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About this book

This book covers a variety of topics related to machine manufacturing and concerning machine design, product assembly, technological aspects of production, mechatronics and production maintenance. Based on papers presented at the 6th International Scientific-Technical Conference MANUFACTURING 2019, held in Poznan, Poland on May 19-22, 2019, the different chapters reports on cutting-edge issues in constructing machine parts, mechatronic solutions and modern drives. They include new ideas and technologies for machine cutting and precise processing. Chipless technologies, such as founding, plastic forming, non-metal construction materials and composites, and additive techniques alike, are also analyzed and thoroughly discussed. All in all, the book reports on significant scientific contributions in modern manufacturing, offering a timely guide for researchers and professionals developing and/or using mechanical engineering technologies that have become indispensable for modern manufacturing.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Construction

Frontmatter

Parametric Modeling of Gear Cutting Tools

A toolkit of parametric modeling in the application to the tasks of designing and studying a gear-cutting tool operating according to the contour machining method and the generating method is proposed. Specialized programs for constructing parametrized profiles of a disk-type gear milling cutter and a gear-cutting hob for machining gear wheels and spline shafts have been developed. Construction procedures of specialized graphic primitives for modeling a rack contour, an involute and spline profile, and a transition curve of the milling tooth flank surface have been proposed. The program of parametric modeling introduces a method for verifying permissible variants of the non-working part contours for the mill profile, by taking into account restrictions in the form of a message variable. The features of the parametric profiles interaction in the 2D-graphics editor APM Graph with the subsequent export to the 3D-editor APM Studio are considered. Three-dimensional solid models of disk-type gear milling cutter and a gear-cutting hob in the APM Studio editor based on parameterized graphic primitives are built. The study of the stress-strain state of the tooth cutter by finite element method is performed.

Oleg Krol, Volodymyr Sokolov

Verification of Machine Tool Set-Up Stability Using a Simplified Wolfram Language-Based Model

Modern CNC machine tools are characterized by substantive dynamics of their main and forward movements which contributes to load fluctuation in course of their work. Generation of alternating forces is additionally exacerbated by imbalance of the rotating elements of the machine as well as external interactions influencing its foundation or supporting structure. Appropriate selection and distribution of elements coupling the foundation and the base of the machine tool affords minimization of assorted vibrations and ensures the required operational stability specific to each device. Here, we describe a method enabling quick verification of set-up stability of a machine tool at its construction stage. Results of theoretical analyses were corroborated by the outputs of empirical investigations conducted on a Wolfram Language-based model.

Andrzej Gessner, Paweł Łuszczewski, Krzysztof Starosta

Balancing of a Wire Rope Hoist Using a Cam Mechanism

To design machines that perform their mechanical functions with minimal power consumption is an important and challenging issue. It may be obtained by applying a gravity balanced mechanical systems. The objective of the paper is to design a cam-roller follower mechanism to gravity balance a wire rope hoist for lifting loads. It is analysed how various geometric features affect the applicability of the cam mechanism (jerks, pressure angle, roller radius). The paper provides the method to synthesize cams with different geometries realizing the same performance, among which a designer can choose the one that is optimal with respect to strength properties.

Jacek Buśkiewicz

The Influence of Imperfections on the Strength and Stability of Cold-Formed Sigma Channels with Corrugated Flanges

Cold-formed, thin walled beams are popular structural members. They are made of thin, cold-rolled steel sheets by using cold-rolling or edge bending machines. The dimensional accuracy of those beams is dependent on manufacturing machines, which can be manually or numerically controlled, and the experience of their operators. If the cross-section of beam is complicated, the actual beams may differ from their idealized counterparts. In this paper the influence of actual imperfections on the strength of sigma channels with corrugated flanges was evaluated. The actual beam was scanned using a high resolution camera and then the generated cloud of 3d points was converted into a surface model using OPTOCAD software. The strength and stability of actual and ideal beams subjected to pure bending were analysed using Finite Element Method. The presented numerical model included material and geometrical non-linearity that is typical for thin-walled structural members. The obtained results, i.e. critical moment, stresses and deflections, were compared with each other. The influence of the beam length on the results was also evaluated.

Jakub Kasprzak, Piotr Paczos

Fatigue Life of Auxetic Re-entrant Honeycomb Structure

Auxetic materials have unique properties which still require further evaluation. One of the least researched topics in terms of auxetics is their fatigue strength. In this article, high-cycle fatigue life of auxetic re-entrant structure unit cell was calculated using Finite Element Analysis. A fully reversed cycle consisting of alternating compressive and tensile loads was applied. Also, stress-life data had to be defined as approximated Wohler’s curve. Result in form of cycles to failure contour plot was compared with corresponding contour plot obtained for regular hexagonal honeycomb lattice unit cell. It was observed that re-entrant cell has significantly higher fatigue strength than non-auxetic honeycomb cell. The test was also carried out for the models of the structure made of array of unit cells. Their results confirmed the previous observations which bring the conclusion that auxetic materials exhibit superior fatigue life properties compared with regular microstructures.

Jakub Michalski, Tomasz Strek

Experimental Investigations of Steel Welded Machine Tool Bodies Filled with Composite Material

Designing machine tool body elements is a difficult task, therefore manufacturers introduce minor changes of evolutionary rather than revolutionary character. Modern machine tools very often have a structure similar to the bodies of machines of the previous generation. The vast majority of currently manufactured machine tool bodies are made in the form of grey iron castings. However, their relatively high mass, high cost for unit production, and significant limitations in terms of the possibility of modifying the existing structure, force the search for new, more effective solutions. In presented paper new solution consisting in filling the steel welded structure with a composite material is proposed. Steel welded structure ensures the required stiffness, while composite material is improving the damping properties. The paper presents results of experimental modal analysis conducted for three variants of steel welded body filled with composite material with different filling locations. Obtained results were compared and contrast in terms of dynamical behavior and damping abilities.

Paweł Dunaj, Tomasz Okulik, Bartosz Powałka, Stefan Berczyński, Marcin Chodźko

Loader Crane Modal Analysis Using Simplified Hydraulic Actuator Model

Paper presents results of numerical and experimental analyses on dynamic properties of hydraulic loader crane. Both analyses were carried out in two loader cranes configurations first with telescopic boom sections partially extended and second fully retracted. Numerical analysis based on finite element method was conducted. There were used simplifications on hydraulic actuator models, that resulted in reduction of model order. Hydraulic actuators were modeled by rod elements with equivalent stiffness based on full hydraulic system built in Matlab. Developed model included parameters of valves, hydraulic pump and actuators itself. The main goal of the research was to develop a simplified model of hydraulic loader crane for dynamic analyses. The use of simplified models, the results of which are in line with the results obtained in experimental studies, allows to shorten the computational time. The findings of the presented studies show that, in spite of used simplifications, the results of numerical analyses and experimental studies are consistent.

