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About this book

This book presents the select proceedings of the International Conference on Functional Material, Manufacturing and Performances (ICFMMP) 2019. The book primarily covers recent research, theories, and practices relevant to surface engineering and processing of materials. It focuses on the lesser-known technologies and advanced manufacturing methods which may not be standardized yet but are highly beneficial to material and manufacturing industrial engineers. The book includes current advances in the field of coating, deposition, cladding, nanotechnology, surface finishing, precision machining, processing, and emerging advanced manufacturing technologies which enhance the performance of materials in terms of corrosion, wear and fatigue. The book can be a valuable reference for beginners, researchers, and professionals interested in materials processing and allied fields.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Experimental Investigations on FSW of AA6082-T6 Aluminum Alloy

Abstract
The aim of the current work is to analyze the effect of rotational speed and the number of passes on the weld characteristics of FSWed AA6082-T6 joints. Twelve joints were produced by different combinations of FSW parameters, i.e., rotational speed and number of passes, for analyzing the influence of these parameters on quality parameters of the joints, i.e., tensile, hardness and microstructural properties. The results of a current study clearly show that studied input parameters significantly affect weld quality. Out of 12 joints fabricated in the study, the joint fabricated with two numbers of welding passes at 900 rpm rotational speed was observed to have the best mechanical properties.
Tipu, Ramesh Kumar Garg, Amit Goyal

Plasma Spray Deposition of HA–TiO2 Composite Coating on Ti–6Al–4V Alloy for Orthopedic Applications

Abstract
A biomimetic nanoporous 50HA–50TiO2 composite surface has been put on a plasma deposition process with the orthopedic use of Ti–6Al–4V alloy in the present research paper. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) fitted out of energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray (XRD) was used for the analysis of the coated morphology, elementary, and phase composition of the test. The results show that Ti–6Al–4V’s HA/TiO2-coated surface shows the natural bone-like nanoporous morphology that was favorable for bone growth in the host body around the implant. The study of EDS and XRD revealed that the deposited layer includes Ca, P, O materials, as well as the essential parent product components (Ti, Al, V), and bioactive phase oxides (TTCP, TCP, rutile) formed on the substrate surface. This corrosion resistance and bioactivity of the Ti–5Al–4V was increased significantly. The composite coating tests of nanoporous material have shown that the hardness and roughness values of the HA/TiO2 coating on the surface of the Ti–6Al–4V substratum are 277 HV and 3.59 μm. Overall, the HA–TiO2 coating can be concluded that the Ti–6Al–4V alloy surface has been tailored to the requirements of orthopedic implants.
Harjit Singh, Prashant Kulbushan Rana, Jasvinder Singh, Sunpreet Singh, Chander Prakash, Grzegorz Królczyk

Review on Surface Modifications of the Workpiece by Electric Discharge Machining

Abstract
The recent times have seen an expanding enthusiasm for the novel uses of electrical discharge machining (EDM) method, with specific accentuation on the capability of this procedure for surface modification. Other than the disintegration of work material amid machining, the inborn idea of the procedure results in the expulsion of tool material too. Through either dispersing metallic powders in the dielectric or by utilizing composite or both intentional material exchanges might be done under explicit machining conditions. In this review paper, secondary use of EDM is discussed which has revolutionized the concept of surface modification. A review of the wonder of surface adjustment by EDM and future potential applications has been presented in this paper.
Vipin Handa, Parveen Goyal, Rajesh Kumar

Experimental Investigations on Heat Generation and Surface Roughness During Orthogonal Machining of Stainless Steel Using Bio-based Oil MQL

