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About this book

This book presents the select proceedings of the International Conference on Functional Material, Manufacturing and Performances (ICFMMP) 2019. The book provides the state-of-the-art research, development, and commercial prospective of recent advances in materials science and engineering. The contents cover various synthesis and fabrication routes of functional and smart materials for applications in mechanical engineering, manufacturing, metrology, nanotechnology, physics, chemical and biological sciences, civil engineering, food science among others. It also provides the evolutionary behavior of materials science for industrial applications. This book will be a useful resource for researchers as well as professionals interested in the highly interdisciplinary field of materials science.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

A Brief Study on the Heterogeneity of the P91 Welded Joint

Abstract
The gradient microstructure occurs along with the P91 steel pipe welds joint which has been characterized in detail. The welding thermal cycle results in variation in mechanical behavior along the welded joint that leads the degradation in the mechanical performance of the welded joint at elevated service temperature in power plants. The gas tungsten arc welded (GTAW) joint has been subjected to as-welded and heat treatment conditions to study the role of heterogeneity on microstructure across the welded joint and the mechanical properties. The P91 welded joints have been subjected to tempering at 760 °C for 2 h (HT1) and post-weld normalizing and tempering (HT2). The precipitation hardening, quenching stress in welded joint and martensite softening are mainly associated with heat treatment. A negligible variation in hardness and microstructure has been observed across the welded joint for HT2 treatment.
Sachin Sirohi, Chandan Pandey, Amit Goyal

Recent Innovation on Synthesis Methods of Graphene-Based Composites

Abstract
Graphene has been considered as one of the best carbon-based nanofillers for different composites. Recently, the use of graphene as nanofillers has been studied intensively, and several researchers start developing graphene-based composites. Inclusion of graphene in a small quantity in the given matrix can create composites with remarkable functional properties. It is very important to understand various synthesis routes of graphene-based composites because the synthesis route affects the dispersion of the graphene in a matrix material. Despite the exceptional potential of graphene, homogeneous dispersion in a matrix remains the key challenge. In this article, different synthesis methods of graphene-based composites have been explored and made a discussion on different preparation routes of graphene-based composites. Present study provides several insights into preparation methods to researchers and practitioners of graphene-based composites.
Ravi Kumar, Rajeev Rathi, Sumit Sharma

Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Multiwall Carbon Nanotube-Based Nanocomposites

Abstract
In the present study, reinforcement of treated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the carbon fiber matrix was done. MWCNTs are mixed into epoxy resin in different weight ratio (0.0, 0.2, and 0.5 wt% of weight of resin). By varying the percentage of MWCNTs into the epoxy resin, different sheets are prepared by applying the resin to carbon fiber sheets. Mechanical properties are tested as per the ASTM Standards. From the results, it was found that composite with 0.5 wt% of treated MWCNTs produced better mechanical strength among all the other samples because of the uniform dispersion of treated MWCNTs in the epoxy as compared to non-treated MWCNTs.
Sumit Mahajan, Lochan Sharma, Mandeep Singh Rayat, Ranjit Singh

Mechanical Characterization of 60Pb40Sn Reinforced Al6061 Self-healing Composite

Abstract
The present study concentrates on the mechanical characterization of Al6061 self-healing metal matrix reinforced with low-melting points composite. It has been prepared by reinforcing low-melting point alloy in aluminum matrix. The self-healing characteristic has been obtained due to the presence of solder alloy. The developed material has been characterized using SEM and micrograph. The mechanical characteristics of the developed material have been determined experimentally by performing the tensile and Charpy tests. The comparison between self-healing composite with pure matrix material has been developed. And experimental assessment results show a reduction in tensile force as well as stress by 30%. Reduction by 50% in other properties like braking distance and strain in fabricated self-healing matrix. Similarly, in the case of the Charpy test, it reduces by 39% for self-healing samples as compared to pure aluminum sample.
Nitin Kumar Gupta, Manoj Kumar, G. D. Thakre

A Brief Overview of Crystal Plasticity Approach for Computational Materials Modeling

Abstract
This article presents an overview of crystal plasticity (CP)-based modeling and simulation. A typical CP approach includes the kinematics and constitutive laws to determine the mechanical response of polycrystalline materials. Constitutive laws can be phenomenological or microstructure-based. The latter allows incorporating different deformation mechanisms responsible for deforming the material plastically. For solving the equilibrium and compatibility equations, the types of numerical solvers used are also discussed. For modeling the inhomogeneity in the polycrystalline and multiphase material systems, homogenization techniques are used in CP for the flow of information from single crystal to polycrystalline scale.
Lakhwinder Singh, Sanjay Vohra, Manu Sharma