Paweł Dunaj, Beata Niesterowicz, Bartłomiej Szymczak

Temperature Distribution in Workpiece During Flowdrill - Numerical Experiment Based on Meshless Methods

The Flowdrill technology is quite new one. Is very promising technology, which could be applied in many industrial branches. This technology can be still developed. Moreover, to do modern research the numerical simulations are implemented for predicting the process duration, parameters of the process to obtain the product with demanded characteristics. The proposal of this paper is to implement one of so-called meshfree methods, i.e. Method of Fundamental Solutions, for computer simulation of temperature distribution in workpiece during Flowdrill process. In the basic approach The Method of Fundamental Solution is used for solving homogeneous boundary value problems. Due to the complexity of Flowdrill process proposed numerical algorithm for solving this problem is based on MFS supported by the Method Finite Differences and Picard Iterations. The paper consists of proposal of numerical algorithm based on MFS and results of numerical experiment. The main conclusion is that the MFS is sufficient method for simulations of processes of plastic deformations.

Anita Uscilowska

Injection Moulding Simulation and Validation of Thin Wall Components for Precision Applications

This paper presents the results of the Moldex3D simulations and experimental validations carried on a complex 3D thin wall part, it critically analyzes the capability of Moldex3D and provides the guideline for more accurate simulation with the commercial softwareMoldex3D. The Boundary Layer Meshing (BLM) mode was adopted in this work to simulate the injection molding process of a hearing aid shell made of Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) with 30% glass fiber. Injection molding experiment was conducted to validate the prediction from Moldex3D. Injection time, injection pressure; pressure loss and warpage were treated as the main comparison criteria. Different parameters setting in Moldex3D were investigated to research their influence on the accuracy of the simulation. Results showed that the injection molding process prediction from the simulation was relatively precise when the nozzle geometry and the pressure effect on the material viscosity in the simulation model are considered. The determination of a proper heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is also vital for the simulation accuracy. The agreement between the warpage of the experiment molded parts and simulated parts was not good. Warpage was dominated by the fiber orientation. Predicted warpage was found to be extremely dependent on the filling HTC (Heat Transfer Coefficient) and the fiber orientation model used in Moldex3D, both of which had a significant influence on the fiber orientation.

Aminul Islam, Xiaoliu Li, Maja Wirska

Problems of Flaking in Strengthening Shaft Burnishing

The article presents the results of testing the surface condition of shafts manufactured by a strengthening rolling burnishing process. The shafts with a hardness about 220 HB were burnished with a roller with different force. Researches were carried out with particular attention to the structure of the outflowing material in the tool zone during burnishing process. The article presents the results of the examinations of burnished surfaces which were conducted for various structures after turning and with variable burnishing parameters. The structures of the surface after burnishing and turning are described with profilographs as well as with the photographs of the specimens surface.

Stefan Dzionk, Bogdan Ścibiorski, Włodzimierz Przybylski

Parametric Modeling of Transverse Layout for Machine Tool Gearboxes

This article considers the problem of computer-aided design for transverse speed gearboxes layouts of drilling-milling-boring machines on the basis of parameterization methods and means. Models and algorithms of layouts parametric modeling are developed on the basis of maximum rigidity criteria and minimum reduced load on the supports of the spindle unit. A program for determining the optimal spatial position of the gearbox output shaft using the syntax of the CAD APM WinMachine is developed. In the process of constructing the optimal layout, the permissible variants of layouts are checked using the limitations on the minimum distances between the gear wheels and the box housing. A diagram for determining the position of the intermediate shaft and its effect on the level of output shaft loading is proposed. The analysis of the influence of the optimal spatial position of the shafts on the structure of the box housing is carried out. For this optimal version of the transverse layout, a 3D model of the metal-cutting machine gearbox on the basis of the machine SF68VF4 model is developed. The efficiency of using the parametrization apparatus in the problems of multivariate designing of machine tools is grounded.

Oleg Krol, Volodymyr Sokolov

Technology

Frontmatter

Increasing of Lathe Equipment Efficiency by Application of Gang-Tool Holder

Issues of machining processes’ intensification and increase of metal-cutting equipment efficiency are of priority value in the modern engineering. Application of various methods of reduction of machine time as a result of combining the potential capabilities of equipment and tooling allows increasing of quality parts with necessary characteristics of accuracy. In this article the issues, connected with using multi-cutter processing on lathes for reduce the production cost of processing, are defined. Based on the offered solution, theoretical research, numerical investigation and experimental research were conducted. Mathematical dependences for determining the multi-tool processing errors on a CNC lathe us-ing a gang-tool holder which provide to choose the optimal geometrical parameters of the part for a specific technological solution, was presented. The practical value of the research is in the studying of ways of increasing of lathe equipment efficiency through the possibility of technological process intensification through the use of multiple tooling.

Magomediemin Gasanov, Alexey Kotliar, Yevheniia Basova, Maryna Ivanova, Olga Panamariova

Fabrication of Biodegradable Mg Alloy Bone Scaffold Through Electrical Discharge µ-Drilling Route

Magnesium alloys based materials are gaining popularity for bone tissue engineering as they are biocompatible, bioresorbable and shows high osteoblast activities in biological environment. In present work, perforated structures are produced using electrical discharge drilling (EDD), with an attempt to fabricate Mg alloy based biodegradable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Using appropriate EDD parameters and tubular electrode of diameter 300 µm, micro holes of diameter 408 µm are produced in ZM21 alloy and two different types of perforated structures are obtained with porosity of 22% and 34%. These two perforated structures are compared with solid sample in terms of apatite formation, weight gain and loss of load bearing capacity after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) media. After 21 days of immersion test in SBF media, apatite formation in perforated structure with interconnected holes (porosity 34%) is highest, resulting into highest weight gain of 6.23%, for this sample, whereas, solid sample shows negligible weight gain of 0.58%. The loss in mechanical load bearing capacity is found lowest at 5.58% in scaffold having interconnected holes (with porosity 34%). Thus, interconnected perforated Mg alloy structures having well defined micro pores and pore density can be designed and fabricated for biodegradable scaffold application.

Neeraj Ahuja, Kamal Kumar, Uma Batra, Sudhir Kumar Garg

Possibility of Block Grouping of Magnetic Inspection Operations for Iron Impurities in Oils and Cutting Fluids

It has been noted that among the existing methods of magnetic inspection for iron impurities in fuels and lubricants the preferred one should be the method based on multiple repetition of magnetophoresis operations and measurements of operation weights of the segregated iron impurities. In this case, the resulting discrete weight/operation relation is subject to an exponential function. It allows for the calculation of any current operation weight (including beyond the actual experiment) and the total (including residual) weight, and thus, the actual concentration of iron impurities. The examples of engine oil and a cutting fluid have proven the existence of an exponential decrease in the weights of the segregated iron impurities in serial sections of a magnetic analyzer. The possibility and practicability of the formal reception of magnetic inspection operations (sections) “block grouping” has been substantiated, in particular for a six-section magnetic analyzer - in the form of three blocks of two sections and/or two blocks of three sections. It is noted that the existing methods of magnetic monitoring of iron impurities in petroleum products need refinement, including validation of the specimen flow rate limits in the analyzer. It is shown that the rate depends parabolically on the ratio of the size of the iron particle to the distance to the source of the field of the magnetic system in the analyzer.