Abstract
Machining of hard material at higher parameters level is in the need of recent machining requirements and hence tool wears out rapidly during these situations of product manufacturing. So, cutting fluids are utilized to intercept the friction, heat generation, and to extend tool life during manufacturing operation through its feature of heat absorption, lubrication, and cooling action. It is conceivable only when the volume and application method of lubrication is suitable to the operator, environmental friendly, and profitable to the manufacturing industry. Because the inappropriate amount and unsuited methodology of cutting fluid utilization lead to several health as well as environmental issues, such as skin diseases, asthma, rashes, and respiratory problems and further unproductive to the firm as well. Therefore, the selection of lubrication strategy has become more challenging in the present day machining environment due to the aforementioned facts and strict government policies related to pollution, water footprints, and energy consumption. In this connection, dry machining is a better choice to tackle these ecological issues, but again this option does not remain economical at higher extents of cutting speed in mass production. Under these circumstances, advance levels of cutting speed result in rapid tool wear, loss of dimensional accuracy and poor surface finish. Consequently, uneconomical machining at stated extents of speed-feed combination. Hence the need for cooling system persists which could be the panacea of machining scenarios. Henceforth, keeping in mind the drawbacks of dry machining and flood lubrication the minimum quantity lubrication was adopted in present investigation as a feasible alternative approach to the mentioned drawbacks. The experiment was performed on Stainless Steel AISI-202 at higher levels of speed-feed combination in dry and MQL environments. Heat generation was recorded with the aid of standard K-type thermocouple. Bio-based soybean oil droplet assisted with air jet was used for lubrication and cooling purpose. Experimental results exhibited that the MQL-assisted machining remarkably reduced the heat generation, surface roughness, and chip reduction coefficient as compared to dry machining. It was also concluded that MQL was proved the best lubrication method for obtaining desirable results in terms of economy, health hazards, and environmental safety as compared to dry machining.
Gurpreet Singh, Vivek Aggarwal, Jujhar Singh, Amoljit Singh Gill, Shubham Sharma

Performance of Composite Coating on Cutting Tools: Coating Technologies, Performance Optimization, and Their Characterization: A Review

Abstract
Cutting tool development has drawn a lot of attention for the machining of tough to machine materials in the past decade. Conventional cutting tools (such as high-speed steel (HSS), cemented carbide, cubic boron nitride (CBN), etc., have been widely used in the cutting of difficult to machine materials. These cutting tools have limited scope of application due to their wearing during machining, their design, and manufacturing restrictions. To enhance machinability, cutting tools are coated with different nanostructured coating. The indicative properties of such hard coatings are adhesiveness to the substrate, great microhardness, and toughness. Present work reviews the impact of various hard coating (based on Ti, AlN, SiN, and their combinations), forces and surface roughness, and cutting factors (as speed and feed rate) are reviewed. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is widely used for machining of difficult to machine materials on a large scale, which would be overpriced and impractical to obtain from conventional machining. The cost contribution of tool in the total operation cost of EDM is maximum. Major challenge in the EDM tool is tool wear. Hence, hard coating on the EDM electrode can also be applied in order to restrict the tool wear rate of the EDM electrode, increase the workpiece surface finish and reducing the machining time. In this paper, a coated EDM electrode used for the machining of hard material is also reviewed.
Vivek Mehta, Rajesh Kumar, Harmesh Kumar

Transient Analysis of GTA-Welded Austenitic and Ferritic Stainless Steel

Abstract
In this study, the temperature distribution analysis was performed with the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process of dissimilar metals such as 316L austenitic stainless steel (ASS) and 430 ferritic stainless steel (FSS) with two filler materials ER309 and ER316 and one without filler. The transient thermal finite element analysis was performed to get the distribution of temperature across the welded zone throughout the welding. The analysis of thermal distribution in the welded zone is carried out with the help of ANSYS 16.0. The heat distribution without filler results in the most extreme temperature distribution across the welded zone as compared to welding with ER309 and ER316 filler material.
Chetan Tembhurkar, Ravinder Kataria, Sachin Ambade, Jagesvar Verma

