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About this book

This book presents the select proceedings of 1st International Conference on Future Trends in Materials and Mechanical Engineering (ICFTMME-2020), organised by Mechanical Engineering Department, SRM Institute of Science and Technology (Formerly known as SRM University), Delhi-NCR Campus, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. The book provides a deep insight of future trends in the advancement of materials and mechanical engineering. A broad range of topics and issues in material development and modern mechanical engineering are covered including polymers, nanomaterials, magnetic materials, fiber composites, stress analysis, design of mechanical components, theoretical and applied mechanics, tribology, solar, additive manufacturing and many more. This book will prove its worth to a broad readership of engineering students, researchers, and professionals.

Table of Contents


Future Trends in Materials


Synthesis and Stability of Al2O3/Water Nanofluids

The nanofluids may be considered as multifaceted fluids, generally employed to improve the effectiveness of thermal systems, though poor stability due to sedimentation and agglomeration has limited their applications in practical use. In this work, commercial Al2O3 nanopowders were dispersed in distilled water using CTAB as surfactant. Stable Al2O3 /water nanofluids with weight concentrations ranging from 0.02–0.5 wt% were synthesized using bath and probe ultrasonication. Nanopowders were characterized using high-resolution TEM micrography. UV–Vis spectroscopy and zeta potential tests were also conducted to check stability of the nanofluids.

Vinay Singh, Ajay Kumar, Kaushal Kumar, Munish Gupta

Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity of Poly (Trans-2,3-Dimethylacrylic Acid) Modified Electrode for Hydrazine Sensing

In this research work, authors have used poly (trans-2,3-dimethylacrylic acid) modified electrode as a novel electrocatalyst for the electrochemical sensing of environmental pollutant and group 2B carcinogen hydrazine. The modification was attained using potentiodynamic electropolymerization in phosphate buffer medium. Morphological analysis of the electropolymerized electrode was conducted using field-emission scanning electron microscope, and the catalytic effect was studied using cyclic voltammetry. A much lowered overpotential of +0.252 V versus Ag/AgCl (1 M KCl) was obtained for the electrochemical oxidation of hydrazine at the poly (trans-2,3-dimethylacrylic acid) film casted electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry was applied to measure the hydrazine concentrations varying from 20 µM to 4 mM. Moreover, the sensor exhibited good selectivity, sensitivity, and repeatability. Practical usage of the sensor was tested in different kinds of water samples.

Rajasree G. Krishnan, Beena Saraswathyamma, S. Gopika, P. Vibhooshann, Anjitha Aravind, M. G. Gopika

Effect of Temperature on the Sliding Wear Behavior of HVOF Sprayed Al2O3 Composite Coating

In present study, Al2O3-based composite coating has been deposited on mild steel substrate using HVOF thermal spray process in controlled process parameters. For analyzing the surface, FESEM of the developed coating was done. Its hardness, residual stresses, and tribological properties are studied at room temperature and at elevated temperature of 50, 100, and 150 °C. It is observed that with increased temperature its hardness, residual stresses, and tribological performance was enhanced, i.e., at 150 °C, wear and coefficient of friction decreased to a value of 120 μm and 0.35, whereas its hardness was 520 HV and residual stresses was −10 MPa, increased at evaluated temperature. This showed the temperature dependency of the coating, with increased temperature the coating showed better results.

Ankit Tyagi, S. M. Pandey, R. S. Walia, Qasim Murtaza, Ajay Kumar

Engine Friction Reduction Using Cu Nanofluid as Lubricant

The experimental study on the use of Cu nanofluid as engine lubricant in reducing the friction between piston ring and liner contact has been undertaken. The Cu nanoparticles of CuS and CuO were synthesized and blended in commercial engine oil in varying concentrations for preparation of Cu nanofluid. The experiments were performed on reciprocating tribo-tester to simulate the piston ring and liner contact. The actual ring–liner specimens were used to perform the experiments. The contact was lubricated with commercial engine oil and blends of CuS and CuO in commercial engine oil. The contact friction was continuously recorded. Furthermore, the influence of nanoparticle concentration and applied load along with reciprocating frequency on the coefficient of friction was studied. It has been observed that the blending of Cu nanoparticles reduces engine friction. The optimum dose of the nanoparticles was observed to be 4% by weight. Of the two nanoparticles studied, the CuS nanoparticles resulted in significant reduction in coefficient of friction to the order of 33% as compared to the base lubricant. The findings of the study will be useful for lubricant chemists to develop new lubricants by blending the Cu nanoparticles.