Alexander V. Sandulyak, Anna A. Sandulyak, Vera A. Ershova

Construction of the Facility for Aluminium Alloys Electromagnetic Stirring During Casting

The reuse of aluminium, recycling, leads to an increase in the content of alloying elements, including iron. The Fe-rich intermetallic phases called platelets or needles β-Al5FeSi are hard, brittle and have a highly detrimental effect on the properties of alloys and castings. The construction of facility was proposed, built and its parameters were described. The facility construction allows the castings to be solidified in moulds with a diameter up to 70 mm under intensive stirring in sample castings to decrease negative effect of Fe-rich phases. Facility included the set of coils for rotating magnetic field generation, autotransformers, thermal conditions control unit, thermal insulations, cooler for coils protection, teslameter and brass water-cooled chiller. The construction allowed for bulk solidification with equiaxed dendritic structure in the whole sample. The subject of the presence of forced convection to improve casting properties in the bulk solidification and in the directional solidification was discussed.

Piotr Mikolajczak, Jerzy Janiszewski, Jacek Jackowski

The Influence of Technological Parameters on Cutting Force Components in Milling of Magnesium Alloys with PCD Tools and Prediction with Artificial Neural Networks

Cutting force components determined experimentally in milling of AZ91HP and AZ31 magnesium alloys with a PCD milling were compared with the data from simulation with neural networks. The process was carried out at fixed tool geometry, workpiece strength properties, technological machine properties, radial and axial depth of cut. We monitored how the change of specific technological parameters (vc, fz) affects the cutting force components Fx, Fy and Fz. Machining tests have shown a significant influence of technological parameters on the observed cutting forces and their amplitudes. The simulations with Statistica Neural Network software involved two types of neural networks: MLP (Multi-Layered Perceptron) and RBF (Radial Basis Function). The results of our present and former studies in the field are highly important for the safety of magnesium alloy machining (stability) and plastic deformation of the workpiece excessive cutting forces and temperature in the cutting area.

Ireneusz Zagórski, Monika Kulisz

Investigations of Electronic Controller for Electrohydraulic Valve with DC and Stepper Motor

The publication described initial research of a new type of electrohydraulic valve equipped with the a DC motor and a stepper motor. The novelty of presented here devices is placed in using in the hydraulic valve various type of set point elements responsible for the movement of the spool. Author proposed a combination of two types of motors: DC motors and stepper motors. The motors working differentially, by used of the bolt-nut system. The invention was described by the author as patent no. P.421994. In following article author focused mainly on the electronic controller which was based on the 32-microcontroller with DMA and FPU. The system provided Bluetooth wireless communication, support for the industrial CAN interface and a modular structure allowing for easy future upgrade. During experimental investigations, step response was collected to show the operation of the valve.

Dominik Rybarczyk

Evaluation of Castings Surface Quality Made in 3D Printed Sand Moulds Using 3DP Technology

The article presents the process of making castings in sand moulds printed in 3DP technology. The moulds were printed using sands of different graininess – quartz sand FS001 and FS003 of the grain size of 0.28 mm and 0.38 mm, respectively, and synthetic moulding sand FS053, used in the production of cores of low thermal expansion. In total, four series of prints were made, with five moulds in each series. Four types of binder were used: FURAN – a standard binder used in traditional sand casting methods, which does not require baking process, PHENOL – a binder with high heat resistance, ANORGANIK – an inorganic eco-friendly binder, and CHP - a cold-cured phenol. The objective of the research was to assess the casting surface for different combinations of sands and binders. The following alloys were selected for the tests: AlSi 11 aluminum alloy, CuSn10P copper alloy, GJL 250 cast iron and X 5 Cr Ni 18-10 cast steel. The moulds were poured with the alloys and cleaned. Surface roughness tests of castings were executed using the contact method on the Hommel-Etamic T8000 RC profilometer. The results are presented in graphs and summarized in the tabular form. Based on an analysis of the results, it can be concluded that the type of binder and size of sand grains used in the printed moulds have a significant impact on the surface roughness of individual casting alloys.

Paweł Szymański, Marcin Borowiak

Impedance-Based PZT Transducer and Fuzzy Logic to Detect Damage in Multi-point Dressers

Alternative techniques such as impedance-based lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers has emerged as an innovative approach for manufacturing monitoring process, because its flexibility of using low-cost piezoelectric diaphragms and its simple methodology in terms of apparatus by using the electromechanical impedance (EMI). In addition, this technique has been under several improvements due to the advance of artificial intelligent systems. On this point, the use of fuzzy logic systems has been reported in literature as an attractive combination to improve the process performance. Therefore, this study proposes an approach to detect damage in multi-point dresser based on EMI technique incorporating a fuzzy logic system. To this end, a fuzzy model is built considering the information obtained from representative damage indices corresponding to the different damage cases that are generated at the dresser. At the end, authors expected that the dressing operation can be optimized, preventing the operation from being performed with worn or damaged dressers and ensuring quality standards and precision to the grinding process, which have a high benefit to the manufacturing chain.

Pedro O. Junior, Doriana M. D’Addona, Felipe A. Alexandre, Rodrigo Ruzzi, Paulo R. Aguiar, Fabricio G. Baptista, Eduardo C. Bianchi

Hybrid Numerical-Analytical Approach for Force Prediction in End Milling of 42CrMo4 Steel

This paper presents computational method for prediction of cutting force components during end milling process. Introduced method is a hybrid model combining finite element analysis (FEA) with classical analytical approach. Explicit 2D FE analysis is used to determine specific cutting force coefficients for specified tool geometry and workpiece material. Mechanistic analytical model utilizing data from FEA models transforms cutting force components Fc and FcN from tool-in-hand coordinate system into force components Ff and FfN of machine coordinate system yet additionally providing time history of forces by presenting them as a function of cutter rotation. Predicted forces from hybrid model are compared with empirical measurements of end milling process.

Marek Madajewski, Szymon Wojciechowski, Natalia Znojkiewicz, Paweł Twardowski

Analysis of the Pulsating Water Jet Maximum Erosive Effect on Stainless Steel

The presented article deals with the analysis of the maximum erosive effect of ultrasonically pulsed water jet on the surface of austenitic stainless steel EN X5CrNi18-10. One stainless steel sample was evaluated. The sample was disintegrated at a traverse speed of v = 0.20 mm s−1, at a pressure of 39 MPa. The influence of the pulsating water jet at maximum erosion was evaluated based on surface and subsurface characteristics. The surface of the sample was evaluated by the surface topography based on roughness profile parameters Rp [µm] and Rv [µm]. The microstructure of the subsurface layer was evaluated by metallographic analysis. By examining the surface disintegrated with a high-efficiency pulsating water jet, massive surface destruction with a significant loss of material was found. The resulting topography of the surface was uneven and was characterized by the formation of depressions and protrusions with great differences in height. The metallographic analysis showed the formation of cold deformation and the formation of defects in the surface layers. The high destructive effect of the ultrasonically enhanced pulsating water jet also confirms material tearing, mostly along the austenitic grain boundaries, to a depth of maximum 100 μm.

