advances include reduction with and without filter, reduction with catalyst and without catalyst, and some other after-treatment techniques such as plasma-assisted techniques, NO x and soot combined reduction. This chapter provides overview of recent advancement in various after-treatment techniques and challenges of these technologies.
Gaurav Tripathi, Atul Dhar, Amsini Sadiki

Calcium Oxide Nanoparticles as An Effective Filtration Aid for Purification of Vehicle Gas Exhaust

Calcium oxide nanoparticles and its potential towards purification of vehicle gas exhaust were investigated in this work. Calcium oxide nanoparticles were synthesised and its efficiency in absorbing constituents of vehicle gas exhaust has been estimated. Calcium oxide nanoparticles were synthesised by chemical coprecipitation and thermal decomposition of chicken egg shells. The obtained powdered particles were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction techniques. The powdered products on the addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) have been fabricated into a nanoporous membrane using electrospinning technique. The thin film was made with varying weight per cent of CaO particles. The efficiency of these membranes was estimated by passing exhaust gas through it using exhaust gas analyser/smoke metre. The FT-IR analysis confirms the presence of CaO particles. The SEM and XRD of the obtained samples showed the crystalline nature of CaO nanoparticles, and the size of the powdered CaO was found to be ~15–20 nm. The nanoporous electrospun membrane has low filtration capacity. The other two CaO nanoparticles with varying weight percentage showed great potential towards purifying vehicle gas exhaust. It reduces the quantity of HC, CO, CO2 in high rates. It is also proved that increase in the concentration of CaO increased the efficiency of filtration.
B. Bharathiraja, M. Sutha, K. Sowndarya, M. Chandran, D. Yuvaraj, R. Praveen Kumar

Exhaust Heat Recovery Using Thermoelectric Generators: A Review

With the major concern to increase the efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engines, various technologies and innovations have been implemented to improvise efficiency and reduction of emissions. Since 60–70% of the energy produced during combustion is rejected as heat through exhaust and coolant channels, it is important to recover that waste heat. Numerous technologies have been invented and applied to the diesel engine unit to harness the waste heat. One such is the use of solid-state device thermoelectric generator (TEG). In the late 1980s, many automobile manufacturers implemented automotive exhaust thermoelectric generators (AETEGs) in their respective vehicles, and since then, the work on AETEGs has picked at gradual pace. Advantages of using TEG are its noise-free operation, low failure rate and lack of moving components. However, it is not a very popular solution due to the low energy conversion efficiency (~6–8%) of thermoelectric modules and the incompetence to produce high power at low-temperature gradient. Engineers and researchers are basically working for improving the conversion efficiency of TEG modules by developing and doping semiconductors and optimization of the AETEG system to utilize and recover maximum heat available from the exhaust line by designing efficient heat exchanger systems, thus trying to improve its feasibility. This chapter covers the wide spectrum of feasibility of application of TEG modules in diesel engines with possible ways to utilize the generated power.
Sarthak Nag, Atul Dhar, Arpan Gupta

Numerical/Simulation

Frontmatter

Chemical Kinetic Simulation of Syngas-Fueled HCCI Engine

Energy safety concern and depletion of fossil fuel resources lead towards the investigation of an efficient and clean alternative combustion strategy as well as renewable biofuels. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine has demonstrated the potential for higher thermal efficiency along with simultaneous reduction of NO x and PM emissions to ultra-low level. Syngas is a potential alternative fuel. Syngas-fueled HCCI engine combines the advantages of advanced combustion strategy and biofuels. This chapter provides the overview of HCCI combustion and its chemical kinetic simulation using stochastic reactor model (SRM). This chapter also presents the comparative analysis of performance of various syngas reaction mechanisms in the HCCI engine at different inlet temperature and equivalence ratio using stochastic reactor model. For validating the reaction mechanisms, experimental in-cylinder pressure data is compared with the numerically simulated data. Syngas reaction mechanism CRECK-2014 (consisting of 32 species and 173 reactions) is found suitable for syngas-fueled HCCI combustion simulation.
Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Mohit Raj Saxena, Akshay Rathore, Rahul Yadav