Evaluation of Creep and Compressive Behavior of MWCNTs Reinforced Polyurethane Composites

Abstract
Polyurethane (PU) has a great potential of use in various low-load-bearing applications. Reinforcing PU with mechanical strong material like MWCNTs can be very useful for improving the mechanical behavior of PU. In this contrast, the present study has been undertaken to evaluate the mechanical behavior of MWCNTs reinforced PU by varying the concentration of MWCNTs. Creep test shows that the presence of MWCNTs into PU matrix results in a reduction in creep strain. A significant reduction of 82% in creep strain of 7 wt% MWCNT composite has been observed in comparison with pure PU. The behavior of MWCNTs reinforced PU composite under compressive load has been evaluated within its elastic limit, and it has been observed that compressive modulus has been increased with the influence of increasing MWCNTs. Significant enhancement of 70% has been observed in the compressive modulus of PU/MWCNT composite with a higher composition of MWCNTs (10 wt%). Uniform dispersion of MWCNTs into PU matrix and their adhesion with PU molecules are the suggested reasons for significant improvement in mechanical properties.
Dinesh Kumar, Prashant Jindal

Influence of Particle Morphologies of Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite Nanopowders on Controlled Delivery of Vancomycin Drug

Abstract
Mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanopowders (NPs) with distinct particle morphologies of nanorods (HAP-NR) and hierarchically nanostructured microspheres (HAP-MS) were synthesized. HAP was a major phase in both products. Crystals were nanodimensional and exposed to tensile strain. HAP-NR was more crystalline than HAP-MS NP. Particles of HAP-NR and HAP-MS NPs were nanorod-like (aspect ratio of five to six) and hierarchically nanostructured microspheres in shape, respectively. Average particle size was 88 ± 30 nm (along c-axis) for HAP-NR and 1.5–2 µm for HAP-MS NP. EDX results were in agreement with XRD phase analysis. Specific surface areas of HAP-NR and HAP-MS NPs were 15 m2 g−1 and 22 m2 g1, respectively. HAP-MS NP was more porous than HAP-NR and, therefore, exhibited 45% higher vancomycin loading efficiency than HAP-NR NP. In addition, drug-releasing rate of HAP-MS NP was more than HAP-NR in simulated conditions.
Ravinder Pal Singh, Jagdeep Singh

Critical Review on Corrosive Properties of Metals and Polymers in Oil and Gas Pipelines

Abstract
In most of the industries, it is observed that the pipes used in boilers or in transportation of oils, gases, steam, water, etc., are generally made up of different alloys of steel. Although pipes made up of steel alloys offer numerous advantages, it also comprises of severe limitations. One of the major limitations is that they generally get corroded with time and are heavier and costly. Moreover, the metal pipes generally undergo phase transformation with the variation in temperature, which affects the life span of pipes. Therefore, there is a need to overcome these limitations by using suitable material which can be cost-effective, provide superior properties than metals, and ensure higher life. Pipes made up of fiber-reinforced composites provide superior specific strength and stiffness and offer high resistance to corrosion and erosion. This article presents an intensive review on the various polymers used in the manufacturing of oil and gas carrying pipes. This article also addresses the benefits and the challenges encountered during the manufacturing of polymer-based pipes. But there exist a wide range of polymer and composite-based materials that are yet to be tested and can be a boon to the piping industries in the coming decades thus overcoming the limitations encountered by alloy-based steels and increasing the life span of pipes.
Kanishka Jha, Dilip Dhakad, Baljeet Singh

Synthesis and Characterization of Aluminum Composite Reinforced by Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

Abstract
This research focuses on the characterization of Al-CNTs composites synthesized by mechanical stir casting process. In the sight of Al-CNT composites, researchers have surveyed and opted many approaches for synthesis of Al-CNT composites. Some investigators have effectively fabricated Al-CNT composites, but they have met a common problem of agglomeration of CNTs in the Al matrix. In this study, we are mixing (>99% purity) MWCNTs in the aluminum matrix (Al-7075t651) in different ratio with weight percent. Stirrer with four blades has been used to promote the homogeneity of CNTs in Al matrix. Dimensions of MWCNTs were diameter 10–12 nm and length 4–8 μm. With the addition of 0.1 wt% CNTs and 0.15 wt% CNTs in Al matrix, the tensile strength at peak was approximately increased by 11 and 27%, whereas with the addition of 0.2 wt% CNT, tensile strength at peak was decreased by 7% as compared to 0 wt% CNT in Al matrix. Addition of CNTs up to 0.15 wt% in Al matrix has shown increase in the hardness while further addition of CNTs beyond 0.15 wt% resulted in decrease in hardness.
Sunil Kumar Tiwari, Harsh Sharma, Akula Umamaheswararao, Sumit Sharma