Dominika Lehocka, Jiri Klich, Jan Pitel, Lucie Krejci, Zdenek Storkan, Darina Duplakova, Vladimira Schindlerova, Ivana Sajdlerova

Comparison of the Weld Quality Created by Metal Active Gas and Shielded Metal Arc Welding

The aim of each engineer is to achieve the elimination of impact of welding technology on defects in the welding joint, resulting in weld joints of the required quality. The achieving of this goal allows for a modern welding technique that attempts to meet ever-increasing demands. This article is focused on the comparison of the welding quality created by metal active gas and shielded metal arc welding. In the introduction part, the article describes the researches on the subject presented in the world over the last period. The second part of the article is devoted to the description of materials and methods used in two experiments. In each of the experiments, five samples were subjected to non-destructive testing by a capillary method and an ultrasound method, followed by metallographic samples, which confirmed the results and detailed the welding joint to obtain a comprehensive picture of the defect. The final part of the experiment presents the Vickers Hardness Testing of created welds. The last part of the article describes the overall evaluation of achieved results.

Darina Duplakova, Michal Hatala, Dusan Knezo, Frantisek Botko, Pavol Radic, Dusan Sutak

Application of the Motion Capture System in the Biomechanical Analysis of the Injured Knee Joint

The aim of the study was to analyzed the gaits determinants and the components of the ground reaction forces in patients treated surgically with the use of arthroscopy technique due to injuries in the knee joint. For the purpose of this study, three clinical cases of people with knee joint dysfunctions were examined. The studies were carried out in a biomechanical laboratory using the BTS Smart motion capture system. From the large set of collected data, the gaits determinants and the components of the ground reaction force were taken under account. The characteristics of the parameters considered for each patient were compared. The BST Smart system allows analysis of all gait determinants and ground forces reactions, what gives many important information about state of examined patient. These data cannot be collected during classical physical examination. The obtained results indicate the tendency of unloading the lower limb operated in relation to the opposite lower limb, although the gait is normal during visual analysis.

Jakub Otworowski, Tomasz Walczak, Adam Gramala, Jakub K. Grabski, Maurizio Tripi, Adam M. Pogorzała

Hydrogen Embrittlement After Surface Treatments

Metal materials pass through many different manufacturing technologies than are delivered to customers in the form of a finished product. These technologies can improve the properties of the material, but in the wrong choice and the process of execution, the material may be disturbed enough to cause it to be subsequently damaged. In this article we provide results of measurements of increased brittleness of steel materials due to diffused hydrogen formed on the surface of samples in surface treatment technologies by degreasing, pickling and tumbling. To detect hydrogen embrittlement was developed a simple device for cyclic loading of samples, since industrial products are often exposed to stress just this and it is important to be able to embrittlement this quickly and inexpensively detect. The hydrogen embrittlement is very susceptible mainly of high strength steel. These steels are used in the automotive and aerospace industries, so it is necessary to have an idea of how and when the brittleness of these steels occurs in order to prevent to this damage.

Hana Hrdinová, Viktor Kreibich, Jan Kudláček, Jakub Horník

Effect of Modification of Mono-crystalline Corundum Grinding Wheel on Cutting Forces in Grinding of Aluminum Alloy 7075

The paper presents an analysis of the process of grinding of aluminum alloy 7075. A monocrystalline corundum grinding wheel with a modified spatial structure was used for the tests in the direction of even “opening” of the grinding wheel during the grinding process. The components of the grinding force measured using the 3-component Kistler 9121 dynamometer and force models for variable grinding parameters were developed using the RSM methodology. The performed tests show the possibility of elaborating models of the components of the cutting force in surface grinding. The empirical models of the cutting force components for a modified grinding wheel were developed. The test results were compared with a conventional wheel with the same hardness, grain size, and structure.

Witold Habrat, Wojciech Skóra, Jolanta B. Królczyk, Stanisław Legutko

Influence of Processing Parameters on Clamping Force During Injection Molding Process

Clamping force is needed during injection molding process to keep the injection mold closed. It is a crucial parameter that must be considered during the process of plastic part development, because high clamping forces can be achieved with stronger (and more expensive) injection molding machine. It is economically wise to use processing parameters that can allow manufacturing of parts with smaller machines. The clamping force is a variable strictly related to pressure present in the cavity of the injection mold. In this study two parameters that strongly influence injection pressure (plastic flow rate and volume-to-pressure switch-over point) were examined with numerical simulations performed in Autodesk Moldflow Insight software and validated with a experiment. According to obtained outcome the increase of melt flow speed results with significant (but linear) increase of injection pressure and for investigated part the switchover point has significant impact above 98%. The nonlinear behavior of clamping force during injection phase was observed because of the energy dissipation on polymer flow. The experiment validated the direction of changes whereas the differences in comparison to simulations were observed because of the limitations of measurement systems that were present in injection molding machine.

Przemysław Poszwa, Paweł Brzęk, Ilya Gontarev

Prediction of the Microhardness Characteristics, the Removable Material Volume for the Durability Period, Cutting Tools Durability and Processing Productivity Depending on the Grain Size of the Coating or Cutting Tool Base Material

The microhardness and yield strength decrease with grain size increasing for wide range of the 0,2 HfN + 0,8 ZrN coated materials (K40, Sandvik Koromant, MS221) was disclosed. Two-layer Al2O3 + (0,2 HfN + 0,8 ZrN) coated Sandvik Koromant plate microhardness changes slightly (due to the fact that almost always nanostructures implemented) with the grain growth 33,7…63,8 nm, Hμ = 16.08…17.14 GPa. It is proved that modulus of elasticity increases with the grain size growth. It is shown that at the effectiveness and efficiency assessing of the coated hard alloys at the K19195 hardened materials and G10450 steel processing it is necessary to take into account the coating grain size at that to the smaller grain size is generally (but not always) corresponds to more effective processing (the maximum removable material volume for the durability period) and its working capacity. It is established that using 0.18 HfN + 0.82 ZrN coated Sandvik Koromant company solid alloy, MS221 and K40 for G10450 steel effective processing is effective and operable. It is shown that effective processing for 45 steel it is recommended to use hard alloy of the Sandvik Koromant company with 0.18 HfN + 0,82 ZrN coating and MS221hard alloy, which is both effective and serviceable. It was found that 0.18 HfN + 0.82 ZrN coated K40 hard alloy and MS221 plate with the same coating have greater efficiency for the K19195 hardened steel processing.

Gennadiy Kostyuk

Modelling and Analysis of Cutting Force Components in Turning Process of Commercially Pure Titanium Grade 2

This work focuses on the modelling of cutting forces during turning. The purpose of the study is to determine the cutting forces of a difficult-to-cut material - commercially pure titanium Grade 2 - using the rotatable design of the experiment by RSM method. This model was validated empirically during the turning tests for various values of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Results show that the depth of cut and feed rate are the parameters which significantly influence the value of tangential and radial components of cutting forces in turning process. Moreover, the value of feed force is significantly influenced only by the depth of cut. In the adopted range, the impact of cutting speed on the cutting force components has been insignificant.

