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About this book

This book presents select peer-reviewed proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering (ICAME 2020). The contents cover latest research in several areas such as advanced energy sources, automation, mechatronics and robotics, automobiles, biomedical engineering, CAD/CAM, CFD, advanced engineering materials, mechanical design, heat and mass transfer, manufacturing and production processes, tribology and wear, surface engineering, ergonomics and human factors, artificial intelligence, and supply chain management. The book brings together advancements happening in the different domains of mechanical engineering, and hence, this will be useful for students and researchers working in mechanical engineering.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Dual Quaternion-Based Kinematic Modelling of Serial Manipulators

In this paper, a dual quaternion-based methodology for computing the forward and inverse kinematic models for a serial manipulator is presented. A dual quaternion-based forward kinematics model is developed for the Kuka LBR IIWA 7 R800 cobot. An inverse kinematics model is developed that uses dual quaternion differential kinematics and includes Jacobian transpose and damped least squares methods for determining Jacobian pseudo-inverse. Implementation of these methods on a given trajectory shows that, compared to damped least squares, the Jacobian transpose method is faster, but is less immune to singularity and gives more jerky motions.

Mohsin Dalvi, Shital S. Chiddarwar, Saumya Ranjan Sahoo, M. R. Rahul

Performance Analysis of Corrugated Inclined Basin Solar Distillation System Coupled with Parabolic Trough Collector

Several designs of solar distillation system have been built over the past century. However, the development of an economical system with high productivity is a major challenge. Various researchers worked to improve the productivity of solar distillation system by improving the rate of evaporation and/or the rate of vapor condensation. In the current work, the evaporation rate is enhanced by basin modification and using a secondary heating medium. An inclined corrugated basin solar still is designed and fabricated and coupled with a parabolic trough collector. Experimental study was carried at Nagpur (21.14° N, 79.0882° E) during the months of April and May, and results indicate 13.58% increase in the thermal efficiency. Further, CFD analysis is carried out by using RNG (k − ε) turbulence model in ANSYS Fluent. The CFD results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, thus validating the CFD model to carry out any modifications in the future.

Sandeep Joshi, Shubham Tagde, Aboli Pingle, Nikhil Bhave, Tushar Sathe

Mechanical Design of Omnidirectional Spherical Wall Traversing Robot

Since the past few decades, many mechanisms were developed for wall-climbing robots. Robotic systems having omnidirectional surface traversing ability independent of its inclination require complex morphology transformation for a floor to wall transition as well as perfect adhesion on the vertical surface. This paper depicts the development of the mechanical design of the robot producing upthrust due to coaxial antiparallel propeller mechanism to grip the vertical surfaces. To provide the omnidirectional capability, 2-DoF gimbal mechanism is used. Bi-propeller coaxial thruster situated inside the gimbal mechanism is controlled resembling its localization on the wall and also it helps the robot to adhere to the wall. The novel design of this robot is newly aimed and its motion is mathematically modeled.

Yogesh Phalak, Rajeshree Deotalu, Onkar, Sapan Agrawal

Fabrication and Performance Analysis of a Device to Transform Vibration Energy on an Automobile

In this article, a device design is described to convert vibration energy exerted on a vehicle during motion on different road conditions. This is achieved by converting the vibrational energy to electrical energy by utilizing Faraday’s law. Selection of mounting point is done by using first principle modelling approach for a two-wheeler vehicle as a spring-mass-damper system. Finally, the device is tested at different speeds and road surface conditions. It is concluded that the voltage induced is directly dependent on frequency and amplitude of vibrations.

Dheeraj H. Bonde, Nitin K. Panche, Hrishikesh S. Meshram, Vrushabh W. Dhongade, Atul V. Dharmik, Jayesh D. Parate, Mangesh G. Pardhi, Vinit S. Gupta

Robust Backstepping Controller for an Omniwheeled Mobile Robot with Uncertainties and External Disturbances

The application and implementation of portable mobile robots are increasing in industrial and warehouse environments. A robot that can efficiently maneuver in confined spaces is perfectly suited for such a task. One such variety is omniwheeled mobile robots. In the paper, we present the design of a robust control policy for the accurate trajectory tracking of four-wheeled mecanum mobile robot in the presence of external uncertainties and disturbances. In the beginning, the kinematical and the dynamical modeling of the mobile robot are performed. Afterwards, a robust control policy is designed and implemented. The efficacy of the proposed controller was tested on a reference trajectory. Simulation results prove that the proposed controller tracks trajectory with greater accuracy than other standard controllers.

Zeeshan Ul Islam, Saumya Ranjan Sahoo, Mohammad Saad, Uddesh Tople, Amrapali Khandare

Micro-mechanical Analyses of Particle Reinforced ex situ Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

Three-dimensional finite element simulations of mechanics of deformation and failure of ductile particle reinforced ex situ bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGCs) are carried out in the present work. Reinforcements in the form of spherical particles are introduced in a BMG matrix. Appropriate constitutive models are chosen for the ductile reinforcements and the BMG matrix, which are representative of the broad class of respective materials. Finite element simulations are carried out for uniaxial tension and compression loading of ex situ BMGCs having particle volume fraction of 50% using a unit cell method and a multi-particle full model. The underlying deformation and failure mechanism of particle reinforced ex situ BMGCs are elucidated. The results from multi-particle analyses and unit cell analysis are compared with experimental data and are found to be in good agreement with each other, thus, validating the unit cell modeling approach which is further applied for several parametric studies.

S. Gouripriya, Parag Tandaiya

Life Estimation of Circumferentially Notch Round Bars Using J Integral

Nuclear reactor’s structural components are subjected to high-temperature gradients at the time of shutdowns and start ups. These temperature gradients lead to loading conditions leading to low-cycle fatigue. Additionally, the presence of flaws, defects, and welds results in areas of stress concentration in the components. Therefore, the procedure of estimating the life of such components should consider the effects of stress concentration and temperature. In the present work, the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) life of specimens with circumferential notch is estimated when subjected to strain-controlled loading condition. Notched specimens mimic the multi-axial stress conditions which are results of defects present in the component and LCF conditions are at high temperature mimic the loading conditions due to temperature gradients. In order to study the effect of notches on the life of specimen, LCF were first conducted on plain or smooth specimens, i.e., specimens with notch and then on notched specimens at the same loading condition. The specimens were made of 316 LN austenitic stainless steel and the tests were done in strain control mode at room temperature and at 873 K. LCF loading conditions are conditions when stresses and strains are beyond the elastic limit, and hence, the elasto-plastic fracture mechanics approach was applied for life estimation using principles of fracture mechanics. In the present investigation for fatigue life, the J integral for the geometry is calculated to find out the root stress strain magnitude. The fatigue life is then estimated using the local strain-life method. The predicted life when compared with the experimental results was found to be within a factor of 1.2.

Richa Agrawal, Rashmi Uddanwadiker, Pramod M. Padole

Placement of Heated Blocks Under Forced Convection for Enhanced Heat Transfer

This paper presents numerical and experimental investigation on optimal placement of discrete heated blocks under forced convection. Flowing air velocities of 0.6–1.4 m/s have been used for cooling of heated blocks in a vertical channel. Three-dimensional laminar developing flows over-heated blocks, representing integrated circuit components for electronic cooling, have been studied using conjugate heat transfer. Experiments are conducted for FR4 and bakelite as substrate board materials having thermal conductivities of 0.3 and 1.4 W/m K to study the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics with effects of substrate thermal conductivity. Finite element-based software is used to solve the coupling between heat transfer in solids and fluid region. The air cooling of substrate boards mounted with heated blocks is modeled and simulated to present heat transport in combination with the fluid flow resulting from the forced air circulation at velocities 0.6–1.4 m/s at constant heat flux values of 1500, 2000, and 2500 W/m2. The optimal configuration that gives maximum heat dissipation is identified. Experiments indicate a deviation of under 5% with simulations.

Shankar Durgam, Shakkottai Venkateshan, Thirumalachari Sundararajan, Milankumar Nandgaonkar, Pravin D. Sawarkar, Aaryan Durgam

Analysis of Track Vibration for Metro Rail

Buildings located near surface Metro and surface trains are subjected to mechanical vibrations induced by their motion. High-precision instruments in laboratories nowadays are very much sensitive to external vibrations which affect their performance. It is thus imperative to measure amount of vibration and noise transmitted from the railway track to ground. In this paper, frequency content and amplitude of vibration levels are measured on the metro rail track. Track vibrations were measured at a point on track for three different positions of metro from that point, while it was in motion. Amplitude and frequency content were found when (a) train was some distance away from the point of observation, (b) train was passing above the point and (c) train had left the point by some distance. This experiment was carried out near Khapri metro station, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. These experimental results are studied and discussed in this paper. Further, these results can be compared with limits given by Federal Transit Administration (FTA) to ensure human comfort and safety of nearby structures.

Chaitanya V. Bhore, Atul B. Andhare, Pramod M. Padole, Mayur D. Korde

Localization of a Four-Wheeled Omnidirectional Mobile Robot Using Sensor Data: A Kalman Filter Approach

In this paper, a model-based method to estimate the position of an omnidirectional mobile is proposed using a Kalman filter. The state variables of a four-wheeled omnidirectional mobile robot are estimated and are used for a feedback loop for trajectory control of the robot. Due to noise in the sensor measurement, the signal cannot directly be used for feedback closed-loop control. The system control without filter mode is not favourable as it produces significant tracking error and leads to high fluctuation in control input. The proposed method is demonstrated using numerical simulations on an omnidirectional mobile platform. Results are presented for different measurement sets. Effects of measurement noise level, filter parameters and modelling error (process noise covariance) are also presented, and it is observed that the position parameter estimation is robust with respect to measurement noise.

Saumya Ranjan Sahoo, Shital S. Chiddarwar, Mohsin Dalvi, M. R. Rahul

Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Demands

Capacitated vehicle routing problem is extension of vehicle routing Problem where the purpose is to determine a set of routes to fulfil all the transportation requests with a given fleet of vehicles in such a way that the travelling cost comes out to be a minimum. In this paper, the demands of the customers will be very well known in advance, but they are known imprecisely. To deal with such kind of impreciseness, interval type-2 fuzzy number (IT2FN) can be used. Therefore, a capacitated vehicle routing problem with interval type-2 fuzzy number has been modelled. A procedure to solve the model has been introduced using Clark and Wright algorithm.