Effect of TiC Reinforcement in the Copper Tool on Roundness During EDM Process

Abstract
In the present work, a copper (Cu) tool, reinforced with titanium carbide (TiC) particles, synthesized using powder metallurgy, is used to machine EN31 die steel using EDM machining. Various parameters were selected as process parameters to study tool shape as response. RSM was used to design the experiments and 52 experiments performed. The shape of tool was studied in terms of roundness of tool. Change in roundness of tool was analysed by analysis of variance and regression. Results revealed current and pulse on/off most significant parameters. Roundness value rose with increase in discharge current. On the other hand, it fell with rise in time of pulse on/off. Profile of tool and shape of tool were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Comparison of Cu-TiC with Cu tooltip was performed to understand the effect cermet tooltip. The comparison of results showed that Cu–TiC tool was reduced out of roundness by 25%.
Arminder Singh Walia, Vineet Srivastava, Vivek Jain, Suneev Anil Bansal

Mechanical and Microstructural Characterization of Magnesium/Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Composites Fabricated via Friction Stir Processing

Abstract
The need for new generation high-performance lightweight materials for automotive and aerospace applications has gripped manufacturers and engineers around the world to enhance the strength-to-weight ratio and fuel efficiency of the vehicles, thus improving the economics of mass production and novel product development processes. Metal matrix reinforced with nanoparticles has tremendously risen in the strength of the composite material by effectively carrying out load transfer between reinforcement and parent matrix metal. In this research work, magnesium and various volume percentage of multi-walled carbon nanotubes were fabricated via friction stir processing (FSP) and the significant influence of addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes into pure magnesium was examined. The microstructural features, mechanical behaviours such as tensile strength, were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has confirmed the presence of parent phases of materials without any reactive phases. The optimum increase in the tensile strength of the composite material was obtained to be 203% more than that of cast pure magnesium at 20 vol.% MWCNT reinforcement.
Mayank Mishra, Chander Prakash, Rajashekhara Shabadi, Subhash Singh

Influence of Surface Treatment and Molding Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Jute/PLA-Based Green Composites

Abstract
In the present study, the main focus is to increase the interfacial bonding between jute fiber with polylactic acid (PLA) with the help of surface modifications of jute fiber using alkali, potassium permanganate, and potassium dichromate treatments. FTIR spectroscopy result confirms the removal of hemicellulose layer which results in an increase in adhesion of jute fiber with polylactic acid. Jute/PLA composites are prepared using hot compression molding process using treated jute fibers and PLA matrix. This study also exposes the effect on the mechanical properties of developed composites of molding temperatures ranging from 160 to 180 °C. Alkali treatments resulted in an increase of 56.1% and 51%, respectively, in the tensile and flexural strength of jute/PLA composites It is so observed that for alkali-treated jute/PLA composite with 170 °C molding temperature, maximum tensile and flexural strength were recorded.
Jaiinder Preet Singh, Sehijpal Singh, Vikas Dhawan, Gurjot S. Dhaliwal, Piyush Gulati, Rajeev Kumar, Manpreet Singh

Effect of Nanoclay in Unidirectional Carbon–Epoxy Laminated Composites

Abstract
Carbon fiber composites are highly demanded in aerospace structure due to their elevated strength but less weight in comparison to the metals and alloys. The main aim is to study the consequence of nanoclay in carbon–epoxy composite by examining the mechanical properties. The compression molding technique was used to prepare the laminates of composite. The specimens were prepared from the epoxy as a matrix and carbon fiber as reinforcing material which were oriented at [0°/45°/90°]. The tensile strength and bending strength were analyzed for the specimens, both numerically and analytically. The nanoclay was mixed with different wt% with carbon fiber laminates so as to improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The strength of the composite was improved by 25–30% when nanoclay with 3 wt% is added to carbon–epoxy laminates as compared to the strength of composite without nanoclay.
Vishaldeep Singh, Manjeet Singh, J. S. Saini, Rohit Badhwar, Akash Gupta, Nitin Chauhan

Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 7075-T651 Processed by Friction Stir Processing