Electrodeposition and Corrosion Analysis of Ni-Mo Alloy Coatings

Abstract
Binary Ni-Mo alloys were electrodeposited in citrate electrolytic solution at a pH of 9.5. EDS analysis determined the deposit composition and increase in the % wt of Mo with increased applied current density (c.d.). XRD analysis reveals deposits exhibit single Ni-Mo solid phase. SEM micrograph shows that the morphology is clearly altered when the Mo concentration increases. Corrosion behavior of nanocrystalline Ni-Mo alloys was carried out potentiodynamically and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.5 M H2SO4. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was explained based on the structural interpretation of Ni-Mo alloys. The highest corrosion resistance accompanied by electrodeposits containing least wt% of Mo.
Vandana V. Iragar, Shailashree Mendon, Shraddha Acharya, Sujaya, Sujana, V. Anjana Pai, D. Rashmi, G. P. Pavithra

Review on Microwave Cladding: A New Approach

Abstract
In the present work, the development of composite clad of different metallic-based matrices (like Ni-La2O3, Ni-WC, WC-10Co-2Ni, Ni-20WC-10Mo, Ni-Al2O3, etc.) on the different types of metals (like AISI 1040, SS-316, SS-304, etc.) was investigated. The microwave energy was used due to its volumetric heating and helps to improve material properties. Due to partial dilution of the clad material into the base metal, there is a good metallurgical bonding between the clad material and base metal. The clad element uniformly distributed over the substrate and reduces the interfacial defects and cracks. This helps to improve the microstructure of the material. Various intermetallic phases were formed during volumetric heating and show the presence of different types of the element present in clad and hence improve the microhardness of the material. Due to reinforcement of clad element into the substrate helps to the sliding and wear performance of the material which is used in the component of manufacturing industries like automobile, hydropower plant, gas power plants, etc., where component geometry is complex. Because of the volumetric heating, the microstructure of the material becomes more uniform and help to improve the mechanical properties like hardness, ductility, flexural strength, etc. The material was characterized by different types of analysis by using SEM, XRD, and DTA. The microwave process was carried out at home-use microwave oven of frequency 2.45 Hz and having power range.
Nalin Somani, Kamal Kumar, Nitin Gupta

Characterization of Hemp Fibre-Reinforced Gypsum Panels for Building Insulation

Abstract
In this paper, the work is focused on to fabricate a biocomposite material which will be applied in buildings for thermal insulation. Biocomposites consist of various hemp fibres prepared by volume fraction. Experimentally the effect of hemp fibres on water absorption, thermal conductivity and mechanical characteristics of gypsum-based materials has been studied. The results showed that in gypsum-based materials thermal conductivity will decrease with gradually increasing of the hemp fibre concentration. It clearly shows that the hemp fibre loading may lead to high effect on thermal and mechanical characteristics of the composites. The flexural and compressive strength of the composites is enhanced by the addition of sufficient fibre content. These newly developed composites exhibit good mechanical and thermal performance which can be allowed to be used for insulating materials. The characterization of gypsum and hemp fibres of different volume fractions are studied under XRD and SEM.
Kanishka Jha, Syam Kumar Degala, Akeshawar Singh Yadav

A Short Note on the Processing of Materials Through Microwave Route

Abstract
There are various fabrication techniques used for depositing the material over the surface of substrate to enhance the surface properties. The need of surface modification leads to the use of many techniques which are not only economical but also eco-friendly in terms of producing pollution. The microwave route has emerged as one of the tool used for the application of surface engineering, where the materials like ceramics, metals and alloys and various composites can easily be deposited. The microwave route utilizes the heat of the waves, which further melts the material to be deposited on the substrate. In this article, the application of microwave energy in the form of various techniques has been studied for the fabrication of materials by joining, melting and cladding
Gurbhej Singh, Hitesh Vasudev, Hitesh Arora

Investigations for Improving Solid-State Weldability of Dissimilar Thermoplastic Composites Through Melt Processing

Abstract
This study deals with melt processing of Al electrolytic particle reinforcement in thermoplastic matrix (for enhancement of weldability of dissimilar thermoplastics). Further, the melt flow compatible substrates of Al-reinforced thermoplastic matrix were 3D printed, followed by joining on vertical milling machine. The study also deals with mechanical properties evaluation with traverse force monitoring for input process variables selection. The outcome of study suggested that maximum mechanical strength was obtained at 1400 rpm, transverse speed 30 mm/min, and plunge depth 4 mm. The study is supported by 3D surface topology and optical micrographs.
Ranvijay Kumar, Rupinder Singh, IPS Ahuja