V. P. Singh, Kirti Sharma

Kinematic, Dynamic and Stiffness Analysis of an Asymmetric 2PRP-PPR Planar Parallel Manipulator

This paper presents an assessment of the comparison of three-degree-of-freedom 2PRP-PPR planar parallel robotic manipulator (x, y, $$\theta_{z}$$ θ z motion stage) with other standard planar parallel manipulators such as 3PPR U-base, 3PPR delta (Δ)-base and 3RRR in respect of static structural stiffness, optimal kinematic design and dynamic performances. Adams/View, a multibody dynamics software, has been utilized to analyze the kinematic and dynamic performance of the motion stage. Analysis of static stiffness has been performed and compared by the joint space Jacobian method along with the matrix structural analysis method. Also, static stiffness was verified through NASTRAN, a standard finite element software. The findings of numerical simulation conclude that the 3PPR U-base configuration and the proposed 2PRP-PPR manipulator possess a number of favorable optimum design characteristics such as good isotropy, better manipulability, better dynamic performances (power, energy), higher stiffness and singularity-free workspace as compared to other manipulators. Note: P and R refer to prismatic and revolute, respectively.

Deep Singh, Rutupurna Choudhury, Yogesh Singh

CFD Analysis for Heat Transfer Enhancement of Microchannels Heat Sink Using Nanofluid Flow in Case of Electronics Device

A CFD analysis is performed using nanofluids flow on a microchannels rectangular heat sink under uniform heat flux condition for forced convection cooling of electronic devices. In the present investigation, eight varying concentrations of Aluminum Oxide, Titanium Dioxide, Copper Oxide, Silicon Dioxide and Zinc Oxide nanoparticles, and EG20 (mixture of ethylene glycol 20% wt. and water), water as base fluids are considered. By considering the single-phase model, numerical computation is performed using ANSYS Fluent software. To examine the validity, results are compared with previous experimental and numerical research data. Further, different heat transfer parameters are presented and analyzed. From this analysis, it was noted that with the addition of nanoparticles there are sharp decrements in local thermal resistance and increment in local heat transfer coefficient compared to base fluid. There is a large improvement in heat transfer parameters is noticed in the case of CuO nanoparticles having a concentration of 1 and 4% in water base fluid.

Sushant Suresh Bhuvad, Arvind Kumar Patel, S. P. S. Rajput

Burr Registration and Trajectory Planning of 3D Workpiece Using Computer Vision

This paper proposes an effective way to identify the burr using image processing technique. The proposed method uses a simple mirror setup to capture 3D details of the burr. A set of image processing algorithm is used to calculate the dimensions of the burr. The burr dimensions are verified using the coordinate measuring machine. These details are then used to generate the trajectory for robot deburring. The deburring path generated is verified using ABB RobotStudio simulation software. The experimental result shows that the proposed approach provides an efficient method for robotic deburring.

M. R. Rahul, Rohini Y. Bhute, Shital S. Chiddarwar, Mohsin Dalvi, Saumya Ranjan Sahoo

In-situ Microwave-Assisted Casting of ASTM B23 Tin-Based Babbitt Alloy

Metal casting is one of the primary manufacturing processes used in industries. It is also one of the economical routes of producing components varying from simple to complex shapes. But conventional casting methods possess some drawbacks in terms of higher energy consumption, longer melting times, air pollution and higher defects. Microwave-Assisted Casting is one of the latest manufacturing technique which can overcome these drawbacks owing to its several advantages like time-saving, clean and environmentally friendly. This paper reports on in situ microwave-assisted die casting process of bush with Φ35 mm OD, Φ25 mm ID and 40 mm Length, using microwave furnace at 2.45 GHz and 1.4 kW and also conventional die casting process by using muffle furnace of 3.5 kW of ASTM B23 Tin-based Babbitt Alloy. It was found that microwave-assisted die casting process reports time-saving of 07 min and power-saving of 1.1 kW h as compared with the conventional die casting process. Further SEM images of microwave bush casting showed uniform grain distribution as compared to SEM images of conventional die-casted bush. It was found that microwave-assisted die-cast bush is having 1.4 times higher hardness as compared with that of conventional die-cast bush.

Sameer S. Gajmal, Dadarao N. Raut

Optimization of Heat Transfer Behavior of Industrial Refrigerants Through Different Cross-Section Microchannels

Microchannel heat exchanger, nowadays, has become an area of interest in all kinds of industries. It requires the removal of high heat flux by the means of cooling optimization. In this numerical investigation, different cross-section geometries have been simulated, as it is used in different industries. The depletion of the ozone layer is now raising concern for the environmentalists. According to the Montreal Protocol, CFCs were eliminated by January 1996 giving chance for fair use of HFCs by the end of 2020. Our investigation approaches for selecting suitable refrigerants for the sake of environmental betterment. Two different fluids, namely R-410A and R-22 have been selected along with water as a refrigerant. This analysis also covers their heat transfer characteristics and statistical optimization technique like response surface methodology for cost-cutting in computational methods. This investigation objectifies a high applicability of commercial coolants in the cooling industries. This investigation further opens different scope for study microfluidics boiling behavior as well as the heat transfer phenomenon through microchannel.

Gourab Chakraborty, Shubhankar Sarkar, Arunabha Chanda

Evaluation of Two-Body Abrasive Wear Using FIS and ANN

In the most recent three decades, many embed materials have been made of metals, compounds, earthenware production, polymers, and so forth. Most metals and earthenware production are a lot stiffer than bone tissue which can bring about mechanical bungle between the embed and the nearby bone tissue. Notwithstanding other biocompatibility issues, metals are excessively firm while pottery is excessively fragile and polymers are excessively adaptable and feeble to meet the mechanical quality. Thus, composites of polymers and inorganic materials may offer the ideal properties for embed materials. Polymers are well known because of their low thickness, great mechanical quality, and simple formability. At the point, when the composite is utilized as embed material, its development causes scraped spot at the joint. Henceforth, a study on scraped spot wear of composites is fundamental before utilizing it as embed material. In this work, two-body grating test has been completed on HAp-HDPE and HAp-UHMWPE bio-composites to ponder the impact of different test parameters on scraped spot wear. Fluffy derivation framework (FIS) and Artificial neural systems (ANNs) are utilized to foresee the wear qualities of composites. It has been seen that HAp-HDPE composite gives palatable outcomes contrasted with HAp-UHMWPE composite as far as grating wear test. The analysis results recommend that HAp-HDPE bio-composite has the potential for use as an elective material for burden-bearing orthopedic applications.

Mehar Amit Kumar

Computational Analysis of Dual Expander Aerospike Nozzle

To increase the performance of current space launch capability new rocket designs are required. One concept that would undertake this need is an aerospike nozzle. The aerospike nozzle has proved its better performance compared to conventional bell nozzles. The major advantage of the aerospike nozzle is its altitude compensating ability since the expansion of the jet is not bounded by a wall. In the case of dual expander aerospike nozzle (DEAN) it uses separate expander cycles for both fuel and oxidizer with an aerospike nozzle. The present study includes the design of the combustion chamber and nozzle of the DEAN and its numerical analysis for producing a thrust of 2000 KN and a specific impulse of 420 s. The given input conditions are exit Mach number of 3.9, combustion chamber pressure and temperature of 180 bar and 3818 K and use kerosene as fuel and liquid oxygen as oxidizer with a mixture ratio of 2.65. The validation of the design is done with ANSYS FLUENT and a C++ program is prepared for the development of geometry of the combustion chamber and nozzle of the DEAN. The designed nozzle produces a specific impulse of 472 s.

Aswith R. Shenoy, T. S. Sreekumar, Pranav Menon, Gerogi Alex

A Study on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine for Lower Blends of Karanja Biodiesel

Increased number of vehicles are causing higher consumption of petroleum fuels leading to depletion of conventional fuel reserves. Hence, there is a need for alternative fuel, which will fulfil the demand. Biodiesel is one of the environment-friendly, renewable alternative biofuel which can be obtained from vegetable oils. Blends of various biofuels were used by researchers but there are limitations on the percentage of vegetable oil in diesel as emission norms are becoming stringent. Recently, the Government of India has announced that country is going to implement BS VI emission norms by 2020 and higher blends, i.e. B20 and above B20 are not satisfying these norms. Presently, very limited information is available on the use of lower biodiesel blend as a fuel in diesel engines. In this work, efforts are made to study the effect of lower blends of Karanja biodiesel as a fuel in a diesel engine to evaluate its performance and emission characteristics. The engine performance test was conducted on single cylinder four stroke diesel engine with lower blends of Karanja biodiesel (B5, B7, B10), B20 and diesel fuel to find brake thermal efficiency and BSFC. HC, CO, CO2 and NOx emissions also have been monitored. Results showed the brake thermal efficiency of all lower blends (B5, B7, B10) is high compared to diesel fuel at full load of the engine. BSFC of all lower blends (B5, B7, B10) is low at part load and almost the same as that of diesel fuel for maximum load. HC and CO emissions were less compared to diesel fuel. Also, a significant reduction of NOx was observed for B5, B7, B10.

V. R. Patil, S. S. Sane, S. S. Thipse

Experimental Comparison Between Friction Stir Welding and Underwater Friction Stir Welding on Al6061 Alloys

This study compared friction stir welding undertaken parameters such as tool rotation speed, transverse speed, and tool shoulder diameter on weld joint and compared ultimate tensile strength weld joint by underwater friction stir welding and normal friction stir welding using vertical machining center. For statistical analysis, the Taguchi L9 method was adopted. Ultimate tensile strength is tested as a response which shows that the ultimate tensile strength achieved by the underwater friction stir welding was higher than the normal friction stir welding. Regression analysis and analysis of variance were used as a statistical analysis method. From the analysis, it was observed that high tool rotation speed with minimum tool transverse speed gives maximum tensile strength for underwater friction stir welding and that of normal friction stir welding.

Hiten J. Mistry, Piyush S. Jain, J. Vaghela Tinej

Wear Particle Analysis Using Fractal Techniques

Wear particle characterization plays a important role in condition monitoring of machine as most of the breakdown occurs due to wear particle saturation in the lubricating oil. Traditional methods for wear debris analysis depend on human expertise to conclude the results, which are subjective in nature, time consuming, and costly. The objective of this paper is to categorize different techniques of fractal analysis to study the wear particle morphology and calculate fractal dimension of wear particles. Fractal analysis is used to give information about different features of wear particles like fractal dimension, shape, size, color, boundary representation, and surface/texture analysis. This data can be used to detect the fault and decide prognostic maintenance period.