Witold Habrat, Monika Sala, Jolanta B. Królczyk, Angelos P. Markopoulos, Stanisław Legutko

Surface Quality Analysis After Face Grinding of Ceramic Shafts Characterized by Various States of Sintering

The article concerns an investigation of surface roughness in relation to different characteristics of ceramic material. Three different levels of temperature (1320 °C, 1490 °C and 1620 °C) have been used to sinter the ceramic in the preparation of samples. The machining has been performed using a computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine, together with a face grinding wheel, specific face grinding strategy, and special work holding arrangement. The surface roughness is assessed using three parameters (Ra, Rz, Rsm). The contact measurements of surface roughness were carried out using the 3D MahrSurf XR 20 profilometer. The surfaces of machined samples were also analyzed using the InfiniteFocus Real3D microscope, in order to determine the influence of the selected machining strategy on the machined surfaces. The values of the selected roughness parameters were recorded depending on the material and its degree of sintering. The selected machining strategy, for all the analyzed ceramic samples (i.e. in relation to states of sintering), allowed Ra parameter values below 0.43 μm, Rz below 3.5 μm and Rsm below 50 μm, respectively, to be obtained.

Marcin Żółkoś, Roman Wdowik, R. M. Chandima Ratnayake, Witold Habrat, Janusz Świder

Influence of the Most Important Elements of the Prosthesis on Biomechanics of the Human Gait After Amputation of the Lower Limb

Amputation is a medical procedure which involves removing a part of the human body and replacing it with a prosthesis. Amputation at the thigh level requires the use of an artificial knee joint, which is one of the most crucial elements of the prosthesis. This study aimed to examine and compare the biomechanics of walking of two persons after unilateral amputation of the lower limb at the thigh level. Both patients were provided with the same type of prosthetic foot. The difference was in the knee joint applied in the prosthesis. It is initially assumed that the kind of knee joint will have a significant impact on the gait quality of amputees. A biomechanical model created by the authors was used to calculate the gait determinants. The developed model includes the key joints for the human walk description – the ankle, knee and hip joints as well as the other anthropometric points. Measurements were done using the motion capture system. Each of the patients made 100 tests of their gait. For all considered parameters for single examined person summary graphs were created for all tests. The data coming from the literature were used as the reference data in this study. The obtained results show that the quality of the disease is not only dependent on the type of knee joint used. An essential thing is also a proper fitting of the prosthetic hopper, which significantly affects the individual gait determinants.

Adam Gramala, Jakub Otworowski, Tomasz Walczak, Jakub K. Grabski, Adam M. Pogorzała

Potential Studies of Waterjet Cavitation Peening on Surface Treatment, Fatigue and Residual Stress

Machining is undeniable in the manufacturing firm. In order to meet the emerging needs of engineering applications, new materials are developed and they create a complication in the machining owing to its extensive properties. The manufacturing industries are being pulled to use the unconventional machining to machine these materials. To improve the life of the end product, engineers adopt various technologies and follow different methodologies. Waterjet Peening (WJP) is one among the technologies where the surfaces are hardened by means of high-pressure water thereby provoking the beneficial residual stress into the surface layers for some thickness. WJP is also be called as the green technology because of its various advantages like eco-friendly, non-pollutant, no HAZ, ability to machine any materials, etc., then another unconventional machining. In this paper, the potential study has been carried out on WJP by considering the surface treatment, residual stress, and the fatigue. As WJP is governed by various parameters, the influences of some significant parameters are detailed in this work. Only a considerable amount of work has been exposed on this machining practice. Hence, the researchers have felt that the review of WJP machine will enhance the machine utilization to a greater extent.

P. Manoj Kumar, K. Balamurugan, M. Uthayakumar, S. Thirumalai Kumaran, Adam Slota, Jerzy Zajac

Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena in Aluminum Alloy Casting During Cooling – Experimental Simulation

Commonly available foundry simulation codes such as NovaFlow & Solid, Magma or ProCAST contain modules that allow to predict thermo-mechanical phenomena during the cooling of castings. However, due to the limited quantity and quality (certainty) of the values of mechanical parameters contained in databases, they are not readily used by the industry. The codes remain in the sphere of scientific considerations concerning mainly cast iron alloy castings. The article describes the problem of stress prediction in aluminum alloy castings. An experimental and virtual research methodology for the verification of residual (thermal) stress has been developed. As part of the methodology, a modified stress test has been developed, which uses a stress lattice. The location of the gating system has been modified, and to prevent the formation of shrinkage cavities, chills have been used. Moreover, in order to obtain higher rigidity of the structure, thin steel rods have been inserted before the pouring process. Such a solution has made it possible to conduct experimental simulation validation of the NovaFlow & Solid simulation code Stress module.

Jakub Hajkowski, Robert Sika, Mieczysław Hajkowski, Zenon Ignaszak, Paweł Popielarski

Micro-machining and Process Optimization of Electrochemical Discharge Machining (ECDM) Process by GRA Method

In recent years, the Electrochemical Discharge Machining (ECDM) process emerged as superseding machining process owing to its capability to processing of conductive and non-conductive materials. The micro-machining of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite is successfully attempted in this work by drilling of micro-holes. The experiments were planned using L9 orthogonal array Taguchi’s methodology with applied voltage, electrolyte concentration and inter-electrode gap as process parameters. The Material Removal Rate (MRR) and overcut rate were observed as output characteristics. Moreover, the multi-objective process optimization of ECDM process is carried out by Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) method. The conformation experiment with optimum conditions of GRA method such as applied voltage of 70 V, electrolyte concentration of 40% and inter-electrode gap of 50 mm signifies improvement in MRR and overcut rate of drilled hole.

Mohinder Pal Garg, Manpreet Singh, Sarbjit Singh

Analysis of Material Removal Efficiency in Face Milling of Aluminum Alloy

In the machining of components, increasing the material removal efficiency is a constant challenge in technology planning. That is why when determining cutting data it is recommended to endeavor to choose values that increase the material removal rate, as long as the accuracy and quality requirements specified for the machined components can be fulfilled. In this study the possibilities for increasing material removal intensity were analyzed when an aluminum alloy was face milled. To characterize productivity various time parameters (machining time, base time, operation time, etc.) and the material volume removed in unit time can be applied. Our investigation aimed at analyzing these parameters when machining surfaces of gearbox housing when some technological parameter values (feed, cutting speed, milling head diameter) are varied. After analyzing the features of cutting by diamond tool, it was found that it is possible to increase the original values of all these parameters influencing material removal rate when the cutting allowance is removed in a single pass. This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out using selected cutting data.

János Kundrák, Viktor Molnár, Tamás Makkai, Tamás Dági

The Examination of Cutting Force as Function of Depth of Cut in Cases with Constant and Changing Chip Cross Section

For the achievement of highly productive and efficient manufacturing of flat surfaces, face milling is often the best choice in industrial practice. Process conditions should be selected with care in order to be able to reduce the machining time without increasing cutting forces excessively. For that reason, it is necessary to investigate the relationship between process parameters and cutting forces in various face milling cases. In the present study, various face milling experiments on steel workpieces are conducted in order to investigate the effect of depth of cut in cases with both constant and changing chip cross section values, with a view to determine its importance in face milling.