A Short Note on the Friction Stir Welding of the Aluminum Alloys

Abstract
Friction stir welding (FSW) is now an emerging technique used for the joining of similar and dissimilar materials. In producing efficient dissimilar joints, FSW has been used due to its various characteristics, which are effectively applied to make a joint having good strength. The available study on this technique is basically focused on the mechanical and microstructural characterization of joints. FSW is utilized to fabricate the parts made of metals like magnesium, aluminum, and their alloys. This note focuses on the utility of FSW for fabricating the aluminum alloys.
Yogita Sharma, Hitesh Vasudev

Pyrolysis System for Environment-Friendly Conversion of Plastic Waste into Fuel

Abstract
Because of the draining petroleum combustible reservoirs like crude fuel, coke, and natural gasoline, the current pace of commercial development is indefensible. Accordingly, numerous sustainable power source has been employed; however, the potentials of a few different sources like plastics waste are still to wholly created as a business project. Along with age group of waste plastics expanding, current Indian enactment directs high recuperation rates, and rules favors waste management innovation decisions that possess a higher situation of a waste management progressive system. Pyrolysis is a procedure that changes over waste plastics in a relevant fluid product that can be accepted as a potential origin for several reasons such as automobile vehicles, power generators, and diesel engines, etc. Plastics pyrolysis depends on the thermal or occasionally reactant breakdown of the polymer composition. This examination aimed to develop the pyrolysis system model for the extraction of oil/diesel from plastic wastes that can be sold at extremely cheaper rates than those available. Developed pyrolysis system model has tested as alternative for the extraction of oil. Results shows, oil extraction of 10–20 ml could be obtained by burning 180–380 gm of plastic.
S. N. Waghmare, S. D. Shelare, C. K. Tembhurkar, S. B. Jawalekar

Experimental Investigation of Surface Integrity and Machining Characteristics of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Machined by Wire-EDM Process

Abstract
Ti–6Al–4V alloy has been widely used in biomedical applications such as implants, screws, plates, and so on. The key parameters for implant stability are surface integrity (surface roughness and surface topography). In this study, experimental study on the surface integrity and machining characteristics of Ti–6Al–4V alloy machined by wire electrical discharge machining (W-EDM) has been studied. The research was planned using the methods of Taguchi and the orthogonal range of L-27 was chosen. The effect of W-EDM system parameters, such as peak current, pulse length, pulse frequency, wire feed, and spark gap, sets voltage on the machining and surface characteristics of material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) along with machined surface topography. Such parameters have been shown to have a significant influence on the characteristics of the output response, and rises in MRR and SR with peak current.
Sandeep Malik, Vineet Singla

Effect of Hard Chromium Coating on the Frictional Behavior of Piston Ring Material

Abstract
Hard chromium coatings are widely used as a potential coating material for ferrous materials. The superior tribological properties and corrosion resistance are the main properties of the hard chromium coatings. In an IC engine, the reduction in the friction between the tribopairs improves efficiency by reducing the fuel energy and lowering the emissions. In this work, the piston rings material was electroplated using the hard chromium and tribological tests were performed using a reciprocating tribometer with pin and plate specimens. The piston ring material was used as a pin and cylinder wall as a plate. The experiments were performed between (i) uncoated pin and plate, (ii) coated pin and plate and, and (iii) coated pin and uncoated plate. A linear reciprocating test rig was used for the experimentation at frequency values of 25, 30 Hz at 30 N, and 45 N load. A controlled temperature of 180̊ C was maintained and SAE 15W40 lubricating oil was used. It is found the chromium coating has proven to improve the friction behavior of the piston rings material; however, coating on both the mating parts (piston ring and cylinder) is not useful. Also, with an increase in frequency, the friction force decreases thereby decreasing the coefficient of friction and with an increase in load the friction force value increases.
Vipin Kumar Sharma, Vinayak Goel, Mudit Shukla