Puja P. More, M. D. Jaybhaye

Strategies for Low Engine Speed Torque Enhancement of Natural Gas Engine Used for Commercial Vehicles: Observations with Compression Ratio

Since many years diesel engines are powering commercial vehicles. Of late, governments are promoting the use of natural gas (NG) as a fuel for such vehicles to reduce pollution. Thereafter, natural gas engines have witnessed faster development, especially for use in commercial vehicles. City bus is probably the most common NG commercial vehicle, dedicated to ferry passengers across the city. Some places impose a safety speed limit on such vehicles considering local traffic conditions. Thus, a typical scenario faced by such vehicles includes low drive speeds, high loads, frequent halts for passenger pick up and drop, signals, etc. Such vehicles thus need high torque at low engine speeds to manage these daily occuring conditions. Aim of this paper is to enhance torque at low-engine speed zone. Number of options such as the use of a turbocharger, direct injection of fuel, variable valve actuation, programmable waste-gates, etc. can help to realize higher engine outputs. The intent here is to study the effect of compression ratio and understand the extent of change in torque in engine low-engine speed region. Current study consists of modelling a reference commercial vehicle engine of six cylinders. A virtual model is built and its ability to represent actual engine performance from testbed is verified. Further, such model undergoes iterations of change in compression ratio and different parameters are studied for their relation with torque.

Pritesh J. Suple, Chandrakant R. Sonawane, S. S. Thipse, J. P. Mohite, N. B. Chougule

In-house Fabrication and Calibration of Silver Thin Film Gauge

Measurement of transient surface temperature and surface heat flux got vast attention with recent technological advancement. Thin film gauge (TFG) is the most suitable instrumentation for such measurements. Present work aimed to fabricate and calibrate the silver TFG. In the present work, performance parameters of TFG were estimated through static calibration. Further TFG was subjected to constant heat flux using in-house fabricated calibration setup in conduction mode to assess the thermal performance and reliability of silver TFG. The silver TFG measured the transient surface temperature, which was discretized using cubic spline technique and heat flux was recovered by considering one-dimensional heat conduction modeling in semi-infinite solid. Results revealed that silver thin film gauge can be considered for heat flux measurement for short time scale (s and ms) applications.

Akash Jadhav, Ravi K. Peetala

Study of Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction in Hypersonic Flows Using Various Turbulence Models

Shock wave boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) is an important phenomenon in hypersonic vehicle designing. For accurate predictions of the thermal and pressure loads due to SWBLI turbulent flow analysis is essential. In the present study two dimensional ramp induced SWBLI in hypersonic flows is investigated by using SA and k–ω SST turbulence models. In the present study it has been found that the prediction of the separation size is nearer to experimental results by using SA model as compared to k–ω SST model.

Aniruddha Kane, Ravi K. Peetala

Study of Effect on Engine Performance Using 15% HCNG Blend Versus CNG Using a Simulation Approach

The present work deals with modeling an existing CNG engine using a 1D simulation tool (GT-SUITE), performing baseline validation of the model, generating simulation results of HCNG (15% hydrogen by volume), study of simulated results to bring out various trends and studying the effects of varying fuel–air equivalence ratio on optimum spark advance, peak in-cylinder pressure and peak in-cylinder temperature through simulation on validated engine model. This work is intended as a preliminary step to bring about a host of potential suggestions, which will help to improve the current power performance of the engine while using 15 HCNG as the fuel. The primary objective is to develop 1D engine model using the actual engine data as input and to generate simulation results. Actual experiments will be carried out to generate experimental results. Simulation model will be validated for accuracy within 10%. The validated engine model is now used for the purpose of simulation to study the effects of varying fuel–air equivalence ratio on optimum spark advance, peak in-cylinder pressure, and power performance for selected HCNG blend.

K. P. Kavathekar, S. S. Thipse, S. D. Rairikar, S. B. Sonawane, P. S. Sutar, D. Bandyopadhyay

Behaviour of NiTi Based Smart Actuator for the Development of Planar Parallel Micro-Motion Stage

Recently, the application of smart materials such as shape memory alloys (SMAs) as actuators is gaining huge importance. SMA-based actuators are light in weight and provide higher work/mass. SMA undergoes simple actuation process such as Joule heating. Nitinol (NiTi) SMA can restore larger strains as compared to others. It can serve as active prismatic joint to provide linear motion in various robotic manipulators. The study correlates the deflection of (a) single NiTi spring and (b) series-connected NiTi springs with input parameters (time and current) to understand its behavioural complexity. The study revealed that the rate of NiTi spring contraction is dependent on time and current. To predict the actuation motion, several regression models were developed. This study defined the feasible current range for the actuation of NiTi spring based on contraction rate and precision. The contraction rate for single NiTi spring differs from the series connection of two NiTi springs which results a new set of polynomial regression model. The developed mathematical models can help control the smart actuation-based planar parallel robotic manipulators.

Deep Singh, Yogesh Singh, Manidipto Mukherjee

Multi-objective Optimization of Inconel 718 Using Combined Approach of Taguchi—Grey Relational Analysis

Nickel-based alloy such as Inconel 718 is widely used in aerospace, automobiles, gas turbines, nuclear and chemical industries. Inconel 718 is a high-strength temperature resistance which exhibits good resistance to corrosion. In the current paper, Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array is implemented for wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) with three factors at three levels. The influence of input variables such as pulse-on time, current and pulse-off time has been investigated on the material removal rate and surface finish. ANOVA analysis has been carried out to check the significance of variables and their effect on output variables. For MRR, all three input parameters are found to be significant pulse-on time and the current is found to have an influence on SR. As Taguchi’s technique can optimize only one objective at a time with no consideration of its effect on another output parameter which may result in either lower production or pitiable quality. To satisfy such conflicting objectives at the same time, an optimum parameter setting is required. Grey relational analysis was used to get an optimal combination of input variables for multiple output variables. The optimal combination of input parameters is found to be pulse-on time 55 µs, pulse-off time 5 µs and current 2 A. Predicted values obtained at an optimal condition using GRA have been validated by experimental trial and show a very close relationship with negligible error.

Manav Sheth, Kunj Gajjar, Aryan Jain, Vrund Shah, Het Patel, Rakesh Chaudhari, Jay Vora

The Effect of State Variables on Nucleation of Earthquake Using the Rate and State Friction

A better understanding of the nucleation process of an earthquake is of practical importance for early warning and hazard assessment. In present chapter, chaotic nucleation of an earthquake is investigated numerically using spring-mass slider with the rate- and state-dependent friction (RSF) law. The main focus during the numerical simulations is to identify the onset of chaotic motion showing irregular changes in frictional stress as well as slip velocity. It is observed that the chaotic tendency of the sliding system increases with number of state variables in the RSF model. Moreover, the stiffness at which chaos occurs also increases with number of the state variables. Thus, the present study justifies that the RSF laws could also be useful to study the multiscale nature of friction of hard surfaces such as metals and rocks.

Nitish Sinha, Arun K. Singh, Avinash D. Vasudeo

Finite Element Analysis of Type I and Type II Fracture with PFN Implant—A Comparative Study

The femur or thighbone is the longest and strongest bone, which bears the maximum weight of the human body. There are various types of fracture occurs in femur bone. The intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures are very complex to treat and generally stabilized by proximal femoral nail. The aim of the present research work is to select the proper implant and its respective material during the fixation of intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures of femur. Such type of study helps the orthopedic surgeons to predict the failure of implant. In the present study, the modeling software SolidWorks 17 is used to create the 3D model of the implant. The dimensions for 3D geometric model of implant are taken with the help of Vernier caliper. The FEM software ANSYS 16.2 is used for simulation. The finite element analysis is performed to study the distribution of stress and deformation under one-legged static load boundary conditions. The deformation and stress values on the proximal femur are compared between titanium and stainless steel implant material in case of both subtrochanteric and intertrochanteric fractures of the femur. The bone healing process mainly depends on the stability given to the fracture. The stability is achieved by checking the bone contact surface area at fracture interface surface. The frictional stress and contact pressure at fracture plane are compared by taking both titanium and stainless steel implant material. These contact results are used to estimate the condition of healing process at the fracture interface of intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. The effect of frictional stress, pressure developed and localized stress on bone healing is also discussed.

Sandeep Rathor, Jayamalya Jena, Rashmi Uddanwadikar, Ashutosh Apte

Postural Evaluation of Construction Labourers Engaged in Excavation Work Using Newly Developed NERPA Method and Its Validation Through REBA and WERA Methods

Foundation is a preliminary requirement of construction work which is done by excavating soil. The excavation is the process of removing soil from the surface of the earth to form a cavity in the ground. In India, this rigorous and highly diligent task is being done manually by men and women both. These labourers suffer from work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) due to extreme physical exertion, excessive force, lifting heavy load and working in awkward posture throughout the day. This study has been carried out to evaluate the levels of pain/discomfort among the excavation labourers. The exposure assessment has been carried out by NERPA, WERA and REBA methods. The labourers’ complaints about pain/discomfort in body parts and risk level score obtained from three methods are found similar. The compatibility of NERPA methods’ worksheet compares with WERA and REBA. Result shows that NERPA worksheet can be implemented for assessment of construction workers postures.

Manoj T. Gajbhiye, Debamalya Banerjee, Saurav Nandi

Influence of Stress Bar Length on the Response of a Stress Wave Force Balance Using Finite Element Analysis

The stress wave force balance is used to measure forces in aerodynamic facilities like shock tunnels and wind tunnels. For accurate measurement of forces, the shape and size of the model and the balance are of importance. The dimensions of the balance mounted inside the model (internal balance) depend on the internal diameter of the model. However, the effect of the length of the stress bar is independent of the model dimensions. This paper describes the variation in transient strain responses at various locations of the stress bar with the variation of the length of the stress bar. Impulse force of 10 N magnitude with 1 ms duration was applied at the tip of a hemispherical model, and the strain responses were observed at various locations along the stress bar. Impulse forces of various magnitudes were applied at the tip of the model, and the strain responses were observed. From the simulation results, it was observed that as the length of the stress bar increases, the strain increases. The strain response was also found to be steady with the increase in length of the stress bar.