Gasoline Compression Ignition—A Simulation-Based Perspective

Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is an advanced combustion concept for internal combustion engines, where gasoline is ignited purely through compression, without the use of a spark. Combustion is the result of a sequence of autoignition events based on reactivity stratification within the charge. In recent years, GCI has garnered significant interest owing to its potential to deliver diesel-like efficiency with much lower engine-out soot and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions. In this work, we present results from a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation studies performed by us to understand the impact of design features and operating conditions on GCI, focusing on idle to low loads, where igniting gasoline purely through compression is challenging. These simulations are based on experiments performed at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) on a four-cylinder diesel engine modified to run in GCI mode. We studied the impact of factors like injector nozzle inclusion angle, injection timing, injection pressure, boost level, and swirl ratio. The preignition reaction space from the results was analyzed to understand the interplay between these factors and the overall reactivity. We also delve into the impact of uncertainties in CFD model inputs such as model parameters and initial and boundary conditions on simulation results by performing a global sensitivity analysis (GSA), based on thousands of CFD calculations run on a supercomputer at Argonne.
Janardhan Kodavasal, Sibendu Som

Application of CFD for Analysis and Design of IC Engines

Most of us are not familiar with the concept that an internal combustion (IC) engine is working on a four-stroke six-event principle. The six events are suction, compression, combustion, expansion, blow-down and exhaust. However, the expansion and blow-down happen in the power stroke and they can be clubbed together. Therefore, we can say that an engine, whether diesel or gasoline, is working on four-stroke five-event principle. The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader to familiarize with the complexities involved in the working of a four-stroke engine. The five events which are completed in four strokes are: suction, compression, combustion, expansion and exhaust. Application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) principles for each process mentioned above is a challenging job. The difficulty in understanding the working of an IC engine is due to the fact that we cannot see what is happening inside the cylinder piston arrangement. All that is described in textbooks is based on our knowledge gained over a period of time by conducting experiments. There is no doubt in saying that “seeing is believing”. As it is next to impossible to have a complete experimental flow visualization, nowadays CFD comes in handy to have theoretical flow visualization. Well-developed software is available for the simulation in 3D geometries. In this chapter, we explain step-by-step the details required for the CFD simulation of various processes in an IC engine. Extensive results obtained over a period of 20 years of research by the application of CFD in analysing the flow in engines are comprehensively presented and discussed. CFD can be very well applied for analysing any particular process. It can also be used for the modification of the existing engine design or can also be employed for a new design of an engine. It is hoped that readers may be benefitted in understanding the application of CFD for fluid flow analysis and engine design by reading this chapter. Therefore, the main aim of this chapter is to make the reader appreciate how exactly CFD can be applied for design of an engine. As it is application oriented, we are not going deep into the equations, modelling, etc. A number of case studies are presented and discussed.
Vijayashree, V. Ganesan

Next Step for Indian Automotive Industry

Frontmatter

Future Mobility Solutions of Indian Automotive Industry: BS-VI, Hybrid, and Electric Vehicles

Worldwide scientists and researchers are concerned about climate change and global warming. Automotive vehicles are a major source for emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) and particulate matter (PM). Complying with strict BS-VI emission norms require improvised engine calibration, complex after-treatment (DOC, SCR, and DPF) system calibration, infrastructure development and engine validation. BS-VI will significantly reduce GHG and atmospheric PM, but with long-term perspective, an alternate solution is required to develop zero-emission vehicles. Recently, government planned to debar gasoline and diesel vehicles by 2030. In this scenario, Indian automotive industry has to be future-ready. The future disruptions in Indian automotive would include implementation of hybrid, electric, and fuel-cell vehicles. Government has started working in infrastructure development of hybrid and electric vehicles such as charging units, battery development, charging infrastructure development. However, currently hybrid and electric vehicles are significantly costlier and are required to be economically feasible. It can be assumed that conventional gasoline engines will be used in hybrid vehicles. Diesel engines would also be difficult to be phased out since implementation of hybrid/electric vehicles in long-haul vehicles and high-tonnage vehicles would remain challenging, where diesel engines are currently used virtually unchallenged by any other technology options.
Tadveer Singh Hora, Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
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