To Study the Effect of SLS Parameters for Dimensional Accuracy

Abstract
This paper examines the impact of various parameters on the shrinkage/accuracy of selective laser sintered (SLS) parts. The quality and practicality of a SLS parts only be enhanced by decreasing the shrinkage. To achieve the desired goal/quality in parts, a mathematical model is generated and presented. The generated model forecast the accuracy w.r.t. process parameters—laser power, layer thickness, hatch spacing, bed temperature, and orientation. Face-centered central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) is employed for analysis of dimensional accuracy. Dura form polyamide material is used for the generation of part, by vanguard HS machine of 3D systems.
Vishal Sharma, Sharanjit Singh

Residual Stresses Analysis on Thermal Barrier Coatings—NDT Tool for Condition Assessment

Abstract
Improvement in the engine efficiency follows reduction in fuel consumption which is possible by increasing the engine combustion temperature. Coating the piston of diesel engine with a high temperature-resistant material, known as thermal barrier coating, generally 6–8% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2, is a popular method to reduce the temperature it experiences in service and to increase engine efficiency. Whether bare or coated component, fabrication and different thermal expansion coefficients of the ceramic coating and piston metal cause generation of residual stresses in them. These hidden residual stresses (tensile or compressive) play a significant role in governing the failure mechanism of the different sections of the components and their important role (also developed in service) is mostly neglected in engineering practices. Residual stresses analysis of components in service may throw light on the condition of the components without destroying them. In this work, portable X-ray residual stress analyzer was used to evaluate the condition of Al–Si alloys piston flat plates that were coated with 250-µm-thick 6–8% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 and subjected to thermal treatments. The analysis revealed (a) residual stress-free pattern for uncoated Al–Si substrate, (b) compressive residual stress at the substrate (Al–Si)–coating (TBC) interface and (c) tensile residual stress at the substrate (Al–Si)–coating (TBC) interface of a thermal shocked coated substrate. The analysis method exhibited good possibility for using this as a tool for non-destructive testing for predicting the onset of failure at the coating substrate interface, without destroying the component in service.
V. R. Reghu, Souvik Ghosh, Akhil Prabhu, V. Shankar, Parvati Ramaswamy

Wettability Analysis of Polyetheretherketone-Based Nanocomposites

Abstract
Bioactivity of implant’s surface depends largely upon surface energy of biomaterials. Surface energy is measured by the wettability or fluid contact angle. The surface energy and protein adsorption on surface of bioinert material can be enhanced by making composite with nanomaterials. PEEK is a biocompatible but bioinert thermoplastic polymer having mechanical properties close to human bone. But the lack of bioactivity hinders its regular use in orthopedic and other implants. The reinforcement of PEEK with nano hdroxyapetite and multiwall carbon tube has potential to make the hydrophilic and bioactive nanocomposite. It is observed that PEEK–MWCNT samples’ water contact angle decreased by 24.52% at 3% MWCNT composition by weight. While the water contact angle of PEEK–nHA samples keep on decreasing with increasing composition and reached to 41.13° (± 1.99) at 35% nHA composition by weight, observed the 38.77% decrement. PEEK became more hydrophilic by making the composite with nanoparticles of hydroxyapetite.
Manjeet Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Sandeep Kumar

Developments in Metallic Biomaterials and Surface Coatings for Various Biomedical Applications

Abstract
Metallic materials serve a great deal in biomedical applications due to specific desired properties mimicking to human anatomy in terms of hard tissues. Of these materials titanium-based alloys are the most preferred materials in orthopaedics and dentistry due to resemblance in mechanical behaviour of these materials to human bones and dentistry. But, these materials lack in certain characteristic properties, which makes them unable to be bioactive in nature. For this, metallic biomaterials are treated to inculcate various functional properties in them. Most common of these techniques is by surface coating using bioactive materials like hydroxyapatite (HAp). Alone HAp as well as HAp-based composite coatings find significant application in improving biomedical properties of metallic materials. This paper provides an in-depth review of various developments in applications of various conventional as well as newer metallic biomaterials and discusses techniques to improve properties of these biomaterials for number of biomedical applications.
Gurmohan Singh, Abhineet Saini