Sushmita Deka, Ramesh Babu Pallekonda, Maneswar Rahang

Relative Power Variation in Frequency Sub-bands of the EEG Signal During Painful Stimuli

The present study investigates trend of relative band power in the frequency sub-bands of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal during painful stimuli. Ten healthy right-handed male in the age group of 20–26 years participated in the experiment of generating thermal pain with simultaneous EEG recording. RMS EEG MAXIMUS acquisition and analysis software was used to record and extract relative band power while decomposing the signal in multiple frequency sub-bands, viz. delta, theta, alpha and beta. The extracted feature during pain has source localisation in delta and theta bands as it accounts for larger power share among all sub-bands. The pain reporting on the Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) is subjective when compared with the relative band power in different frequency sub-bands in varying levels of pain over all the subjects. It was found that the extracted feature in all frequency sub-bands has a captivating correlation with the NPRS. The EEG signal analysis proves to be the novel tool in pain assessment for better clinical treatment and quantification.

Sameer Raj Singh, Ashish B. Deoghare

A Study on the Effect of GTAW Input Current on Surface Distortion of Thin CRNO Electrical Steel Sheets

The thin sheets of CRNO electrical steel are widely used in motors of electric vehicles (EV) and several domestic appliances. The thin sheets of thickness 0.5 mm are stacked and welded across the edges to form the stator core for use in the electric motors. The present work aims to study the distortion variations observed on the CRNO thin sheets under different range of welding current (30–110 A). The stacks comprising of thin sheets of CRNO with total thickness of 50 mm (100 sheets × 0.5 mm) post-welding are observed for evaluating the distortion on the surface of stacks. The measurement of surface distortion is done using a surface profilometer for observing the variation on the surface of stacks. The maximum and minimum surface distortion in the range 0.66 to −0.27 mm and 0.17 to −0.08 mm, respectively, is observed for weld samples at different welding current. The distortion of thin CRNO sheets results in deterioration of material properties affecting the performance of electrical systems. The present study aims to establish a relation between the surface distortions at different locations across the weld zone with varying input welding current.

Bhushan Y. Dharmik, Nitin K. Lautre

Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Inside Duct with Different Surface Profiles

In this experimental study, the heat transfer rate with respect to the pressure drop in rectangular duct is studied. The ribs with various profiles are used as an inserts and heat transfer rate was determined. The rectangular duct of cross-section 700 × 100 mm made up of mild steel was used. The experiments were carried for the Reynolds number in the range 5000–22,000. Five cases were analyzed in this study. Case 1 includes the rectangular duct with 300 mm as effective test section without ribs. In Case 2, flat ribs were used at angle of 900 with respect to the direction of the flow. V-shaped broken ribs inclined at an angle of 30°, 45°, and 60° with respect to the direction of flow are used as inserts in case 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The readings were noted at constant heat flux of test section. Initially, air was supplied with velocity of 0.6 m/s and then it was gradually increased to 2.4 m/s. In this case, less pressure drop is observed experimentally, as compared to transverse broken V-shaped ribs.

P. P. Shirpurkar, V. M. Sonde, P. T. Date, T. R. Badule

A Hybrid Process Monitoring Strategy for Steel Making Shop

The article deals with the development of a process monitoring strategy for a Steel Making Shop (SMS) involving an ensemble of statistical and AI techniques. The monitoring strategy being devised was employed primarily to demonstrate the monitoring of nonlinear processes. The monitoring strategy was based on neural network fitting model and Hotelling T2 control chart. Data pertaining to process and feedstock characteristics of Steel Making Shop (SMS) was considered for checking the efficacy of the monitoring strategy being devised. The neural network fitting model is used for partial or full transformation of the nonlinear data into linear data. Thereafter Hotelling T2 chart was employed on the transformed data for monitoring of the process. The test of nonlinearity of the data involved pairwise comparison of any two characteristics by plotting them in a fitted line plot and computing the model fit value which is indicative of the level of linearity. The hybrid strategy involving the neural network model and Hotelling T2 square chart thus devised was able to monitor the process and detect out of control observation correctly.

Ashish Kumar, Anupam Das, Swarnambuj Suman

Analysis of Electrolyte Flow in IEG During Electrochemical Grinding of MMC

Electrochemical grinding process is a compound machining of electrochemical machining and mechanical grinding process. Machined components through the micro-ECG process have huge applications in the electronics, automobile and medical industries. This paper presents the modeling and analysis of turbulent flow in inter-electrode gap of electrochemical grinding to show the performance of erosion in the material removal rate of aluminum–alumina composite. Evaluation of shear stress generated on worked surface is obtained from graph of simulated results, and is used to find the shear forces acting on the boundary of workpiece. The shear stress increases with increase in the rotational speed of grinding wheel for a fixed inter-electrode gap, and the same was found for the shear force. The material removal rate by the erosion process was very small, and it increases with increase in the rotational speed.

Nisha Gupta, Avanish Kumar Dubey, Dhruv Kant Rahi

Static Structural Analysis of Roll Cage of an All-Terrain Vehicle

The objective of this research is to analyze roll cage of single-seated off-road all-terrain vehicle which can sustain rough terrain in all types of weather without damage. The capability of these vehicles includes acceleration, maneuverability, rock-crawl and hill climbing on surfaces. A roll cage is considered as a framework of an all-terrain vehicle (ATV). It forms a three-dimensional structure around the driver. It consists of steel members. The roll cage of vehicle plays crucial role in safety of the driver. It contains driver, engine, brake system, steering mechanism. Roll cage must have suitable strength in order to protect the driver in event of rollover or impact. Roll cage safety features were first implemented in accordance with the 2019 Baja SAE Competition Rules [1], which served as a baseline for roll cage design. Design of roll cage is done in CATIA V5R20, and static structural analysis of roll cage is done using ANSYS Workbench 16 for various collisions like front, rear, side, roll over and vibration analysis. To obtain required factor of safety (FOS) in all the loading conditions is the main objective of analysis of design.

Sushant Satputaley, Karan Ksheersagar, Bijay Sankhari, Rahul Kavishwar, Kshitij Waghdhare

Design of Motorcycle Handlebar for Reduction of Vibrations Using Tuned Mass Damper

Vehicle comfort is related to vibrations induced due to surface irregularities and powertrain. It is a challenge to design a good suspension system and vibration absorber which isolates the driver/rider from the induced vibrations. The principle aim of a vehicle’s suspension system/vibration absorber is to isolate the occupant from the induced disturbances, while still allowing the average driver to maintain control over the vehicle and drive it safely. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the vibrations in motorcycle handlebar and modify handlebar to reduce the vibration for good ride comfort without affecting its handling. Motorcycle with an under square engine is selected for the experimentation. The under square engine has more stoke length than bore diameter, and hence, it is more susceptible to generate vibrations. A tuned mass damper system is designed and developed to attenuate handlebar vibrations. The results of investigation show vibration attenuation from 23 to 66% at various cases. The effect of tuned mass damper is substantially visible at higher engine RPM, and hence, proper modification of handlebar becomes essential in case of high revving application.

Sumit S. Khune, Amit R. Bhende

Development of a Diagnostive Tool for Prediction of Severity of Coronary Artery Disease

The objective of the present work is to assess the percentage rise in pressure in stenosed coronary artery using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and develop a diagnostive tool to predict the extent of stenosis severity. Correlation for blood pressure with cross-sectional area stenosis (AS) is included in this study. A healthy artery model and a total of 15 coronary stenosis in three different stenosed models are analyzed. The hemodynamic parameters computed through CFD are used to determine blood pressure in stenosed models during systole as well as diastole. It is observed that stenosis is critical for % AS > 80%. CFD results are then mapped by standard curve fitting techniques to develop a mathematical model. A good and significant correlation between blood pressure and % area stenosis is found. The developed mathematical model is further used to develop an inexpensive and handy diagnostive tool for preliminary diagnosis of severity of coronary artery disease by clinicians.

Pooja Jhunjhunwala, Pramod M. Padole, S. B. Thombre

Design, Modelling and Optimization of Artificial Limb for Lower-Extremity Amputees Based on CATIA

Mechanical engineering applications complement biomedical engineers to attain best performance in prosthesis. Appropriate design of artificial limbs for lower-extremity amputees provides a prosthesis that improves the quality of life. Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) have been used for the development and improvement in performance of artificial limb. Depending on the residual part of limb, the prosthesis may be custom designed. Modified design built of strong but light-weight material and flexible biocompatible interface socket that minimizes the risk of dermatological breakdown of residual limb may be developed. This paper reports designing three-dimensional model in modelling software Computer-aided three-dimensional interaction and application software (CATIA V5) and converting it to a finite element model. The model was imported to Solver ANSYS R16.0 for meshing followed by stress and deformation analysis for stainless steel and carbon fibre. From the obtained results of stress, deformation values and weight, carbon fibre was selected as the material for building principle components of the limb. The FE model may be re-modified and reproduced to achieve higher efficiency.

Smit V. Motghare

An Experimental Study on Surface Roughness in Slicing Tungsten Carbide with Abrasive Water Jet Machining

In the present study, an attempt has been made to slice tungsten carbide rod with an abrasive water jet machining technique. The objective of this work is to evaluate and characterize the surface roughness of the machined surface. Experiments are carried with varying traverse speeds keeping other parameters constant. The surface is examined in detail using a 3D Optical Profilometer to characterize the roughness parameters which include centre line average deviation (Ra), root mean square deviation (Rq), total height (Rt), maximum peak height (Rp) and maximum valley depth (Rv). It is observed that except Rv, all other parameters increase with an increase in traverse speed.

Ranjan Singh, Virendra Singh, T. V. K. Gupta

Energy Absorption Characteristics of Single and Double-Walled Square Tubes Subjected to Axial Crushing

Experimental and numerical study of single and double-wall square tube under axial compression was carried out at a displacement rate of 100 mm/min. Two configurations of double-wall tube, viz., parallel and diamond were explored. During axial compression of double-wall tubes, crumpling takes place either at same end or at opposite ends for the two tubes. Deformation at the same end absorbs 3–5% more energy than opposite end crushing. For the same type of crumpling, diamond arrangement absorbs 5–8% more energy than parallel configuration. Two different lengths of unequal tubes for parallel and diamond arrangement were examined. It was observed that unequal length tubes improve crashworthiness characteristics.

Sanjay S. Toshniwal, Raghu V. Prakash

Field Data Analysis Using Work Measurement Techniques in a Packaging Industry

In this work, an investigation is carried out in a packaging industry, particularly in dispatch section, using work measurement techniques. Operations in the plant were observed, and a standard process flow is designed so as to minimize unnecessary movements and delay. Further, as an outcome of time study, operating cycle time is fixed for both rim packaging and box packaging procedures using line balancing approach. Finally, the daily production target is revised based on the results. The work is aimed at planning the production output for industries having a product mix using time study techniques.