Abstract
Aluminum-based alloys are broadly utilized in the automobile and aerospace industry due to its lightweight, excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, good machinability, and superior resistance to corrosion. In this experimental study, several tests have been carried out for obtaining the overall mechanical properties before and after friction stir processing (FSP) through suitable processing parameters: tool speed, feed rate, and tool tilt angle with overlapping ratio. Some mechanical properties have been reduced while the ductility of the FS processed alloy has been improved caused by fine grain refinement in the stir zone. It is also clearly shown from the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results that the grain refinement of average grain size 4.5 µm has been obtained which is responsible for increasing the ductility and also various intermetallic particles were homogeneously distributed into the matrix.
Ravi Kumar, Md. Manzar Iqbal, Subhash Singh, Kaushik Pal

Pre- and Post-treatment Characterization of Petrol Contaminated Soil

Abstract
The demand and use of petroleum products are increasing nowadays and giving rise to the problem of soil pollution. The physical, chemical and biological properties of soil are affected critically in such a way that soil becomes inefficient in supporting the growth and development plant and microbial communities. There is need to treat these polluted soils for its reclamation. In this paper, an approach to bioremediation of petrol contaminated soil has been discussed. The Candida albicans mediated degradation of the functional groups of petrol was analyzed by FTIR. FTIR analysis revealed the breakdown of many bond-like carbonyl (1670–1820 cm−1), alkene C=C (1620–1680 cm−1), –C–H (2850–3000 cm−1), =C–H (2820–2850 cm−1), and NH (3300–3500 cm−1). The pH of petrol contaminate soil was found to be in the basic range, i.e. 8.8 and has high conductivity. Further research on the remediating microbes and their remediation potential is required for restoring the soil quality and plant growth.
Shweta Kulshreshtha, Suchita Atreya, Sudhanshu Singh, Nitesh Singh Rajput

Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of AA6061 Aluminium Alloy Reinforced with Nano-SiC Particles Using FSP

Abstract
Friction stir processing has incredible potential in the field of thermo-mechanical processing of different alloys particularly the aluminium alloys. In the ongoing years, FSP to manufacture aluminium composites has been examined around the world. With developing significance of condition amicable and low-outflow transportation vehicles, the need to utilize the more grounded high strength low weight alloys has expanded altogether. For fulfilling this purpose a small percentage of particulates need to be added in aluminium or its alloys. Addition of these particulates not only improves the microstructure of the aluminium but also modifies its mechanical properties like ultimate strength, tensile strength and yield strength. In present work, the effect of the addition of SiC nanoparticles on mechanical and metallurgical properties of friction stir processed AA6061 aluminium alloy has been studied. It has been learnt from the results that reinforced particles play a vital role in improving the mechanical and metallurgical properties of the base metal. The recrystallized grain structure was seen in the FSPed zone. The microhardness of friction stir prepared plates was dissected utilizing a Vickers hardness analyzer. SiC-reinforced Al compound surface composite came about higher microhardness. Tensile properties of as processed and heat-treated surface composites have also been evaluated. Post-processing heat treatment at 350 °C for 1 h has also been performed to ascertain its effect on microstructural and mechanical properties.
Amardeep Singh Kang, Chander Prakash, Jasvinder Singh, Alokesh Pramanik

Segregation and Recycling of Plastic Solid Waste: A Review

Abstract
In today’s world, the management of plastic waste is the biggest environmental challenge. Increased production of plastic solid waste (PSW) materials like high-density polyethylene (HDPE), nylon, Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polycarbonate (PC), etc., are creating new challenges to researchers and also encouraging new areas of research. Landfilling of PSW is one of the ancient methods of managing the plastic waste but it produces methane gas which causes global warming. So, recycling is the only way to reduce the PSW. This paper explains various separation and recycling techniques for PSW along with different techniques of additive manufacturing (AM) that can accommodate these waste materials to some extent.
Kapil Chawla, Rupinder Singh, Jaspreet Singh

Vibration Response of Metal-Ceramic Based Functionally Graded Plate Using Navier Solution

Abstract
In this paper, the vibrational response of the functionally graded plate has been carried out using non-polynomial based algebraic shear deformation theory. Hamilton’s variational principle has been used in deriving the governing equations. The Navier solution technique has been employed to solve the governing equation in conjunction with boundary conditions which are simply supported. In addition to these, the power-law governing equations have been considered for calculating the effective material properties of FGM and its mechanical properties are considered to be changing in the direction of thickness. The non-dimensional frequency has been evaluated for several vibrating modes of functionally graded thin and thick plates. The frequency parameter has also been evaluated for different aspect ratios and thickness ratios.
Yogesh Kumar, Dheer Singh, Ankit Gupta