Amar Kumar Jain, Manoj Kumar, Gananath D. Thakre

Review of Transformer Core and Winding Design with Material Used

Energy efficiency is the key issue in electricity supply network, so to assure higher efficiency there is requirement of higher energy-efficient devices from supply-to-consumer network end. On the basis of this fact, this is needed to go through the study of new technological advancement in the field of transformer design. Nowadays, in this field, number of research papers has been published in the design aspects with modern technologies. Therefore, this paper detailed a comparative analysis of core and winding design of transformer. The core has been analysed on the basis of material used, their annealing temperature with corresponding structure, core coating/making technique, magnetic or electric properties with loss of energy. Similarly, winding design is also analysed on the basis of material used, type of design (architecture/structure) with corresponding magnetic and electrical properties. Latest literature in the field of core and winding design has been reported. In addition to this, new technologies have been lime lighted in the field of transformer design.

Sumit Saroha, Vineet Shekher, Pankaj Kumar, Suvir Kumar

Develop an Al-Alloy for High-Pressure–High-Temperature Applications by Enhancing Thermo-Mechanical Properties

The aim of this research work is to develop an aluminium alloy which can be used in conditions like high temperature and high pressure. High pressure die castings, especially engine components of automobiles and heavy vehicles, are the important components which need to survive in such challenging working environment. Silicon, nickel and chromium found to be suitable filler materials to be used in high-pressure and high-temperature conditions based on the literature reviews. Based on the individual physical, chemical and thermo-mechanical properties of Si, Ni and Cr, these elements were selected as alloying elements and alloys Al–Si, Al–Si–Cr and Al–Si–Ni were prepared. The prepared samples were tested for various thermo-mechanical properties, and the results were analysed. Tensile strength values are obtained from hardness values based on Mayer’s hardness. Thermal conductivity values were obtained from electrical conductivity values based on Wiedemann–Franz law. Void content is calculated from practical and theoretical density values. At the end of the research, the new aluminium alloys proposed in this work found to be better replacements for aluminium metal which is currently in use for many high-pressure–high-temperature applications.

J. Joy Mathavan, A. Kunaraj, N. Sakthivelnathan

A Review on Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Fiber-Based Composites

Composite materials can be tailored to provide application-based properties; therefore, they are suitable material for modern-age applications. Synthetic fiber-based composites are conventional composite materials and they possess excellent mechanical properties and applicability. Whereas synthetic fiber-based composites are not environment-friendly materials further, they are nonrenewable. Natural fiber-based composite materials can be a sustainable substitute for synthetic fiber-based composites as they are environment friendly, biodegradable, cost effective, low weight, good mechanical properties, and renewable. Bamboo fiber is one of the best natural fibers in terms of availability and mechanical properties. It is compatible with several matrix materials. This work presents a review on mechanical properties of bamboo fiber, bamboo fiber-based composites, and hybrid bamboo fiber-based composites.

Jagdeep Kumar, Shivaji Chaudhary, Vikas Goyat, Amit Goyal

Review of the Approaches and Modeling Methodology for Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Management Systems in Electric Vehicles

The global level market penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) is rising every year. Faster adoption of electric vehicles has hindrances such as performance deficiencies, low range, and frequent need of charge. A common denominator of most of the roadblocks is the climatic sensitivity of the batteries leading to performance, life, and safety concerns. There lies a temperature range for the optimal performance, life and safety during the operation. Thus, maintaining the temperature in this range is the primary purpose of the battery thermal management system. There are mainly two categories in battery thermal management systems, namely active and passive systems. These systems manage the battery temperature in a vast range of climatic and usage conditions. They are continuously being researched and modified. Experimental techniques to determine the optimal performance of such systems are cost and time inefficient. Instead, modeling the battery along with the thermal management system provides a promising alternative. In recent years, hybrid systems are being proposed for effective thermal management.

Indraneel Naik, Milankumar Nandgaonkar

Future Trends in Mechanical Engineering


Failure Criteria for Composite Blades with Wavy Edge in Aerospace Applications

In many structural applications, either a notch or a hole is used for some specific design intent. The notch could be contained within the plane of structure, or it could be partially located along the edge of the structure. Although theoretical formulae are available for computing the stress variation along the section passing through a simple hole or a notch, for complicated structure or loading conditions, it becomes difficult to evaluate the stress variation. One such example of complicated structure is proposed wavy trailing edge on the composite fan blade where waviness on the edge of blade could be in-plane as well as out of plane. It is important that for evaluation of stress variation in these type of structures, a methodology (i.e., failure criteria based on notch or hole strength) should be developed which will help in predicting the mechanical behavior/failure load of new designs of these structures. Based on preliminary coupon bending tests (coupons with and without wavy trailing edge) and FEA analysis of the coupon models, the characteristic distance from the edge is evaluated and later used to predict the failure for new wavy trailing edge designs for composite fan blade.