Effects of Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process Parameters on Dilution in Hardfacing of Mild Steel Using Factorial Design

Abstract
Surface properties of a metallic component, specifically wear-resistant characteristics are enhanced through hardfacing that employs deposition of explicitly designed alloy by means of surface welding. In the present study, dilution was measured in hardfacing using shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) with the help of full factorial design to investigate the effect of welding parameters on dilution. Bead on plate-type specimens was prepared for the measurement of dilution. Two multiple performance characteristics considered were dilution and wear rate. The dilution levels were analyzed with the help of two-level factorial design considering current (150 and 170 amp), buffer layer (with and without), and hardfacing layers (1 and 3) as process parameters. Further, wear rate of hardfaced samples were also calculated using pin on disk machine with the variation in hardfacing layers and buffer layer. The minimum wear rate is observed in sample prepared with three hardfacing layers along with buffer electrode.
Mandeep Singh, Loveleen Kumar Bhagi, Hitesh Arora

Some Investigations on the Tensile Strength of Additively Manufactured Polylactic Acid Components

Abstract
Rapid prototyping technology (RPT) is a new class of manufacturing process in which part is being made with layer-by-layer deposition of the work material. In this work, an effort has been made to study the tensile strength of polylactic acid (PLA)-based fused filament fabricated parts under the response of different input parameters (such as built orientation, head speed, and layer thickness). The experimentation has been conducted as per Taguchi L9 orthogonal array and a total of 9 × 3 samples have been prepared by using an open-source fused filament fabrication (FFF) setup. Finally, the obtained data were investigated, statistically, in order to find out the significance of selected process variables on tested samples. It has been observed that the build orientation has significantly influenced the obtained tensile strength of the PLA parts at 95% confidence level. Whereas the process parameters, such as layer thickness and head scan speed, have remained un-influencing and it was observed from the Taguchi analysis that the orientation has a major effect on the strength of specimen printed by PLA analysis. Whereas head speed and layer thickness had a least impact.
Kamalpreet Sandhu, Jatinder Pal Singh, Sunpreet Singh

Experimental Investigation and Parametric Optimization of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining for Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Using Response Surface Methodology

Abstract
In the current research, the process parameters of the WEDM process have been optimized for the machining and precise cutting of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with a biomedical reaction surface process. The experiments were performed according to response surface methodology. The effect on product extraction speed and surface roughness using the reaction surface technique has been explored by system parameters such as peak current, pulse on, pulse off, and wire feed. It was found that the output response characteristics at 95% confidence level are significantly influenced by such parameters.
Sandeep Malik, Vineet Singla

Effect of Process Parameters on Volume and Geometrical Features of Electric Discharge Machined Channels on a Cast AA6061-B4C Composite

Abstract
The effect of various input EDM parameters on the volume and dimensional features of channels produced on AA6061-4%B4C composites was studied. The composite material specimens were prepared by liquid melt stirring process. The sinker EDM was used to machine the channels on these composites. Taguchi L-9 (Design of Experiments) was used to plan the EDM experimentation. The ‘I’ (discharge current), ‘T-on’ (pulse-on time), and ‘T-off’ (pulse-off time) were considered as input conditions. Each of these input parameters was varied at three levels. The volume of the channel obtained after EDM was estimated by developing the CAD-based geometric model. In addition to volume, various geometrical features such as taper, overcut, and the difference in depth at the entrance and exit of each channel were considered as output responses. The regression analysis and the ANOVA were performed for all responses. A set of optimum EDM input parameter levels were identified for a maximum of volume and minimum of taper, overcut, and the difference in depth values. Results showed that the volume was found to be maximum at higher ‘I’ and lower ‘T-on’ conditions. It was observed that there is a considerable difference in the taper and overcut values in the entrance and exit portions for the same channel. Both the ‘I’ and the ‘T-on’ were found to be the influencing parameters with decreasing order of their percentage contribution affecting all the output responses. The reasons were discussed in detail for all the conclusions arrived in the present work.
Suresh Gudipudi, Selvaraj Nagamuthu, Taraka Sarath Chandra Dongari, Kanmani Subbu Subbian, Surya Prakasa Rao Chilakalapalli