János Kundrák, Angelos P. Markopoulos, Nikolaos E. Karkalos, Tamás Makkai

Methodology of Determination of Key Casting Process Parameters on DISA MATCH Automatic Moulding Line Affecting the Formation of Alloy-Mould Contact Defects

The publication describes a concept of improvement of real-time data acquisition from selected production processes, taking into consideration the specific character of a European iron foundry. The authors indicate the direction of improvement in the control of production processes, taking into account the current automatic moulding line downtimes resulting from the foundry production capacity. The main objectives were to improve the methods of data acquisition according to the original guidelines and design a new, homogeneous database with the functionality of electronic recording of a required number of parameters. The prepared data were used to define flow charts and statistical models, and further to forecast defects caused by alloy-mould contact. The scientific approach described by the authors can also be used in other foundries with a similar production profile, as a tool supporting the decision making processes regarding monitoring and control of selected production processes.

Robert Sika, Adam Jarczyński, Arkadiusz Kroma

Numerical Modeling of MuCell® Injection Moulding Process

The results of computer simulation of an injection moulding process with microcellular foaming (MuCell®) were presented in this work. The processed material was a composite: a polypropylene reinforced with glass fibres (30%). The methodology of preparing the simulation as well as the simulation results were described. The characteristic properties of the forecasted injection moulded part were shown. Finally, the microscopical investigation results of a real injection moulded part were presented and the comparison of simulation results to the microscopical images was made. It was found from the simulation that the sink marks were significantly reduced in the microcellular part in comparison to the part from the conventional process. Moreover, the differences in pores’ distribution in the cross-section in different points, depending on the distance from the sprue, were registered. According to the simulation results, bigger pores were formed in the points at the end of the flow, where a local increase in the pore size in the region near the skin was also noticed. The pores observed on the microscope in the part cross-section were concentrated more in the core and just few pores in the skin were observed. Those in the skin area were smaller, similarly to the simulation results.

Jacek Nabiałek, Tomasz Jaruga

Materials

Frontmatter

Comparative Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties and Adhesion of Low Temperature PVD Coated TiO2 Thin Films

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been widely used as a biomaterial due to its excellent mechanical and wear resistance properties. In this study, we have deposited TiO2 thin films on stainless steel substrate at low temperature (90 ℃) by middle frequency (MF) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc PVD techniques at two different substrate surface roughness. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques have been utilized for the study of surface morphology and stoichiometric elemental chemical composition of the TiO2 thin films. Scratch adhesion and nano indentation experiments were conducted for the assessment of the film adhesion and mechanical properties of the TiO2 thin films respectively. Results proved that the TiO2 thin film deposited on higher substrate surface roughness (0.7 µm) samples by MF magnetron sputtering PVD process have superior adhesion and mechanical properties. Correlation comparative analysis of the TiO2 thin films deposited by the MF magnetron sputtering PVD process gave the optimum results at 1238 nm film thickness and 0.7 µm substrate surface roughness. The maximum of 14 N adhesion strength, 13.8 GPa hardness and 345.6 GPa elastic modulus values have been recorded.

Muhammad Ghufran, Ghulam Moeen Uddin, Awais Ahmad Khan, Hma Hussein, Khuram Khurshid, Syed Muhammad Arafat

Frictional Properties of α-Nucleated Polypropylene-Based Composites Filled with Wood Flour

Wood-polymer composites (WPCs) as eco-friendly materials characterized by advantageous properties are a popular alternative for conventional polymeric compositions. Even though they are widely popular and utilized in many branches of industry, some of their characteristic still remain obscure. The domain which demands better insight is tribology of wood-polymer composites. The aim of this paper was to describe the phenomena behind friction and wear of WPCs in reference to the surface topography. The object of this research were α-nucleated polypropylene-based composites filled with 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 wt.% of wood flour. Hardness, coefficient of friction and changes of surface topography of the samples due to wear were evaluated. It was concluded that addition of the natural based filler causes an increase of the composite’s coefficient of friction.

Olga Mysiukiewicz, Piotr Jabłoński, Radomir Majchrowski, Robert Śledzik, Tomasz Sterzyński

Preparation and Characterization of the Injection Molded Polymer Composites Based on Natural/Synthetic Fiber Reinforcement

Hybrid composites prepared for the purpose of this research were manufactured with the use of injection molding technique, the utilization of one step processing methodology was the main subject of the presented work. Matrix polymer used for this study was high density polyethylene, obtained from the recycling process of rotational molded parts. The mixture of natural and synthetic fibers was applied as the composite reinforcement. The natural fibers in the form of wood flour was obtained from the conifer tree wastes, while two types of bicomponent fibers were used as a second type of reinforcement. First type of synthetic fibers was made from polyolefin based polymers, and consist HDPE and PP resin, second one was produced from thermoplastic polyesters LPET and PET. The composites were obtained during one step melt processing on the injection molding machine. In order to evaluate the reinforcing efficiency and the overall performance of the developed composites, static and dynamic mechanical properties of the prepared samples were examined. Analytical thermal analysis tests were performed with the use of DSC and DMTA method, while the structure of the composites was investigated using SEM methodology. The results of the research confirm the reinforcing effect of the used hybrid system, which considering the waste nature of the used materials, may be one of the effective methods of waste management in the textile industry.

Jacek Andrzejewski, Marek Szostak

Innovative Natural Yarn Manufactured from Waste

Circular economy initiatives aim to re-define growth to bring society wide benefits while inspiring research of natural alternative textiles and introduce new approaches in manufacturing. The creation of innovative ice-straw wool yarn and cloth is the focus of this paper. Entrepreneurs Bernadette Casey (Wellington) and Sally Shanks (Gisborne) of The Formary, wanted to make a difference in the environment and conceptualised the idea of transforming rice straw waste and strong NZ wool into yarn proposing the woven fabric had the potential to help reduce China’s massive air pollution problem caused by burning waste straw after the rice harvest and to use all of NZ’s mid 26 to 30 μ range wool [1]. The fibre blend development was facilitated with Beef and Lamb New Zealand, and NZ government funding and research and design at Textile Design and Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University, and yarn engineering at WoolYarns, 2011–2014 [2].Textile innovations using waste fibre feedstock from other industries are important [3]. The world’s first woven wool rice straw upholstery fabric enhances different qualities of each fibre [4]. The Formary presented it to Chinese clients during a WCC 2014 mayoral delegation to advance the commercialization process [5]. Mibu® was launched at the 2015 World Exposition in Milan [6] and subsequently exhibited in Korea and France.