Chinmay M. Salkar, Gaurao J. Tapare, Mayank A. Murkute, Chetan R. Zingre, Hansraj A. Mohod, Vinit S. Gupta

Comparative Study of Nanofinishing of Si (100) Using DDMAF and Allied Processes

Monocrystalline silicon wafers find its use in semiconductor industries for a variety of applications. Therefore, its surface finish is of prime importance. The surface finish of Si (100) for semiconductor application should have nanofinishing characteristics that resemble mirror-like surface characteristics of polished Si (100). The present paper outlines the comparative study of nanofinishing of monocrystalline silicon wafers, i.e., Si (100) using double disk magnetic abrasive finishing and allied processes. Starting from the chemical etching of Si (100) wafer in KOH solution and polishing by DDMAF process, the implementation of chemical oxidizers in the polishing region with constant flow rate and application of ultrasonic vibrations, the work highlights the consistent improvement in finishing efficacy.

Kheelraj Pandey, Ajendra Kumar Singh, Gaurav Raj Pandey

Optimization of Thickness of Hollow Punch–Die for Proposed Solar-Assisted Leaf Plate and Cup Making Machine

Leaf plates are traditionally made by hand in Indian villages. These are commonly used for serving food at family, religious and social functions. The laborious craft can now be converted into machine operation to make these containers in elegant shape and sizes and to make the plates much stronger than the normal one by the conventional method of making plates. The punch–die assembly of the traditional machine consists of an electric heater where the effective heating temperature is maintained from 110 to 120 °C. Alternatively, this temperature can also be achieved easily by using solar concentrator to heat the thermic oil which in turn can be used to heat the punch–die assembly. The hot oil will be circulated through hollow space of punch and die so that the green leaf will be heated from both the sides and occupied the required shape of cup or plate in minimum time while moulding in die. The thickness of such punch–die assembly is optimized analytically and also by FE software ANSYSTM.

Abhay Nilawar, Pravin Potdukhe, Deepak V. Bhope

Development of Briquette Cum Pellet Making Machine

Fossil fuels are on the edge of extinction as a very less quantity of them is available now. They also have large ash content, and pollution takes place to a greater extent during combustion. So, there is a need to replace these fuels with something that has the same calorific value and causes less pollution. Biomass briquettes and pellets can be an alternative to coal. These briquettes and pellets are formed by compression of biomass that can be used as fuel. This reduces pollution and provides alternate low-cost fuel. Various machines have been developed for producing briquettes and pellets, but the cost of these machines is very high. After analyzing various machines, a machine that can make both briquettes and pellets through a single setup was not available. So, decision was made to produce a low-cost machine that can produce both briquettes as well as pellets through a single manually driven setup. The extrusion process has been used for producing briquettes and pellets, wherein the forward extrusion process was used for producing the briquettes and the backward extrusion process was used for producing pellets. Analysis, fabrication, and experimentation were carried out on fabricated briquette cum pellet machine. The objective of the experimentation was to find out the density of the briquette and pellet obtained using sawdust and aspen chips as raw material and a binder (bentonite or starch) combination. This machine can reduce farm waste into a useful product by also providing a source of livelihood.

Yeshwant M. Sonkhaskar, Gajanan R. Nikhade, Saket Dharmik, Utkarsh Deshmukh, Pramod Dhote

Towards the Development of Low-Cost Vacuum Setup for Customized Implant Manufacturing

This study introduces a new vacuum casting setup used to cast customized implants. Setup is equipped with the induction furnace, vacuum pump, top vacuum chamber, thermocouple probe and bottom mold chamber along with Pirani gauge and vacuumized sealed doors and valves mounted. Experiments were conducted with aluminum alloy to investigate the accuracy of the setup. Implant fabrication is carried out with the aid of machining process which is difficult to machine, if the shape is intricate. Casting is one of the best routes to cast the complex geometry with the application of rapid prototyping technology. The proposed setup in this paper for the casting of aluminum under vacuum was designed and developed in-house, equipment opted and setup design after thermodynamic calculation for a vacuum chamber and minimizes required vacuum level for melting of Al. Melting is by induction furnace, metal is directly poured with the help of bottom pouring crucible mechanism mold prepared by zircon sand, and the pattern used for mold making is made on rapid prototype machine having acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) material. A promising new technique for direct melting and pouring of titanium alloy for medical implants was emerged from this study. This research demonstrated the feasibility of direct melting and casting of the aluminum alloy by vacuum technology.

Sanjay Randiwe, Dheeraj Bhiogade, Abhaykumar M. Kuthe

Simulation Study on Effect of Variable Curvature on the Modal Properties of Curved Cantilever Beams

Curved beams are widely used in many engineering fields due to the high-strength capacity compared to their straight forms. It is essential that curved beams be analyzed for their modal properties as structures should have the natural frequency away from that which occurs in their working condition to avoid resonance. In the last few decades, many researchers had carried out investigation on several parameters of the curved beam. The present research work proposes a generalized mathematical equation for predicting mode shapes of curved cantilever beams, which take into account the change in length and curvature of the beam. Modeling of curved beam subjected to cantilever boundary condition is done by using ANSYS software. Twelve cases of cantilever beams, each having different curvature and length, were created. The mode shapes of the curved beams were obtained using the normalization method for each mode shape. The effect of the variation of the curvature on the mode shapes and natural frequency was analyzed for the first six transverse modes. It is found that the frequency of vibration and amplitude of vibration increase as the radius of curvature of the beam increases. Curve fitting equations for these mode shapes were obtained using MATLAB software. The generalized equation obtained for the mode shapes of the curved cantilever beams generates the mode shapes which are in good agreement with those obtained from ANSYS.

Aqleem Siddiqui, Girish Dalvi, Akshay Patil, Surabhi Chavan

Variation in the Properties of Spot Weldments of Cold Rolled Mild Steel Welded with Filler Metal by Annealing Treatment

Filler metal addition has been verified as an effective way to refine the mechanical behaviour of cold rolled mild steel in resistance spot welding. Negligible quantity of filler metal if added to the spot weld is found to improve mechanical properties of spot weldments, if no variation in the composition of base metal and filler metal is allowed. Looking at practical applications, the sensitivity of the resistance spot welding process with filler metal to variation in annealing treatment was experimentally investigated. Filler metal quantity was from 30 to 70 mg and annealing heat treatment was kept between 30 and 70%. The material of the filler metal is the same as that of base metal and was added at the centre of overlap in lap joint. The experimentation was carried out by spot welding of specimen varying filler metal from 30 to 70 mg maintaining annealing cycle constant at 30%. The experimentation was then repeated for different annealing cycles. For 30–70% of anneal cycle, 30 mg quantity of added filler metal yielded maximum breaking point and plasticity ensuring optimum load-bearing and energy absorption capability under the button pullout mode.

Sushil T. Ambadkar, Deepak V. Bhope

Comparison of Metro Track Vibration with Federal Transit Administration Limits

Structures located in the vicinity of at grade (surface) and elevated metro rail are subjected to vibration induced by metro movements. Instruments with a very high level of precision such as MRI, X-Ray and microscopes are sensitive to external vibrations. Externally induced vibrations may affect overall performance of such instruments. Also, considering the case of human comfort, noise produced by such vibrations above audible limit causes discomfort in adjacent buildings, residents and industries. It is thus important to measure quality and quantity of vibrations transferred from metro track to ground. These measurements can be compared with FTA limits and respective measures may be taken. In this paper, frequency and amplitude of vibration are measured on the metro track and compared with the limits provided in Federal Transit Administration (FTA) for human comfort. While the metro train was in moving condition, track vibration was measured at a fixed point. Measurements were taken for three different positions of metro train with respect to the measurement point, such as when metro train is (a) approaching, (b) above and (c) crossed the measurement point. amplitude and frequency content was also found for all the three conditions. These experimental results are studied and discussed in this paper, and they will provide the basis for excitation to be considered for analysing vibrations of nearby structures or instruments.

Chaitanya V. Bhore, Atul B. Andhare, Pramod M. Padole

Effect of Moisture Content and Fiber Orientation on the Mechanical Behavior of GFRP Composites

The glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) has provided better strength to weight ratio for various structural applications. Due to their non-corrosive nature, they are particularly suited for corrosive environments where materials like steel can cause problems. The aim of this research is to determine the combined effect of moisture and fiber orientation on the static strength of GFRP composites. Accordingly, twenty-four layered woven glass fiber/epoxy laminated composite was fabricated using the autoclaving technique. Moisture absorption and mechanical tests were carried out with two samples with different fiber orientation, i.e., 0°/90° and +45°/−45°. The specimens accelerated moisture aged with 70 °C tap water immersion, and the percentage change in moisture content was calculated up to saturation point. Then, the tensile test was carried out using the Instron universal testing machine with a constant crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Higher tensile strength was observed for 0°/90° laminate with fiber allied parallel to the loading direction. Tensile strength was decreasing post-moisture absorption as compared to virgin laminates. After the mechanical tests, fracture analysis of tested specimens was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which revealed a reasonable post aging fiber–matrix bonding degradation.

Alok Behera, M. M. Thawre, Atul Ballal, Prathamesh Babrekar, Pratik Vaidya, Satya Vijetha, Tushar Sawant

Experimental Investigation and Simulation of Modified Evaporative Cooling System

This paper presents design and fabrication of modified evaporative cooler for producing cooled air without an increase in humidity. An experimental investigation has been carried out in Ahmedabad, India, and subsequently, a mathematical model is developed for the analysis of heat and mass transfer involved during the process. The model is validated with the measured experimental data, and further, the validated model has been used to analyze the performance of the system for Ahmedabad weather conditions throughout the year. The result shows that the minimum and maximum reduced ambient temperature obtained using a modified evaporative cooling (MEC) system is 6.52–34.31 °C and the maximum temperature drop is 17.85 °C. This system is made of kraft paper and aluminum sheet and it can give a better result than the direct and indirect evaporative cooler. The air can be cooled here lower than the wet-bulb temperature without an increase in humidity, and subsequently, it is an economical solution that can provide better comfort.