Prakash Jadhav

Stress and Deformation Analysis of Hip Joint for Design of Hip Prosthesis

Biomechanics is a study of the musculoskeletal system and the resulting forces acting on them. Hip joint plays a vital role in the musculoskeletal system, which is why there is a need to analyze it more critically. However, with today’s knowledge of the mechanism of the hip, the study and analysis of stress distribution over the joint are limited. Recreating the environment according to daily activities is very important in the experimental analysis of the joint. This approach is difficult to conduct without and changes to the physiological environment. Numerical methods like finite element methods are used to analyze these systems without any damage or invasive processes. This paper has adopted a novel approach to analyze hip joint using 3D volumetric model generation techniques and finite element method. The hip joint is segmented from the computed tomography (CT) scans of a patient, and the bone model is developed with thresholding and volume generation algorithms. The joint along with the complete hip anatomy has been meshed with octahedral elements. A static load has been considered to apply at the hip joint, and the effect of the load is computed and analyzed. The analyzed data will help for effective design of hip prosthesis and an appropriate selection of material.

Amiya Kumar Dash, K. Sai Vishwak, Vaibhav Pahuja

Stress and Displacement Propagation Analysis of Lumbar L4 Vertebrae for Prosthesis Design

Spine plays an important role to facilitate mobility in humans. It has four distinct parts such as cervical, thoracic, lumbar and coccyx which have respective role to play. The lumbar part of the spine is responsible to bear the torso load. This part of the spine is subjected to maximum load. In the present paper, lumbar vertebrae number 4 has been considered for stress analysis and displacement analysis. The stress distribution profile indicates the maximum and minimum stressed part for a given amount of load. The modelling of the L4 vertebrae has been done with Blender, and analysis has been done using Abaqus. The output of this has helped us that the lumbar vertebrae is subjected to dynamic load not only during walking or running but also during standing, sitting and bending. From the results, we have identified that annulus of L4 vertebrae is subjected to maximum stress and anterior annulus is subjected to maximum displacement during normal standing position of a human. The research outcome will help in effective design of spine prosthesis.

Amiya Dash, Vaibhav Pahuja

Design Optimization of Torque Link of an Aircraft Landing Gear Assembly

In the landing gear assembly of an aircraft, the torque links connect the two telescoping cylinders and prevent the relative rotation of the piston to maintain the wheel alignment during taxiing on ground. However, it contributes to the dead weight during flight of the aircraft. Thus, reducing the weight of the torque link will turn down the overall weight of the aircraft. This can improve fuel economy which in turn will benefit the aviation industry remarkably. Topology optimization is a method of simultaneously optimizing the topology and orientation of the boundaries to obtain most efficient design. Topology optimization of torque link is carried out with objective function to minimize the compliance. The torque link is designed in CREO3.0, and optimization is executed in ANSYS 19.2. The weight of torque link is reduced from 6.28 to 5.61 kg, resulting in optimize percent of 12.09. This will result in efficient design with reduced mass, fulfilling all the functional requirements.

Srishti Singh, Rishabh Chaudhary, Vaibhav Kumar Pathak, Vipul Saxena

System Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis of Electrohydrostatic Actuator for Armoured Recovery Vehicles

The electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) is an emerging technology which is being used extensively and effectively in the field of aviation to control the aircraft which otherwise was the difficult task. It is a modular and compact design obtained by combining various cutting edge technologies. This technology has replaced the bulky and leak prone centralized hydraulic system with a compact and modular design. Fixed pump variable motor simulation (FPVM) model is developed to analyze the digital prototype of physical model to predict its performance in real world by using the software tool advanced modeling environment for performing simulations of engineering systems (AMEsim). The performance of the simulation model is tested with and without load. The open- and the closed-loop system analysis are carried out. The thermal analysis is also done using proportional integral derivative (PID) controller.

Manish Kumar, Shweta Singh

An Improved Hydro-mechanical Braking System to Maintain a Constant Pedal Feel During Deceleration of Electric Vehicle

In the present paper, an improvement of conventional hydro-mechanical braking system is presented which increases the regenerative performance of parallel regenerative braking used in electric vehicles. Realizing that brake pedal feel of driver during deceleration is important for the safety, an appropriate brake pedal feel measurement is proposed here. Moreover, it was noticed that perception of brake pedal feel varies with the driver’s attitude. The improved hydro-mechanical braking system maintains a constant desired brake pedal feel throughout the braking process.