Characterization of Plasma Sprayed 87%Al2O3–13%TiO2 and 88%WC–12%Co Coatings on ASTM A36 Steel

Abstract
Plasma spray technique is utilized to cover the Induced Draft (ID) fans with 88%WC–12%Co (wt%) powder and 87%Al2O3–13%TiO2 (wt%) powder. The material of ID fan was ASTM A36 steel (IS2062) grade. The main focus of recent study was to investigate the influence of nature and characteristics (mainly hardness, coating thickness, bond strength, and porosity). Two coating powders with dissimilar particle size and their distribution, shape, and density were sprayed by similar parameters of plasma spraying conditions. The morphology of both the coatings was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy, which exhibits the sub-micro and micro-sized structure, with same thickness and porosity. Very intense and consistent was obtained and the variation in precursor size does not affect the coating structure.
Varun Panwar, Vikas Chawla, Neel Kanth Grover

Influence of 3D Printing Technology on Biomedical Applications: A Study on Surgical Planning, Procedures, and Training

Abstract
The adaptation of advanced technologies in the medical sector has tremendously enhanced the surgical and treatment procedures. Advance manufacturing technology like 3D printing is influencing the pre-operative surgical planning procedures. Moreover, the technology is being used to print complex anatomical models for medical training purposes. Surgical assistive devices and medical equipment are also being fabricated using this technology. However, the adaptation of this technology by the healthcare sector in developing countries is still a challenge. Partially due to lack of awareness regarding the potential of the technology and partially due to the increased surgical cost associated with it. Therefore, it is crucial to demonstrate the prospects of this technology in the biomedical area. In this regard, an attempt has been made to exhibit the application of 3D printing technology in the area of surgical planning, medical training, and customized surgical devices. The present paper outlines the process flow for 3D printing of biomedical models from medical images. Moreover, the paper also presents the case studies for the utilization of 3D printing technology in pre-operative surgical planning of tibial plateau fracture, fabrication of artificial temporal bone for mock surgery and educational purpose, and for the fabrication of the orthodontic drill guides.
Vishal Francis, Piyush Ukey, Ankit Nayak, Mohammad Taufik, Prashant K. Jain, Sushil H. Mankar, Sushant S. Srivastava

Validation and Multi-response Optimization of Topological and Geometrical Parameters of Stainless Steel Cantilever Beam with Finite Element Analysis Subjected to Point Load Using Taguchi L9 Orthogonal Array Integrated with Utility Methodology

Abstract
Cantilever structural element is a standout amongst the most imperative structures in designing applications. An endeavour has been made to provide a comprehensive advanced feasible or best ergonomic design response for the size of cantilever strut. In this examination, improvement of cantilever pillar or strut has been done. Examinations were planned utilizing Taguchi’s L9 symmetrical cluster-based array. Thinking about various structural defined geometrical parameters, a well known numerical approach, i.e. finite element investigation of cantilever pillar is analyzed for internal resisting force and bending phenomenon. These outcomes are examined utilizing Taguchi strategy and Utility idea. In this manner, the best ergonomic feasible and optimize bar is additionally approved with numeric finite element approach-based examinations’ results and is observed to be in nearer co-ordinate. The business mercantile bundles utilized are MINITAB 15.0 version. The result shows that altitude or depth has the most noteworthy impact on internal deformed force whereas length has the slightest impact. An ideal amalgamation of control factors for optimum internal deformed force is observed as (B′-2D′-3L′2). For buckling/deflection force, the result shows that span length mostly influences the deflection whilst the breadth/width has a minimum impact on buckling/deflection. Ideal amalgamation or combinations of hegemonize/control factors for optimum buckling was observed as (B'-3D'-2L'1). Multi-objective response function for instantaneous optimization resulted in an ideal combination of control factors for both internal resisting force and buckling was observed as (B'-3D'-2L'1).
Shubham Sharma, Shalab Sharma, J. Singh, Gursharan Singh, Abhinav Sharma, Vivek Agarwal, Munish Mehta, S. K. Mahla, Gurpreet Singh