Sandra Heffernan

Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Rotational Molded PE/Flax and PE/Hemp Composites

The article describes the investigation of the mechanical and thermal properties of polymer composites with flax or hemp fibers and polyethylene matrix (LDPE and LLDPE) with and without the maleic anhydrite as a compatybilizer. Also for increase the flammability resistance the 3 types of special flame retardants (5% by weight) were used as modifiers in the study. The composites with 3 and 5% by weight of flax and hemp fibers in the LDPE matrix have been prepared using a twin screw extruder, pulverizer and rotational molding machine. The influence of the flax and hemp content on mechanical and thermal properties (tensile test, DSC, Vicat softening temperature and UL 94 test) of obtained polymer composites has been presented. Also the structure of the prepared composites has been studied using the scanning electron microscopy - SEM. On the basis of the obtained results, it was found that modification of LDPE with flax or hemp fibers in the analyzed concentration range causes small improvement or does not significantly affect the tested properties of LDPE polymer. The use of flame retardants in the amount of 5% for most composites has a positive effect on flame retardancy. The study shows also that big differences in tested properties compared to unfilled LLDPE are visible for composites based on the LLDPE matrix with maleic anhydride. The presented preparation method and properties of obtained materials confirms the possibility of using this type of composites in production of rotational molded parts.

Marek Szostak, Natalia Tomaszewska, Ryszard Kozlowski

Clay/EVA Copolymer Nanocomposite - Processing and Properties

Layered clay and copolymer ethylene and vinyl acetate matrix (EVA, the content of VA component 19 wt.%) were used for nanocomposite materials preparation by compounding of the particular components in KO Buss kneader. The MMT Na+ and the other types of commercially sold products such as Nanofil N 5 and N3000, Cloisite 93A and 30B were added as nanofillers. The quantity of all the nanofillers mentioned above was 3 and 5 wt.% about the content of montmorillonite. The main aim of the presented research was to evaluate the influence of clay concentration and processing conditions on nanocomposite properties. The resulting morphology of nanocomposite EVA/clay samples was evaluated by using XRD analysis completed by microscopy TEM. Furthermore, mechanic properties such as E* modulus were evaluated. Even though the XRD curves and microscopy pictures have shown, that mechanic properties were improved even at 3% concentration of clays despite fact not 100% exfoliation of MMT particles. Nanofiller Nanofil 5 is promising to be the most suitable for used polymer matrix.

Dagmar Měřínská, Vladimír Pata, Libuše Sýkorová, Oldřich Šuba

Synthesis and Characterization of Bioceramic Oxide Coating on Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Be BMG by Electro Discharge Process

In its native state, Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Be bulk metallic glass (BMG) do not allow strong physical bonding to the surrounding tissues when implanted, due to its inherent low strength bioinert oxide surface. In this study, a bioceramic oxides and strong carbide coating are synthesized on the Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Be surface, by electro-discharge coating (EDC) technique. This coating is expected to enhance cell adhesion and cell proliferation of the Zr-based BMG material as a potential implant. The influence of various hydroxyapatite (HA) powder concentrations added to the dielectric fluid on the treated BMG specimens, have been investigated. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization techniques was employed to study the phases, morphology and thickness of the electro-discharge coated Zr-based BMG. The FESEM and the XRD analysis revealed the coating formation of about 34.0 µm thick, containing nanoporous bioceramic oxides (CaZrO2, ZrO2, HA) and hard carbides (ZrC, TiC) on the substrate surface. The EDX spectrum confirmed the high deposition of some HA alloying elements (Ca, O, P), with calcium almost equal in proportion to that of zirconium. A high material deposition rate of 0.015267 g/min at the optimum parameters setting of Dc = 8 A, Dt = 8 µs, Pc = 15 g/L and Ep = −Ve was achieved.

Abdul’Azeez Abdu Aliyu, Ahmad Majdi Abdul-Rani, Turnad Lenggo Ginta, Chander Prakash, Tadimalla Varaha Venkata Lakshmi Narasimha Rao, Eugen Axinte, Sadaqat Ali

Investigation of Alloy Composition and Sintering Parameters on the Corrosion Resistance and Microhardness of 316L Stainless Steel Alloy

Metals used in implant manufacturing include titanium and its alloys, cobalt-chromium and surgical grade stainless steel. Cobalt chromium and titanium alloys can be four to five times more expensive than stainless steel. AISI 316L stainless steel (SS) can be a potential alternative material for implants due to its low cost and adequate mechanical properties. However, the major disadvantage of utilizing SS implants is its contrariness with physiological environment. These SS implants experience a serious assault by interface corrosion when placed in saline solution. This inferior corrosion resistance of SS limits its use as dental implants material. Erosion of dental implants weakens them and implants’ corrosion causes allergic and hypersensitivity reaction. In order to keep the erosion assault and to upgrade 316L SS similarity with physiological condition, the addition of titanium and boron powders in the 316L SS matrix at the time of manufacture is proposed. This research work examines the effect of boron and titanium addition on the corrosion resistance and micro hardness of 316L SS parts. The amount of boron and titanium addition to the SS matrix is limited to 0.25 and 0.5 wt% respectively. The compacts were made at 800 MPa pressure and sintered in the nitrogen atmosphere at 1150 °C. The material composition and sintering parameters greatly influenced the properties of the samples. The results of the study revealed that samples with boron and titanium addition had an increase in micro hardness and better corrosion resistance as compared to pure 316L SS sintered samples.

Sadaqat Ali, Ahmad Majdi Abdul Rani, Khurram Altaf, Patthi Hussain, Chander Prakash, Sri Hastuty, Tadimalla Varaha Venkata Lakshmi Narasimha Rao, Abdul’Azeez Abdu Aliyu, Krishnan Subramaniam

The Impact of Long-Term Environmental Conditions on the Lifetime Prediction (S-N) of Biomaterial Used in Dentistry

The paper presents the influence of long-term oral environment conditions on the mechanical parameters of zirconium dioxide, which is used in medicine and machine construction. Samples made with the original method of zirconium dioxide were placed in a physiological saline environment. 120 samples were used for the study, divided into two groups A and B in terms of geometry 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm × 12 mm and 2 mm × 2.5 mm × 25. Then each group into two subgroups A and A′ and B and B′, samples from subgroup A′ and B′ were placed in physiological saline for one year. Monotonic and cyclic tests were carried out using the three-point bending method. It was noted that the material that is kept in the liquid medium is characterized by slightly reducing the static strength. When analyzing fatigue tests, one can notice a very large decrease in the limit of fatigue in relation to dry samples. The literature analysis carried out showed that although zirconium dioxide material has been known since the 1990s, very few studies have been carried out to determine the limit of fatigue for all-ceramic materials.

Mateusz Wirwicki

Influence of Residual Stress Induced in Steel Material on Eddy Currents Response Parameters

Nowadays, it is very important to monitor the quality of engineered products. An indispensable part of the product’s qualitative characteristics is the integrity of the surface. It also includes a residual stress monitoring area. Residual stresses can be detected and measured by many destructive and non-destructive methods. The implementation of non-destructive methods is becoming increasingly desirable because the component being tested can be checked without disturbing and therefore continue to be used. The eddy currents method is expanded in the engineering practice to detect cracks in conductive materials. Residual stress detection has the potential in the future to accelerate and reduce the detection of residual stresses directly in the production process. Presented article is aimed at comparing the response of the eddy currents to the residual stresses induced in the steel material. Experiments were performed on free cutting steel 11SMnPb37. Residual stresses were induced by chip machining. Subsequent were investigated different residual stresses values in response to the eddy currents. The results of the experiment point to the possible application of the eddy current method to detect residual stresses in conductive materials.