Sutapa Mondal, Arup Kumar Nandi

Design of Sandwich Panel Using Taguchi Analysis

The aim of the present paper is to optimize the dimensions of honeycomb sandwich structure through simulating three-point bending test. The sandwich structure consists of epoxy carbon woven prepreg face sheets separated by a Kevlar honeycomb core. Based on the analysis, panel structure parameters considered are honeycomb core cell size, core height, face sheet thickness and panel size. L9 orthogonal array is generated using Taguchi design of experiments considering three levels of each parameter. The models generated in Taguchi design are numerically analysed by finite element analysis for ultimate force and equivalent stiffness. Taguchi analysis is carried out to find the optimum design levels of parameter. The levels obtained were further verified by grey relation analysis.

Prashank Sharma, Chandan Singh Mehra, Utkarsh Jha, Sachin, Anil Kumar

A Review on Solar Desalination Still Designs

The modern state-of-the-art techniques involved in the human community is continuously been challenged for energy and fresh drinking water needs. To an extent, efforts made by researchers have tried to address the urgency of the orthodox methods involving solar still technology. However, many of the limitations involved in different types of solar stills include lean of glass, area of absorbing plate, and volume of water. The major implication of maintaining the required water volume in the conventional method is rectified to some extent in inclined stills. Hence, many of the recent developments in still design inculcate the knowledge in the application of wicks and steps in the container to maintain the desired efficiency. For water desalination techniques involving the above-mentioned technology, the influential promise of trusting with the renewable sources of energy like solar, wind, geothermal, hydraulic, biomass is discussed in detail. In this review, Present research is a try to present the current state and feasibility of applications of various still designs to desalinate the water from salts to convert into freshwater in order to enhance the productive capacity of suggested methodologies.

Rajat G. Kawalkar, Samish M. Fale, Satish P. Lokhande

Design and Fabrication Errors of Foil Bearings: A Review

Aerodynamic gas foil bearing (GFB) is a self-acting hydrodynamic bearing that used ambient air as a working fluid to carry small turbomachinery with medium load capacity. The compliant structure of foil bearings provides more reliability to a high-speed rotating system. The thin flexible structure of top foil and bump foil assists the foil bearings to accommodate shaft misalignment with better stiffness characteristics. Due to frictional interactions, the GFBs also provide coulomb damping with nonlinear behavior. As a consequence, the complexity of GFBs is increased. With compliant structure, the foil bearings offer many advantages such as the capability to operate at high speed with elevated temperature, longer service life (due to air lubricant), and less operating cost. But there are some limitations of GFBs, i.e., high friction loss at low speed. Due to small and complex structure, the manufacturing process of FBs is large and slightly challenging. As a consequence, many undesirable manufacturing errors are developed in FBs design such as foil thickness error, bump pitch error, and bump height error. This paper reviews the present research related to manufacturing techniques which are used for developing the compliant corrugate shape of foil bearings. These manufacturing techniques are blanking–punching, metal cutting, etc. To overcome these manufacturing errors and make the fabrication process of the FBs with more accurate, heat treatment and quenching process are also used. Currently, the advanced manufacturing technique such as rapid prototyping is used to avoid any error and developing accurate foil bearings.

Vishal Mourya, Skylab P. Bhore

Computational Investigation on Dynamics of Drop Formation: Effect of Viscosity

This paper deals with the effect of Newtonian fluid’s viscosity variation on the drop formation through the computational domain. The simulation is performed on a two-dimensional domain and the “volume of fluid” method is used to investigate the impact of dispersed phase fluid’s viscosity on the dynamics of the droplet that expels from a vertical capillary tube. The computational results are validated with the experimental results. Below µ/µw ~ 100, the simulation reveals the linear variation in the dimensionless thread length Li/R. Above this ratio, an exponential increase in the dimensionless thread length is observed. The dimensionless thread length depends strongly on the fluid’s viscosity. Meanwhile, viscosity tends to damp the undulations developed by the breakup of the initial droplet.