Manju Lata, Dileep Kumar Gupta

Effects of Different Vegetable Oils and Additives in Gearbox Operation and its Condition Monitoring

There is significant worldwide attention in recent time on condition-based intensive care of gear transmission systems across the globe from both industries and academia. The reason behind this is an effective CBM will always extend the life span of the rotating equipment and helps in reducing maintenance cycles. For the mechanical component’s good working cycle, different entities such as lubrication oil properties, operating speed, load condition, lubrication [oil and additives], temperature, and wear component are the major parameters which play contributory role. Vegetable oil as lubricants has many good and useful physicochemical properties. Vegetable oils possess high lubricity, viscosity Index, flash point, and low losses in evaporative. In this research work, a comparative behavior study of a designed worm gear test rig is done between selected commercial gear oil (HP EP 90) and natural edible and non-edible vegetable oils (used as gear oils) (natural coconut and castor oil) with and without additives (garlic oil and rapeseed oil). The temperature analyzing techniques were used to describe the performance of worm gear system as a function of load applied on the worm, and the temperature responses of a worm gear are plotted with varying loading conditions for the selected oils and additives. A mechanical closed-loop test rig is developed for carrying out this work.

Anupkumar Dube, M. D. Jaybhaye

Study and Analysis of Various Parameters of Bio-mechanization Plant

Among the recent challenges in India, one is the extensive consumption of non-renewable energy sources due to rising demands of fuels and environmental issues. India is an agriculture-based country with the second-highest population in the world. Converting the waste material into the energy and use of renewable sources is the best way to serve the energy needs of the population. The biogas production in India is around 2.07 billion cubic meters per year which are targeted to increase up to 30 billion cubic meters per year by using various advanced technologies. To extract more methane percentage, various plants are approaching toward pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology. PSA technology increases the percentage of methane by reducing carbon dioxide and other gases’ percentage. In this paper, we have studied and analyzed various parameters of a bio-mechanization plant which is based on segregated organic municipal waste for the production of bio-CNG and organic fertilizer and is working on the vapor pressure swing (VPSA) technology. The effect of season, temperature, waste obtained, etc. on bio-CNG production has been researched.

Deepak Patil, Rahul Barjibhe, Lakhan Meghani, Omkar Nanaware, Tejas More, Aditya Pujari

Robust Sliding Mode Controller (RSMC) for an Omniwheeled Mobile Robot with Uncertainties and External Perturbations

Mobile robots at present are used extensively in the industrial and commercial sectors. There is a need for a robot that can easily maneuver in the sparse space at the warehouse, stores, etc. Omnidirectional robots have an upper hand over conventional mobile robots as they need not change their orientation while maneuvering. In this paper, we are putting forth the design of robust controller for omniwheeled mobile robot (OWMR). In the beginning, kinematic and dynamic modeling of OWMR was done; then, PID and sliding mode controller (SMC) were implemented on the OWMR. The proposed controller tracks the trajectory with greater accuracy as compared to other standard controllers.

Mohammad Saad, Uddesh Tople, Amrapali Khandare, Zeeshan Ul Islam

The CFD Analysis of Convection Heat Transfer with Magnetic Field in the 2D Domain Using OpenFOAM

The present numerical study focused on the enhancement and regulation in the heat transfer with bifurcation in the flow along with improvement in the average temperature (TavgE) of enclosure with the application of magnetic field. The magnetic field-based in-house solver is developed using open-source CFD toolkit OpenFOAM. The electric potential formulation with Boussinesq approximation is employed in the present solver to analyze the buoyancy-driven natural convection flow with the magnetic field. The buoyancy force is constant in the fluid by maintaining the Rayleigh number of 106. The impact of the force of magnetic field on the fluid stream and heat transfer rate is reported. The magnetic field is applied in terms of Hartmann number of Ha = 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100. It is noticed that the intensity adjusts the strength and orientation of Lorentz force in the domain and alters the flow pattern as well as regulates the heat transfer. The detail discussion on the impact of the magnetic field on the isotherms, streamlines, and the run-time average Nusselt number is reported.

Ranjit J. Singh, Trushar B. Gohil

Design of a Remote Racking Module for Racking Operation

Circuit breaker is a device used to disrupt the flow of current when an abnormal condition occurs in switchgear. Withdrawal-type circuit breakers have the provision for displacing the circuit breaker in and out of the switchgear compartment while inspection and maintenance operations. This paper discusses a new mechanism for displacing the circuit breaker during racking operation by stationing the operator at a remote location. The first part deals with the design of lead screw and variation of various thread parameters on the stress distribution and performance. The later part of the paper deals with the development and analysis of the novel racking mechanism.

Alex Sherjy Syriac, M. R. Rahul

A Coupled Heat Transfer and Artificial Neural Network Based Model for Accelerated Direct Cooling of Steel Plate

This article proposes a novel approach for controlling the accelerated cooling of hot steel plates in the existing plate mill at AM/NS India, Hazira. Difference in top and bottom surface temperature or uneven temperature distribution at the exit of accelerated cooling equipment leads to the property variation and shape deformation. Therefore, the model aims to predict top and bottom surface temperature of the plate for better online operational control. The control algorithm is a fundamental heat transfer calculation coupled with statistical artificial neural networks ( $$\textit{ANN}$$ ANN ). The model prediction shows an excellent agreement with the plant measured data and almost $$90\%$$ 90 % of the plates are within error range of $${\pm }20\,{}^{\circ }$$ ± 20 ∘ C.

Sagar Dave, Sirshendu Chattopadhyay, Deepak Gupta

Effect of Air Distribution on Cooling of Photovoltaic Panel and Its Performance

Increase in operating temperature of photovoltaic (PV) cells decreases its conversion efficiency and power output. In the present study, numerical simulations were carried out to find the proper design of diffuser so as to get uniform distribution of air along with the PV panel. Uniform distribution of air plays a vital role in decreasing thermal stresses which reduces the formation of hot spots, and ultimately it increases the life of the PV panel. The CFD results show that the new design of diffuser with three inner deflector plates and curved side walls maintain uniformity of air at inlet of PV panel. The experimental study with new diffuser indicates a significant reduction in the surface temperature of PV panel which results in increase in power output and efficiency.

Someshwar S. Bhakre, Pravin D. Sawarkar

Numerical Investigations of Photovoltaic Phase Change Materials System with Different Inclination Angles

Excess unused solar radiation falling on the PV system rises its temperature and drops the electrical conversion efficiency. Phase change materials can be effectively used for the PV thermal management systems due to its high latent heat. In the current research work, effect of inclination angle on the thermal performance of PV PCM system is investigated. The inclination angle is increased from 15° to 90° with constant PCM thickness of 30 mm at 1000 W/m2 of incoming solar radiations. It is observed that the PCMs can be effectively used for the PV thermal management systems. The increase in inclination angle of PV PCM system reduces the time required for melting PCM and increases the PV surface temperature.

Tushar Sathe, A. S. Dhoble, Sandeep Joshi, C. Mangrulkar, V. G. Choudhari

Edge Feature Based Classification of Breast Thermogram for Abnormality Detection

Nowadays, breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer among women. Early diagnosis of such disease improves the survival rate. Mammography is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of breast disease. But a frequent examination of the breast through mammography increases the chance of cancer occurrence due to radiation effect. However, taking advantage of non-radiating nature of thermography, it can be used for regular screening of breast region temperature distribution noninvasively. The presence of an inflammatory region in a breast thermogram is a signal of abnormality. In a thermogram, the inflammation is represented with higher gray level pixels. Observing this, in this study we aim to classify sick and healthy breast thermograms by comparing the edge features of the images. For the elimination of unwanted edges, the anisotropic diffusion is used as the filtering process of thermograms before edge detection. The outcome of the Artificial Neural Network-based classification using edge features as input generates 93.3% accuracy, with an area under the curve value 0.92, sensitivity 100%, and specificity 85.7%.

Shawli Bardhan, Sukanta Roga

Analytical Approach to Develop a Robust Mechanism for On-Orbit Gimballing of Satellite Antenna

Mechanism for gimballing of antenna on-orbit is a critical appendage on any satellite. It is necessary for directed beam data transfer from satellite to ground stations. For near-real-time data transfer, the dual-axis steering of the antenna is required, which demands a two-axis steering mechanism for precise and accurate pointing of antenna. This paper details the development of a robust antenna gimbal mechanism based on a modular configuration, which fulfills varied satellite requirements, using iterative analytical studies based on finite element analysis (FEA). The configuration of the mechanism has been made robust by ensuring high natural frequency and sufficient margins for static and dynamic loads across variants of the configuration. Different configurations of the mechanism integrated with various types of antennas have been evaluated by varying specific modular parameters. A systematic overview of the approaches adopted in this process of development of robust mechanism with optimized mass, high stowed frequency and high reliability has been presented.

V. Sri Pavan RaviChand, Anoop Kumar Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar, H. N. Suresha Kumar, K. A. Keshavamurthy

Impact of Rock Abrasivity on TBM Cutter-Discs During Tunnelling in Various Rock Formations

With the introduction of tunnel boring machines (TBMs), the rate of development and construction of tunnels has increased across the world. Breakdowns, repairs and replacements that occur in a TBM have to be addressed within the tunnel. Of the several components within a TBM, the cutter-picks within the cutter-head undergo maximum wear and tear, thereby requiring periodic replacements. In order to optimize the consumption of cutter-picks, it is important to analyse the forces involved in the cutter and the properties that govern rock–cutter interactions. One such property is the abrasivity, which can be determined by CERCHAR abrasivity index (CAI) tests. Research suggests that the value of CAI is largely dependent on the mineralogical, physical and mechanical properties of rocks. Therefore, this study aims to perform experimental analysis of the various properties and their corresponding effects on granite and to determine the respective changes in CAI.

N. N. Sirdesai, A. Aravind, S. Panchal

Tool Condition Prediction Using Acoustic Signal Processing and Learning-Based Methods

In the work presented here, signal processing techniques are used for condition monitoring of boring tool using acoustic signals. To accomplish this work, 108 experimental runs are performed to diagnose the tool life of the boring operation, by using two different sensor data. The acoustic signals are captured from the tool which is performing boring operation on mild steel materials. The acoustic signature being the main signal for study, vibration signals have also been measured for comparison. Four sets of boring experiments were performed. After the data had been collected for all runs of boring operation, signal processing methods are applied for doing the analysis of captured signal. The acoustic signals are captured from the boring tool and further analyzed by using learning-based methods for determining the condition of boring tool.