Frantisek Botko, Jozef Zajac, Andrej Czan, Svetlana Radchenko, Dominika Lehocka, Jan Duplak

Determination of Dynamic Properties of a Steel Hollow Section Filled with Composite Mineral Casting

As steel hollow sections used in machine tools usually provide appropriate stiffness but rather low damping, the aim of this study was to determine whether this can be improved by composite filling. Experimental tests were performed on hollow sections filled with two types materials with different size fractions and resin adhesives. A steel hollow section without any filling was used as reference. Based on the damping coefficient determined using the resonance curve and static stiffness, we selected a more adequate type of filling with respect to dynamic properties, mass and costs. The identified parameters served as input data for a finite element model of a steel hollow section.

Tomasz Okulik, Paweł Dunaj, Marcin Chodźko, Krzysztof Marchelek, Bartosz Powałka

Corrosion Resistance of Alternative Chemical Pre-treatments of Hot-Dip Galvanized Zinc Surface

This paper deals with the problem of chemical pre-treatments of hot dip galvanized materials for the adhesion of organic coatings. In the first part of the paper are mentioned new perspective technologies of chemical pre-treatments and the second part is devoted to the comparison of current and modern chemical pre-treatments and their influence on the adhesion of organic coatings and corrosion resistance. The goal of scientific research is to replace the current chemical pre-treatments due to increasing demands to reduce production costs, protect the environment and reduce the total time of these technological processes.

Jakub Svoboda, Jan Kudláček, Viktor Kreibich, Stanislaw Legutko

The Influence of Mixing Method and Mixing Parameters in Process of Preparation of Anti-static Coating Materials Containing Nanoparticles

The paper deals with the influence of mixing methods and their parameters on dispersion of nanoparticles in antistatic paints. The goal of research is optimizing of the dispersion process and determining the key parameters of the dispersion, depending on the functional properties of the resulting coating. Using the theory of mixing, the dispersion process is described for various devices. The functional and protective properties of the coating are tested by standardized methods from field of surface treatment. The aim is to increase the efficiency of the mixing process but also to reduce the required quantity of filler in the form of nanoparticles, while ensuring the functional requirements on the coating.

Michal Zoubek, Jan Kudláček, Viktor Kreibich, Tomáš Jirout, Andrey Abramov

Cleaning of Internal Surfaces

This article describes the types of dirt that may appear on the surface. Inner surfaces may be embedded by one of the insertion mechanisms or a combination of these mechanisms. The article also deals with methods of internal surface cleaning and experimentation. A suitable choice of detergent on the basis of the analysis and its subsequent application have confirmed the appropriate choice and finding the optimal technological parameters to restore the original working parameters of the cleaned equipment.

Jiří Kuchař, Viktor Kreibich

Mechanical Properties and Structure of Reactive Rotationally Molded Polyurethane - Basalt Powder Composites

In this study, basalt powder (BP) was used as a natural inorganic waste filler from mining industry to modify polyurethane (PU) formed by reactive rotational molding technology. The thermoset polymer was filled with 10, 20 and 30 wt% of BP. The influence that the inorganic filler had on the mechanical properties of polyurethane was analyzed by means of a static tensile test and Shore D hardness measurement. Adding BP influenced the mechanical properties and resulted in an increase of elasticity modulus and hardness improvement. The impact of BP on the PU’s mechanical properties was discussed in relation to the structure changes observed with an optical microscopy. The quality of the rotomolded castings was assessed by a side wall thickness analysis. It was found that adding the inorganic filler provoked the formation of a foamed structure that caused a strong non-uniform wall thickness of the castings.

Mateusz Barczewski, Paulina Wojciechowska, Marek Szostak

Manufacturing and Properties of Biodegradable Composites Based on Thermoplastic Starch/Polyethylene-Vinyl Alcohol and Silver Particles

Smart and biodegradable packaging is very desire combination due to the combination of two very important properties nowadays. From many biode-gradable polymers starch is the first one applied in the packaging industry. In this work, a processing and properties of biodegradable composites based on Mater-Bi modified with silver was presented. The Mater-Bi/Ag composites were prepared by melt blending and injection molding process. The morphology and dispersion of Ag particles in the polymer matrix were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallization, melting behavior and thermal properties were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Young’s modulus, tensile strength, elongation at break and tensile-impact strength for Mater-Bi/composites with different of silver content and pure polymer were compared. Mater-Bi composites modified with silver were found to be active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. Selected mechanical, thermal and microbial properties were conducted. Results showed a significant improvement in mechanical and thermal properties in accordance with the addition of silver into Mater-Bi matrix. Silver easily incorporated in polymer matrix and produces homogeneous Mater-Bi/0.5Ag composite. The results have shown that obtained composite have good mechanical and thermal properties and simultaneously can inhibit growth of some pathogen bacteria.

Monika Knitter, Dorota Czarnecka-Komorowska, Natalia Czaja-Jagielska, Daria Szymanowska-Powałowska

Manufacturing and Properties of Recycled Polyethylene Films with an Inorganic Filler by the Extrusion Blow Moulding Method

The aim of study was to compare properties of pure and recycled polyethylene blends with different filler content. Talc was compounded with two types of recyclable polyethylene: rLDPE and rLLDPE using a twin-screw extruder. The composites were blown moulded and the effect of the filler content on the end-use properties of blown films were investigated. Selected properties such as: mechanical, thermal and structure of composites were compared to virgin and recycled LDPE films. The effect of talc on crystallization and mechanical properties composites based on the recycled polymers as nucleating agent or/and inorganic filler were studied. It was shown that 30 wt. % amount of talc addition improved crystallization of 70L/30LL/30T. The degree of crystallinity improvement for the tensile strength, which were corresponding to crystallization analysis, so talc can play a role of heterogenous nucleation agent on PE and can be an effective filler to modify the PE matrix. The produced film is characterized by very good usable properties and satin-paper grip. The recycled composites can be used as a packaging material to group packs for ease of handling or tertiary packaging for ease of transport.

Dorota Czarnecka-Komorowska, Karolina Wiszumirska, Tomasz Garbacz

Hybrid Epoxy Composites Reinforced with Flax Fiber and Basalt Fiber

The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of basalt and flax fiber content on the thermo-mechanical and mechanical properties of epoxy composites. The mechanical properties were assessed by means of static tensile test and Charpy impact strength method. The thermo-mechanical properties of the composites were determined through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Moreover, hardness was examined with Shore D durometer. The thermal stability was determined by thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) in inert atmospheres. The increase flax fiber content led to decrease the tensile strength value, elasticity modulus and storage modulus value of the epoxy composites. The most advantageous mechanical and thermomechanical properties were obtained for the composites containing six layer of the basalt fiber and then hybrid composites containing four layer basalt fiber and two layer flax fiber.

Danuta Matykiewicz, Maciej Bogusławski

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