Pardeep Bishnoi, Mukesh Kumar Sahu, M. K. Sinha

Viscous Oscillatory Exponentially Stratified Flow Through Parallel Plates

The research work in this article proposes a mathematical model and its results to the flow which is oscillatory and vertically exponential density stratified viscous fluid induced by constant suction through one side of the channel. The region of the flow is assumed to be rectangular formed by two parallel plates of which the right-hand side plate is porous and the fluid is taken out through this plate inducing the flow with constant velocity. The mathematical system explaining the above problem is solved using variable separable similarity solution and was interpreted through graphs for various parameters involved in the system. The stratification is considered to be exponentially distributed in the vertical direction, and the results reveal that the flow in the vertical direction is mainly affected by the stratification parameter, and significant comparisons are established with the case of linearly distributed density stratification. Further for second-degree approximation, the exponential stratification reduces to the results of linear stratification results, which are already available in the literature.

L. Prasanna Venkatesh

A Review of Various Kinds of Cascade Refrigeration Cycle and Application of Ejector Mechanism

Various kinds of refrigeration cycles and the effect of various design parameters are reviewed in this paper. A simple vapor compression absorption cycle provides cooling at low temperature up to -50 °C but cannot produce cooling and heating effect simultaneously, whereas this limitation overcome by cascading two vapor compression cycle to produce both cooling and heating effect simultaneously by taking CO2 as a refrigerant in the high-temperature side and other refrigerants in the low-temperature side which provides a larger cooling range as compared to the conventional cycle. An EES computer program was built to investigate the properties of some blends such as R744/125, R744/41, and R744/32, and the effect of subcooling, superheating, and approach temperature was calculated. The effect of some design parameters, such as evaporator temperature and isentropic efficiency of the compressor, is analyzed, and results show that the COP of the cycle increases with an increase in evaporative temperature but decreases with increasing condenser temperature. The isentropic efficiency of the compressor has little effect on system performances. A transcritical cycle can give heating effect above the critical temperature which makes the cycle more efficient as compared to the subcritical cycle. Furthermore, cycle performances of both subcritical and transcritical cycles can improve by using a two-phase ejector as a replacement of the throttle valve. The effect of various design parameters of the ejector to increase system performance is also discussed moreover for large-scale industrial applications of ejector-enhanced refrigeration cycle.

Sachin Kumar, Virender Chahal

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Rapid Solidified Hypereutectic AlSi24Cu3.8Mg0.8 Alloys by UV-Assisted Stir–Squeeze Casting Method Under T-6 Condition

Hypereutectic aluminum–silicon composites are the prominent alloys in most automotive and manufacturing sectors due to their superior tribological and mechanical properties. However, the characteristics of the alloy much rely upon the production technique they involve. In this manner, many fabrication commerce aims attention at new production techniques to manufacture the right efficient materials. In this study, the alloys (AlSi24) were prepared by UV-assisted stir (UVS) casting and UV-assisted stir–squeeze (UVSS) casting processes under the T-6 condition. UVSS as a manufacturing method improves the hardness, tensile, and microstructural characteristics significantly by 20–50%. However, the best hardness (161.5) was obtained with AlSi24Cu3.8Mg0.8 with UV-assisted stir–squeeze under T-6 condition. The enhancement in metallurgical and mechanical characteristics was primarily imputed to the dispersion and size of Si-particles due to the production process. Hardness and tensile characteristics are obtained with Tensometer and Brinell hardness tester. Additionally, EDS, metallurgical microscope, and SEM are used for microstructure observation.

M. Peeru Naik, K. T. Balaram Padal

A Complete Study on Various Area Filling Strategies Used in Weld Deposition-Based Additive Manufacturing

Achieving the optimal toolpath as well as obtaining the desired physical and geometrical properties for bulk metallic parts through weld deposition-based additive manufacturing (AM) is a challenging task. The current work aims in identifying the suitable toolpath for bulk weld deposition-based AM applications by comparing the various toolpath (eleven types) techniques. These toolpaths were evaluated based on the final layer thickness attained after face milling (skinning) operation, minimum amount material machined during the face milling, average hardness achieved, length of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the microstructural behaviour. Amongst the various toolpath patterns considered, hybrid toolpath (Single Contour Out with Hilbert In) is ideal for bulk deposition-based AM owing to its maximum final layer thickness and the minimum amount of material removed in skinning operation. On the other hand, it has been observed that Spiral Out to In toolpath pattern is inferior for bulk deposition-based AM. Additionally, the average grain size is presented for some of the toolpath patterns in the current article.