Micro-Feature Fabrication on External Cylindrical Surface by Centreless Electric Discharge Grinding

Abstract
No research initiative is identified concerning to the development of EDG as feature fabrication technique along curved surfaces using disc electrode. Challenges for micro-features fabrication along external cylindrical surfaces of thin fragile parts still remain unaddressed. The current research was carried out on innovative EDM setup using newly developed centreless grinding attachment with run out accuracy of less than 0.008 mm, to make precise controlled grooving pattern on Inconel 600 tubular part using thin graphite disc wheels. Among the various process controlling variables, peak current and open gap voltage were selected for present study to investigate their effect on MRR, surface roughness and run out accuracy. Peak current and open gap voltage significantly influence MRR and surface roughness. It was found that run out accuracy is not a function of electrical parameters and depends on running accuracy of supporting and driving arrangement. Increase of peak current significantly increases MRR and surface roughness whereas both the responses have inverse effect for increase of gap voltage. Rotationally symmetric feature fabrication by hybrid centreless electric discharge texturing by grinding does not affect run out accuracies of the component.
M. S. Shekhawat, H. S. Mali, A. P. S. Rathore

Feasibility Study on Machining of Niobium to Achieve Nanometric Surface Finish

Abstract
Niobium has good superconducting properties at cryogenic temperature, due to which it is used for making superconducting radio frequency cavities of particle accelerators, superconducting magnets of MRI scanners, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer equipments. Having high hardness value, niobium is considered to be difficult to machine material. Hence, machining with the optimal cutting parameters becomes a necessity. The focus of this experimental work is to investigate the machining of niobium material by employing a cubic boron nitride tool to obtain a good surface quality. Taguchi methodology have been uses to find the  optimum value of machining parameters, i.e., feed rate, spindle speed, and depth of cut. From the results, the effects of input parameters are studied, and with the help of optimized parameters the surface roughness of  107 nm and surface waviness of 0.55 µm is achieved.
Harsh Sanmotra, Vinod Mishra, Sukhdev Gangwar, Gagandeep Singh, Rajbir Singh, Harry Garg, Vinod Karar

Parametric Optimization Based on Mechanical Characterization of Fused Deposition Modelling Fabricated Part Using Utility Concept

Abstract
Fused deposition modelling is a swiftly budding RP technology because of its facility to manufacture serviceable parts with multifaceted geometrical forms in equitable time without the help of any tooling or human interface. The characteristics and functionality of FDM fabricated parts exhibit high dependence on a few processing parameters and their level of settings. The present study determines the relationship between five substantial processing constrictions, i.e. raster angle, layer thickness, air gap, orientation and raster width, and how they affect compressive strength, tensile strength, impact strength and flexural strength of the fabricated part. Twenty-seven experiments have been piloted using Taguchi’s design and optimized using Utility concept. Finally, the confirmation test was done for the validation of the obtained results.
Dilip Kumar Bagal, Abhishek Barua, Ajit Kumar Pattanaik, Siddharth Jeet, Dulu Patnaik

Recharging Aquifers Through Percolation and Filtration: An Integrated Approach

Abstract
This paper presents a study on surface runoff water harvesting and modification of the same, devising a percolation cum filtration tank to simultaneously recharge groundwater as well as provide quality water for immediate usage. A detailed study of rainfall behaviour and statistics was done over a particular catchment in Amity University to obtain harvesting potential and subsequently design sedimentation and filtration units, respectively. With an additional filtration through laboratory prepared graphene oxide sand composite, the quality of filtered water is highly enhanced. Economic and easy synthesis of graphene oxide sand composite to easily provide this filter solution.
Punj Lata Singh, Paritosh Rawat, Amit Maurya
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