Pranjali S. Deole, Priya M. Khandekar

Finite Element Simulation of Ballistic Response of Metallic Sandwich Structures with Aluminium Foam Core

Acknowledging the huge applications and growing interest in understanding the behaviour of sandwich structure utilizing metal foams as a core material, the present study analysed numerically the ballistic performance of sandwich structures. Deformable plates of Aluminium 5005-H34 alloy material of thickness of 0.60 mm with deformable core made of CYMAT foam of 25 mm thickness and constant span of 100 mm were considered for numerical analysis against normal impact of rigid hemispherical projectile of length (L) 25.50 mm and diameter (d) 7.50 mm using ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Utilizing isotropic constitutive Deshpande–Fleck material model and orthotropic honeycomb material model capable of simulating fully anisotropic behaviour of foams, the foams were modelled using available data from the literature. Residual velocity, ballistic limit, energy absorption and failure mode were analysed. The developed model was successful in capturing the physical phenomenon using complex material models and obtained numerical results were in good agreement with the observed results from the available literature survey.

Nikhil Khaire, Vivek Bhure, Gaurav Tiwari

Crushing Behavior of Thick Circular High Strength Aluminum Tube Against Quasi-static Axial Loading

The present study investigates the crushing performance of circular tube, made of high strength aluminum alloy AA-7005 and AA-7075 by numerically and experimentally. The tubular structures were exposed to quasi-static axial loading with variation in length (51, 68 and 85 mm) while diameter (34 mm) and thickness (3.55 mm) kept constant. The uni-axial tension tests for both the material were carried out to explore the behavior of stress–strain which was used as input for numerical simulations. The quasi-static compression test was conducted on Instron compressive testing machine while for simulation finite element code LS-Dyna was used. The crashworthiness parameters such as initial maximum peak load, crash force efficiency, energy absorption capacity, and specific energy were found from the obtained deformation behavior of structures. It is found that the tubular structures made of AA-7005 show higher crash force efficiency whereas the structures made of AA-7075 absorb significantly higher energy during the collapse.

Vivek Patel, Sanket Suresh Kalantre, Gaurav Tiwari, Ravikumar Dumpala

Estimation of Burr Dimensions Using Image Processing for Robotic Deburring

This paper discusses an effective method to identify the burr location for 2D and 3D workpiece. The proposed method uses an image processing technique to estimate the dimension of the burr from an image. A set of image processing algorithms are developed for estimating the location as well as the dimension of the burr. The burr dimensions are verified using coordinate measuring machine. The burr data generated are used for planning the deburring trajectory. ABB IRB 120 robot is used to validate the result experimentally. The result clearly shows the effectiveness of this approach.

Rohini Y. Bhute, M. R. Rahul

Study of Structural and Mechanical Behaviour of Severe Plastically Deformed Al–Mg(AA 5052) Alloy Processed by Constrained Groove Pressing Technique

This paper discusses the effects of Constrained Groove Pressing (CGP) on Aluminum–Magnesium(AA 5052) alloy specimens at room temperature. CGP is one of the severe plastic deformations technique (SPD) by which Ultra Fine-Grained (UFG)/Plane metallic materials can be processed. A comprehensive study is made on the structural and mechanical properties of the Aluminum specimen before and after constrained grooves pressing. The entire process is simulated in AFDEX CAE Software. Further, simulated results of differently oriented workpieces (90° and 180°) which are processed by the CGP technique are compared. It is found that most of the properties are superior to Aluminum samples such as Yield Strength, Ultimate Tensile Strength, Hardness, Strain rate, etc. are found to be better for the CGP processed specimen. The results are discussed with respective graphs.

Jaya Prasad Vanam, Vinay Anurag Potnuri, Sree Vidya Sravya Nallam

Shear Rate Dependent Frictional Behavior of the Granular Layer

The present experimental study investigates shear rate dependent frictional properties of the granular layer between two hard surfaces. Slide-free-slide (SFS) experiments were performed on the layer in direct shear mode. It is observed that static stress increases with both normal stress as well as shear velocity. The Mohr–Coulomb (MC) failure criterion is used for determining adhesive stress as well as coefficient of friction of the sliding interface. Both components of friction increase with shear velocity. Their scaling laws, in terms of shear velocity, reveal that the Coulombic friction is more pronounced over the adhesive friction and these results are also justified.

Pawan Kumar Soni, Arun K Singh

Mathematical Overview on Omnidirectional Spherical Wall Traversing Robot

Since the past few decades, many mechanisms are being developed for wall climbing robots. Robotic systems having omnidirectional surface traversing ability independent of its inclination require complex morphology transformation for a floor to wall transition as well as perfect adhesion on the vertical surface. This paper depicts the development of the mathematical model for omnidirectional maneuverability of the robot. The novel design of this robot is newly aimed, and its motion is mathematically modeled.

Yogesh Phalak, Rajeshree Deotalu, Onkar, Sapan Agrawal

Finite Element Analysis of Ballistic Impact on Monolithic and Multi-layered Target Plate with and Without Air Gap

In the present work, Finite Element Analysis is applied to analyze the ballistic impact on 1100-H14 aluminum and weldox 460 E steel multi-layered plate using FEM package ABAQUS/CAE explicit. A conical projectile is projected on the plate with different velocities. The 1100-H14 aluminum plate is model using Johnson–Cook material modeling and the Bao-Wierzbicki failure model is used for fracture. The Cut-off on negative triaxiality has been incorporated in the present work. The values of material parameters such as elastic and plastic are taken from the literature and the projectile is assumed to be rigid. Fracture pattern of the plate, residual velocity, and velocity drop on different thicknesses of plates are calculated. The number of petals formed in the plate after the fracture has been reported and the maximum deformation experienced by the plates are studied. It is found that the fracture pattern by the numerical analysis on the plate is almost similar to the experimental result as reported in the literature. And also the ballistic performance of multi-layered metal plates with and without spaced, subjected to impact by blunt projectile is investigated by numerical simulation. Further, the effect of the air gap on ballistic resistance is investigated. Ballistic limit velocities of layered plates are decreased with multi-layered target. The residual velocity, ballistic limit velocity and perforation time are determined. The result also showed that there is a consistent increase in ballistic resistance of target as the number of layered is increased.

Rohit Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Pramod Kumar

Additive Manufacturing Process Selection Using MCDM

Additive manufacturing (AM) has huge benefits over traditional manufacturing, viz. cost saving, lesser product development time and lead time. AM easily produces complex geometry. However, selecting the right AM process/machine compatible for part as per customers’ specification and manage manufacturability and functionality is a critical issue. This study uses a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology for deciding the most suitable AM process that is presented. For this, 17 criteria under five group criteria are used.

Vishwas Dohale, Milind Akarte, Shivangni Gupta, Virendra Verma

Evaluation and Improvement of Makespan Time of Flexible Job Shop Problem Using Various Dispatching Rules—A Case Study

Makespan time is an important parameter in any industry which affects the production schedule adherence to meet delivery dates. In this work, the various dispatching rules are applied to study its effect on the makespan time of the small-scale industry located in central India. The various dispatching rules such as first come first served (FCFS), shortest processing time (SPT) and longest processing time (LPT) is applied to study its effect on the makespan time with the data and information obtained from small-scale unit involved in metal press working operations. The open sources LEKIN software is used to simulate these dispatching rules. The analysis has been carried out for existing resources and it is observed that LPT can fulfil 78% of scheduled deliveries, SPT can fulfil 63% scheduled deliveries and FCFS can fulfil 66.13% scheduled deliveries. The resources, i.e. machines addition is proposed to meet the schedules based on the bottleneck observed in Gantt chart obtained from the software for various dispatching rules. By applying the heuristic approach, it is observed that the addition of a combination of one shearing machine, one 100 Tonnes power press (TPP), and one 20 TPP can lead to the reduction of makespan time by 26% with LPT strategies.

Mohan Bihari, P. V. Kane

The Impact of Building Orientation on Microhardness and Surface Roughness of Direct Metal Laser Sintered Inconel Alloy

Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is an additive manufacturing process used for metal printing. In this process, a laser beam is used to melt the very fine particles of metal and fuse them together to form a thin layer this process is repeated a layer by layer till to create a final object. In this work, using the DMLS process, Inconel 718 alloy was fabricated in three different building orientations, i.e. 0°, 45° and 90° to examine the changes that occur on microhardness and surface roughness. It has been observed that average microhardness was found maximum for 90° building orientation and minimum for 0° building orientation while average surface roughness is found maximum for 0° building orientation and minimum for 90° building orientation. These results will be helpful for the manufacturer to select a suitable orientation for maximum microhardness and minimum surface roughness.

Ajay Kumar Maurya, Amit Kumar

Investigation on Elevated Temperature Tribological Performance of Alloy 718

The influence of temperature on the tribological performance of alloy 718 is studied in the present work. The alloy 718 samples were used in double aged condition for reciprocating wear test with a ball on flat configurations. The wear tests were conducted at two conditions viz: room temperature and 300 °C temperature. The testing temperature had a significant influence on the coefficient of friction (COF) and wear resistance of alloy 718. The alloy 718 sample, subjected to high-temperature testing environment had a lower COF and higher wear rate compared to samples tested at ambient temperature. The lower COF values of the alloy 718 samples subjected to high wear testing temperature conditions were attributed to the extent and presence of glaze layer formation, which is insignificant in the case of samples subjected to ambient temperature. The higher wear rate values of the alloy 718 samples subjected to high wear testing temperature conditions were attributed to the due to occurrence of tribo-chemical reactions at the contact zone of tribo-pair.

S. Anand Kumar, Ravikumar Dumpala, K. Uday Venkat Kiran, R. Gnanamoorthy

Digital Twin for Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger in Industry 4.0

Digitalization of the heat transfer in shell and tube type heat exchanger is what sets the foundation of the future of thermal industry. In traditional computational model design, a simulation model is validated with the experimental results. A digital twin is a virtual representation of the real system or processes and imbibes the validation of the model. The only difference is that the exchange of information is carried out in real time and is more reliable. A digital twin is not a static representation of the real space but rather a dynamic phenomenon connecting the two spaces. In the present analysis, a comparative finite element analysis of the shell and tube heat exchanger has been performed with an intention to enhance the effectiveness of the heat exchanger process. An approach toward development of the next generation of heat exchangers is discussed in this work.