Kishore Kumar Panchagnula, Jayaprakash Sharma Panchagnula

Characterization and Optimization of Machining Parameters for High-Strength Steel

During machining of die steels, better surface quality of machined surface and larger amount of material removal are the main concerns of the machinist. In present study, three important cutting parameters (depth of cut, feed rate and cutting speed) are varied as process parameters during turning of EN 24 steel with objectives to get minimum surface roughness (SR) and maximum material removal rate (MRR). Experiments are planned as per Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array with three parameters where each parameter is varied at three levels. Using analysis of variance (ANOVA), effect of the cutting parameters on the process responses is deduced and quantified. To validate the outcome of signal-to-noise ratio approach, confirmatory experiments were conducted at optimized levels of parameters and results for surface smoothness and material removal rate had improved by 41.88% and 51.14% as compared to initial settings of cutting parameters.

Gagandeep Garg, Bhaskar Thakur, Satish Kumar Sharma

An Alternative Approach for Turning of Inconel 825: Feasibility Analysis of Process Parameters

This paper is an attempt to design and configure a mathematical system to optimize a subtractive manufacturing process by considering the feasibility of the considered values of the inputs. A turning experiment consisting of 18 trials conducted with Inconel 825 is taken as a reference. The initial phase of the process consists of normalization of the input data so that a numerical analysis can be done. Linguistic input data is processed using a fuzzy logic system by considering three factors related to the type of tool used: tool cost, flank wear and the roughness of the machined surface. A normalization scheme based on feasibility is developed to process the numerical input data. Three multiple attribute decision-making methods (MADM methods): simple additive weighting, weighted product and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) are used to optimize the process. The results are tabulated and the first ranked experiment with the highest feasibility score, given by the three methods is the first alternative among the chosen combinations. It is very well observed that the optimization results obtained by the three methods are coherent.

Neel Sanghvi, Dhairya Vora, Jash Patel, K. N. Vijayakumar

Analysis of PMEDM Parameters for the Machining of Inconel-800 Material Using Taguchi Methodology

In the present scenario, copper tools and Inconel-based materials became popular due to their unique properties and are widely used for manufacturing various materials, airplane parts, furnace parts, etc. That is why, copper as a tool and nickel-based superalloy as a material, we have chosen for further experimentation. In order to study behavior of Inconel material, the content material removal rate (MRR) has been selected as a response parameter. After reviewing the literature, the process parameters, i.e. current, pulse on time (Ton), pulse off time (Toff), and electrical discharge machining (EDM) have been chosen for the experiment. After analysis, results indicated that, the peak current more effect the MRR as compared with the other two process parameters, i.e. Ton and Toff.

Satish Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, Rajdeep Singh, Pardeep Bishnoi, Virender Chahal

Influence of Wall Angle, Feed Rate, and Sheet Thickness on Forming Force in SPIF

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) technique is a choice of green manufacturing that can produce complicated shapes from sheet materials with reduced power and energy using simple tools. This technique further exempts use of expensive forming dies and punches due which makes it cost effective for rapid prototyping and batch-type manufacturing. The prediction and measurement of forming forces during SPIF process determine the size of forming machinery and additional hardware along with preventing the failures of facilities. In this work, maximal axial forming forces have been investigated under the effects of interactions of significant input variables like sheet thickness, wall angle, and feed rate. The minimal axial peak force (836 N) required to produce conical frustums was observed during trial 1 when a wall angle of 60 was employed with minimum sheet thickness (0.8 mm, in this case). On the other hand, the maximal axial peak force (1577 N) required to produce conical frustums was observed during trial 12 when a wall angle of 72 was employed with greater sheet thickness (1.6 mm, in this case) which can be the limiting factor of forming tool and machinery and that should obviously be avoided.

Ajay Kumar, Parveen Kumar, Hari Singh

Laser Polishing of Laser Additive Manufactured Hastelloy-X: Parametric Dependence and Process Optimization

The components built using laser additive manufacturing (LAM) suffer from various issues, like—stair-stepping effect, balling effect and presence of partially melted powders, which results in higher surface roughness. Thus, the surface finish of LAM built components is not suitable for various engineering applications in the as-built condition. Therefore, post-processing is necessary to improve the aesthetics and surface quality of LAM built components. Laser polishing is one of the advanced post-processing techniques that can be used for improving the surface quality of LAM built components. Laser polishing can be used to improve the surface quality of various engineering components for aerospace, automobile, biomedical, construction, cryogenics and nuclear industries due to its inherent advantages, like—smaller processing time, ability to access intricate shapes and smaller areas, etc. Hastelloy-X is the one of the nickel superalloys processed by LAM for building complex shaped components for nuclear and aerospace sector. As LAM is used for building components with complex geometry, it is difficult to deploy conventional polishing techniques for polishing of LAM built components. Thus, laser polishing can be considered as an ideal choice for improving the surface finish of such components. In the present work, an experimental investigation is carried out to optimize the process parameters during continuous wave fibre laser-based laser polishing of LAM built Hastelloy-X surface. The parametric dependence is investigated through design of experiments as per Taguchi L9 array with laser power, process speed, percentage of laser line overlapping and stand-off distance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to identify significant laser parameters and it is observed that the laser power and line overlapping are the most significant factors. An improvement in average surface finish by ~30% (from a value of Ra = 8.46 µm to 5.7 µm) is achieved at the optimum process parameters. The study open avenues for the potential deployment of laser polishing for post-processing of LAM built components.