Influence of the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Graphene in Magnesium Matrix Fabricated by Friction Stir Processing

Abstract
The aim of the present research work is to find out the influence of uniform dispersion of different volume percentages of graphene nanoparticles into magnesium matrix, fabricated by friction stir processing (FSP). These composites can be used in various applications, particularly in electrical, automobile and aerospace industries due to its lightweight and good electrical and mechanical properties. The friction processed surface of pure magnesium and composites were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD). Mechanical properties such as tensile test of the friction stir processed (FSPed) composites were performed in universal testing machine and the specimen was prepared according to standard dimension by wire EDM. The initial properties of the material were compared to the FSPed pure magnesium matrix composites. The role of various volume percentages of reinforcement by FSP resulted in grain refinements as well as improved the mechanical properties of the FSPed composite.
Nazish Alam, Md. Manzar Iqbal, Chander Prakash, Subhash Singh, Animesh Basak

Strength Properties of M40 Concrete with Rice Husk Ash as Partial Replacement of Cement

Abstract
Strong material is key factor in measuring strength of a structure. For strong structure, strength of material used should be high enough. If the concrete is basically a condition and eco-friendly makes it more sustainable. That is the better idea to make the structure eco-friendly, and also the use of material is less. The purpose of the study is to expedite the improvement of infrastructure with help of high-strength concrete. The study has one of the major advantages that we can use the waste material produced during farming in the improvement of strength of material and in the construction part of mega structures. Research has indicated that concrete consisting rice husk ash as some percentage of cement weight has improved the performance of concrete. RHA contains 19–21% ash content with respect to weight of rice husk.
Jaspreet Singh, Vishal kumar, Harkamal Singh, Amar Singh

Influence of Graphene on Mechanical Behavior of EVA Composite at Low Strain Rate Loading

Abstract
The present study is aimed to examine the mechanical behavior of graphene reinforced EVA composites at low strain rate loading under the influence of the varying composition of graphene. Composites of EVA-based graphene have been successfully prepared by using sigma mixing approach followed by Injection molding. Uniform dispersion of graphene in the EVA matrix has been validated by using FESEM technique. Tensile results show that the strength of the EVA/Graphene composite has been increased with the increase in the composition of graphene in the EVA matrix. In comparison to pure EVA, a significant improvement of 25% has been observed in the strength of EVA/Graphene composite with a minor composition of Graphene (5wt%). Effect of varying strain rates (0.001 s−1, 0.01 s−1, and 0.1 s−1) has also been studied and it has been noticed that the strength of EVA/Graphene composite material has been increased with the increase in strain rate. Young’s modulus of EVA/Graphene composite with 7–10 wt% of graphene has been increased in the range of 21–27% in comparison to pure EVA. Uniform dispersion of Graphene and their adhesion with EVA matrix are the suggested reason for significant improvement in mechanical properties of EVA-based composite material. The present study could be beneficial for various low load-bearing applications of EVA-based composite materials.
Kanwer Ajit Singh, Dinesh Kumar, Prashant Jindal

Development and Electrical Properties of Titanium Dioxide-Based Polymer Nanocomposite Structures

Abstract
In the present work, we have prepared polymeric nanocomposites of various weight levels of polymer along with metal oxide. Further, the crystallographic and basic examinations were finished. In continuation, after the anode development of the readied tests, the electrical measurement  were performed. This test work has demonstrated the better outcomes in all space, viz. structural  and electrical properties, which will make it appropriate for different electrical and mechanical applications. The best instances of such arranged structures are supercapacitor, high energy storing devices, and multi-layered capacitors etc.
Sudhanshu Singh, Nitesh Singh Rajput, Deepshikha Rathore, Umesh Kumar Dwivedi

Investigation of Structural and Electronic Properties of BaX (X = S, Se, and Te): A DFT Study

Abstract
The current paper is about the properties of barium chalcogenides compounds, using the first-principle total energy calculations within linear combination of atomic orbital method. The work is basically built up using density functional theory with the coordination of CRYSTAL coding. Becke and PBE scheme was used as the exchange-correlation potential for constructing Kohn–Sham Hamiltonian. Several structural and electronic properties, such as lattice constant (a), bulk modulus (B0) and bandgap (Eg), have been studied. All the results obtained were found to be in good agreement with the earlier works.
Agnibha Das Majumdar, Neha Munjal, Uma Kamboj, Karan Dogra
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