Poonam Deshmukh, Ambar Choubey, A. N. Jinoop, C. P. Paul, S. S. Mohite, K. S. Bindra

Elucidating Corrosion Behavior of Hastelloy-X Built Using Laser Directed Energy Deposition-Based Additive Manufacturing in Acidic Environments

This paper reports an investigation on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of laser directed energy deposition (LDED)-based additive manufacturing built Hastelloy-X (Hast-X) bulk samples for the first time in various acidic environments (2M HNO3, 2M HCl, and 2M H2SO4). Open-circuit potential results reveal that corrosion activity is more in HCl than the other two media. The corrosion rate (CR) estimated using the Tafel extrapolation method shows that the corrosion rate (CR) is the most in HCl and least in HNO3. Potentiodynamic studies reveal active–passive behavior of Hast-X in all the media and it is seen that the material stays in passivation for a longer potential range in HCl. Further, pitting potential is observed to be comparable in all three media. The cyclic polarization curve shows no loops, which points out the absence of pitting in the samples immersed in any of the media. The estimated CR for Hast-X in all the acidic environments under investigation comes within the acceptable CR for nickel-based alloys (4 mpy). The morphology of the corroded surface is analyzed using stereo microscope and it confirms the absence of pitting in all the three samples. These observations confirm the suitability of LDED built Hast-X components for applications in investigated acidic environments.

P. K. Diljith, A. N. Jinoop, C. P. Paul, P. Krishna, S. Bontha, K. S. Bindra

3-D Printing Technology: Inclusive Study and Applicability in Different Sectors

This paper presents an insight of state of the art of 3-D printing (3-DP) technology. 3-DP technique develops three-dimensional products that have been designed using computer software by settling down material layer by layer. In the past years, the many studies have been carried out on 3-DP. This paper reviews the current research trends and recent developments in 3-DP technologies. 3-DP has a wide range of application in automobile, aircraft, medical, fashion design, food industry, jewelry making, etc. A detailed description of applications of 3-DP in various fields is presented. Stepwise procedure of 3-DP along with its advantages and limitations is also given. It is hoped that the information provided in this study will be useful in understanding basic fundamentals of 3-DP printing technology. The review work relies on academic publications and recent conference proceedings.

Mohd. Yunus Khan, P. Sudhakar Rao, B. S. Pabla

Advanced Finishing Processes for External Cylindrical Surfaces—A Review

External cylindrical surface components are the core of machinery and automotive industry. The sliding and rotational motions are the main working motions provided to the cylindrical components. During these motions, the surface contact with fine finish defines the process performance of the machine or process. This fine finish is obtained through advanced finishing processes like magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF), vibration MAF, and magnetorheological finishing. In this work, advanced finishing processes are introduced and the advantages of these processes are explained. This paper also represents the overview of the MR fluid and its importance in the finishing of external cylindrical surfaces which play an important role in the manufacturing industries.

Manpreet Singh, Gagandeep Singh, Maninder Singh

A Study of Ceramic Core for Investment Casting

In the recent time, the demand of complex castings is continuously increasing, particularly in the field of aerospace, automobile, medical, food processing, and machine tool industry. Investment casting being the oldest manufacturing process is always considered as the most preferred route for producing intricate near-net shape parts. Making undercuts, channels, or passage are the most critical and challenging activity in producing complex shape geometry. For making such castings, cores are used along with the investment molds. In practice cores, in foundries are made from different material such as sand, soluble wax, urea, salt, and ceramic. Among these, the ceramic material-based cores possess better properties compared to any other core materials. Presently, varieties of ceramic cores are used in investment casting foundries. The properties of final cast part significantly affected by the properties of ceramic core, which directly depend on the various core composition. Many researchers have made and tested cores with various ceramic compositions; however, no published research was found which summarizes them in scientifically. This paper presents a study on ceramic core material and core manufacturing process being used in investment casting. The article will be helpful for foundrymen in selecting the appropriate composition of ceramic core material and its manufacturing process based on the part-specific requirements.

Ganesh Vidyarthee, Nandita Gupta, Himanshu Khandelwal

Resilient and Robust Strategies for Process-Line Supply Chain in Textile Industry

A textile supply chain is through-and-through susceptible to threats. A thorough study leads the authors to find that solutions found to mitigate risks were only restricted to the end process of retail and distribution. The authors felt the need to shed light on the supply chain threats and risks during the processing phase of the chain. A comparative study was conducted to find the best-suited and feasible strategies among robust and resilient; further, comparison with the risk acceptance strategy was done to find out the most optimum solution for each particular threat/risk. A few of the major risks were considered and strategies to mitigate the most important and commonly occurring risks were analyzed. The authors reached a conclusion to adopt a mix of both, robust and resilient strategies to disperse risks involved in the supply chain. If the threats are only tackled with either would make the supply chain very rigid or very flexible, thus incurring heavy costs.

Dhairya Vora, Jash Patel, Omkar Chandhere, Satish Takalikar

Assessing Cognitive Behavior of Subjects Using Learning Effect and NASA-TLX in a Manual Pen Assembly

This study investigates various ways to present material and information at workstations, using various assembly scenarios. The experiment is conducted with fifteen participants and six types of pen. The material presentation factors considered are the use of intermixed parts, grouped parts, separated parts in different boxes, and part numbered box. The information presentation factors include text instructions and photographs. From the results, it can be concluded that by using part numbered box as material presentation and instructions as information presentation provides the highest number of parts assembled with least errors. Similarly, using intermixed parts with instructions resulted in a decreased number of assembled pens. The design and preparation of workstations can be performed based on the cognitive abilities of the subjects. The different material and knowledge presentation factors can be designed according to their abilities.

M. P. Giridhar, Vinay V. Panicker

Ranking of Lean Critical Success Factors in Manufacturing Industry: AHP Approach

Lean is an efficient and effective system but there are so many barriers during implementation. In paper, we study the different types of factors which are responsible for waste, after that lean barriers and these barrier solutions as lean implementation critical success factors (CSFs). Proper implementation of lean (CSFs) is very important to identify so that waste can be reduce and overall growth will reach much near to high productivity and profit. AHP technique is used to achieve this goal. It is the current issue that some industries goes for high production but does not focus on that how much waste comes out from industry. So, this paper focused on these factors which are very important and barriers with their solution lean implementation success factor. We can minimize or can remove all barriers which are responsible for improper implementation of lean system. As result, motivational approach (MA), upgrade job environment and satisfaction (UJS), leadership and responsibility (L&R), and develop new behavior pattern/strictly implementation of lean tools and methods (BP/SI) are the rank 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and at 4th, respectively. This calculation will help industry to identify suitable lean implementation success factor.

Virender Chahal, M. S. Narwal, Sachin Kumar

Evaluation of the Barriers in the Adoption of Automated Technology by the Manufacturing Sector: A Case from India

The advent of Industry 4.0, i.e., automated manufacturing, has shifted the paradigm of the manufacturing process. With the assistance of computers, the automated manufacturing technique increases the production capability along with improved precision. Enhancement of production capability with industrial automation technology has provided a competitive edge for the manufacturing firm. With such automation, it becomes easy for a manufacturing firm to meet the dynamic market demand. However, automated production is not affordable for many industries, as it requires a huge upfront investment. The shift toward automated manufacturing began in developed countries a decade ago; however, the developing countries are still relying on conventional manufacturing. To cope with the global manufacturing trend, it becomes necessary for the manufacturing sectors in developing countries to adopt automated manufacturing techniques. However, many challenges hamper the industrial shift toward automated manufacturing. Considering the challenges, this study intends to identify, evaluate, and prioritize the challenges in adopting automation technology in the Indian context. With the assistance of a literature survey and expert interaction, nine critical challenges the Indian industries face in the adoption of automated technology are identified. Then, using the best–worst method (BWM), these challenges are prioritized based on their weight. An increase in unemployment, less versatility and unpredictable cost are identified as the three most prominent challenges Indian industries face in the implementation of automation. From the outcomes, the study suggests some implications for managers, which may make the automation feasible.

Koppiahraj Karuppiah, Bathrinath Sankaranarayanan, Saravanasankar Subramaniam
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