Himanshu Singh, Utkarsh Mishra, Prateek Saxena, Ganesh Shetiya, Y. M. Puri

Model-Based Synchronized Control of a Robotic Dual-Arm Manipulator

Simulation results for control technique (CTC), applied to a cooperative robotic system comprising of two robotic arms of 5DOF each, are illustrated in this paper. Algorithm for a separate synchronization control technique, which allows for dual manipulation, is also illustrated. The system in consideration is used to manipulate a rigid payload on a desired trajectory from desired initial to final orientation and position (within the workspace of the system). The forward and inverse kinematics equations are formulated and the corresponding problems for the system dual arms are solved. The constraints of dynamic equations of motion, for the system in consideration, are utilized to obtain the combined required equations for the payload and both the arms. The presented dynamic model for the system is based on Lagrange equations of motion. The control algorithm makes use of measurements of acceleration, velocity, and coordinates of the object. To demonstrate the performance of the control technique, simulation results for the control torque of the three main joints are provided. The durability of the proposed control algorithm is tested while taking into consideration, disturbance, and uncertainty.

Akshay Katpatal, Ajinkya Parwekar, Alok Kumar Jha

Prioritizing the Travelling Criteria for Customer-Centric Business Model of Public Transport System

Public transport system (PTS) is basically an infrastructure-based system consisting of huge fleet of buses, bus stops, fuel stations, maintenance workshops and bus depots. It has to rely on local government authority for construction and maintenance of roads. Being infrastructure-based system, PTS has to spend considerable time and energy in managing its facilities; providing less time to pay attention to the passengers and commuters. Due to this, PTS is often considered as a substandard system and is generally ignored by the citizens as a primary means of transportation. Wherever possible, the passengers prefer personal conveyance such as car, scooters or motorcycle in comparison with PTS. Ever-increasing number of personal vehicles has posed the challenges of managing the traffic congestions, environmental pollution, road accidents, driving stress, etc. On this note, there is a good scope to develop customer-centric model for PTS. The present research is a small step in this direction. Based on a passenger survey, various travelling criteria were identified and they were prioritized using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). This helped to propose customized services to the PTS for various classes of commuters.

Prasad Lanjewar, Dhananjay A. Jolhe

Effect of Friction Stir Processing on the Sliding Wear Characteristics of AZ91 Mg Alloy

In the present study, microstructural modification of AZ91 Mg alloy was done by friction stir processing (FSP) and the effect of grain refinement on wear properties was investigated. FSP tool with square-tapered pin profile was used for processing. Microstructure analysis, hardness, and sliding wear tests were conducted on FSPed AZ91 Mg alloy. Microstructural observations revealed that the grain size and secondary phase (Mg17Al12) were observed as decreased after FSP. Increased hardness was observed in FSPed sample compared with unprocessed AZ91 Mg alloy. Wear tests showed a slight improvement in the wear resistance of FSPed sample compared with unprocessed AZ91 Mg alloy. Worn surface morphology showed the formation of deep grooves and oxide patches on the wear tracks of the samples. Abrasive and oxidative were observed to be the active wear mechanisms in both samples during the wear tests.

Hemendra Patle, K. Uday Venkat Kiran, B. Ratna Sunil, Ravikumar Dumpala

Effect of Varying Ιn-Plane Loads and Cutout Size on Buckling Behavior of Laminated Panels

Theoretical solutions for buckling problems of laminated panels under uniform in-plane edge loads have been obtained without considering damage/cutouts. Nevertheless, in practice, the structures are provided with cutouts of various sizes subjected to non-uniform edge loads. Analytical solutions for such problems are difficult to achieve. Hence in this work, a finite element software (ABAQUS) is used to analyze the buckling behavior of thin and thick laminated panels with and without cutouts subjected to distributed edge loads with different variations. The panel is modeled by using eight nodded elements (S8R5) with five degrees of freedom at each node. The efficiency of the model is confirmed by correlating present results with accessible literature. The effect of various parameters such as cutout size and its position, boundary conditions, ply orientations, and thickness of panel are included in this work. It is observed from this study that the non-uniform edge loads and cutout sizes have a remarkable outcome on buckling behavior of panels.

K. S. Subash Chandra, K. Venkata Rao, T. Rajanna

Effect of Machining Parameters on Surface Roughness and Tool Flank Wear in Turning of Haynes 25 Alloy

This work presents an analysis of the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and tool flank wear in turning of Haynes 25 superalloy using coated carbide tool under minimum quantity lubrication. Response surface method is used for experimentation and analysis. Experiments were designed using the central composite design of response surface methodology. Prediction models are developed for each response using response surface methodology. Analysis of Variance is carried out to find the significant parameters and percentage contribution of process parameters on response. Main effect plots are used to analyze the effects. It is found that the effects of cutting parameters are different for the two responses and further optimization is necessary to get the best machining performance.

Atul B. Andhare, K. Kannathasan, Manoj Funde

Performance Appraisal of Cryogenically Treated Tool in Dry, MQL and Cryogenic Machining of Inconel 718

Inconel 718 is widely used nickel-based alloy in engineering applications because of its favorable mechanical properties. Though, machining of this alloy is difficult and results in poor tool wear and surface quality. Selection of suitable machining condition is essential for improving the machining performance of this expensive and hard to cut the material. The study compares the use of cryogenically treated inserts in dry, MQL and cryogenic environment. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are considered as control parameters, whereas surface roughness and tool flank wear are the response parameters. The adequacy of developed response surface models (RSM) is tested on the basis of the correlation coefficient (R2). Later, the effect of cutting parameters on surface quality and tool wear is presented for all three machining conditions. Application of liquid nitrogen with cryogenically treated inserts besides the use of MQL gives the least tool vibration, the lower cutting temperature during experimentation. Later on, the good surface quality of workpiece along with least tool wear is noticed. The performance curves show that the use of cryogenically treated insert along with MQL and liquid nitrogen is found to be better than other conditions. This is accepted as the best way for enhancing the machinability of Inconel 718.

Yogesh V. Deshpande, Atul B. Andhare, Pramod M. Padole

Finite Element Simulation for Turning of Haynes 25 Super Alloy

This paper presents investigations on the effect of machining parameters such as speed, feed rate and depth of cut on the cutting and thrust forces in turning of Haynes 25 superalloy using PVD coated tungsten carbide tool. Simulation is carried out using a three-dimensional machining model with DEFORM 3D software. Johnson–Cook material model is used in the finite element model and Coulomb friction is used to incorporate the friction characteristics. Experiments were carried out as per the design of experiments using Response Surface Methodology and results of the simulation are compared with experimental data. The error in simulated values is less than 16% for cutting force and 14% for thrust force. Thus, the proposed method can be used to predict the machining behavior of difficult to cut materials.

Atul B. Andhare, K. Kannathsan, Manoj Funde

Optimization of Machining Parameters for Turning of Haynes 25 Cobalt-Based Superalloy

In this paper, minimization of surface roughness, tool wear, cutting force, and thrust force is carried out by optimizing machining parameters in turning of Haynes 25 superalloy. Coated carbide tool was used for machining, and response surface desirability method is used for optimization. Central composite design of response surface methodology was used for design of experiments. Prediction models were developed for each response using response surface methodology. Analysis of variance was carried out to confirm the correctness of individual models. Later, optimization was performed. The optimal parameters are validated by performing additional experiments. It is found that predicted values and experimental results are closely matching.

Atul B. Andhare, K. Kannathasan, Manoj Funde

A Compact Hinge Mechanism for Radial Rib Antenna

This paper describes the detailed design, analysis and an overall development of the hinge mechanism used for the deployment of radial rib antenna (RRA). RRA is a deployable mesh-type reflector used for strategic applications under higher frequency bands. The challenges which are faced in the optimization of the mechanism elements are also presented in this paper. Stiffness of the hinge brackets is very much crucial in determining the overall stowed frequency of the antenna during launch as the hinges are bonded to CFRP parabolic shaped ribs which are slender in nature, thus making the hinges compliant. Since all the hinges are connected in series, the overall frequency will be still lower than the component frequencies. The paper also provides the suitable configuration changes done for the hinge brackets and its overall impact on the stiffness of the antenna in the stowed configuration. Overall configuration of the antenna is also projected in the paper.

Rahul Ghatak, Milind Undale, Mariya Ratlami, Prakher Singhal, G. Ravi Teja, N. S. Murali, K. A. Keshavamurthy

Suntracker on Rocker-Bogie Mechanism

This paper introduces an all-terrain robot, i.e., robot with the capability to traverse all kinds of terrain. For this purpose, the rocker-bogie mechanism was chosen for the robot design and differential gear mechanism is used to stabilize the platform. Another focus of ours in this paper is to increase the efficiency of the solar energy absorbed by the solar panels on the robot to make the robot self-powering. For this, a dual-axis sun-tracking mechanism is used. All parts of the robot were designed using CAD modeling software. The robot can be controlled via a Bluetooth joystick app of an Android phone making it extremely easy to change its speed and direction.

Shruti Murarka, Aditya Wadichar, Shravar Tanawde, Abhijit Rehpade, Dhruv Agrawal, Mohammad Saad, Sharan Bajjuri

Market Basket Analysis: Case Study of a Supermarket

The relationships among various items in a group can be deciphered using a data mining technique such as market basket analysis (MBA). It plays a significant role in the analytical systems in supermarkets to determine the arrangement of goods, design of sales promotion and discounts for different customer segments to improve customer satisfaction and thereby increase the sales. This case study involves the use of data gathered from a supermarket as a database. Measures such as support, confidence and lift are used to measure the association between each product. Based on these values, association rules are generated. This information can give supermarket managers an edge over their consumer counterpart to strategically promote products and improve sales. These results also provide valuable insights for cross-selling, up-selling and new product integration tasks.

Anup R. Pillai, Dhananjay A. Jolhe

Experimental Investigation of Effect of Nanoparticle Concentration on Thermo-physical Properties of Nanofluids

Present comparative study has experimentally investigated the effect of nanoparticle concentration on thermo-physical properties of nanofluids. This study was carried out with five different metal oxide (Al2O3, TiO2, MgO, CuO and ZrO2) nanoparticles. To analyze concentration effect, the concentration of nanoparticles was altered from 0.5 to 2.5 wt% by an interval of 0.5 wt%. The two-step method without any surfactant was employed for the preparation of nanofluids. All metal oxides were characterized by using X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. To examine the stability of nanofluids, different parameters like velocity and Brownian velocity were computed by using dynamic light scattering technique (NanoZS, Malvern). Based on the results, it is concluded that thermal conductivity and viscosity are strongly influenced by concentration of nanoparticles in base fluids. The stability data also shows good dependence on concentration of nanofluids. In this comparative work, Al2O3–H2O nanofluid depicted highest enhancement in thermal conductivity and heat transfer ratio among all nanofluids.

Prashant Maheshwary, C. C. Handa, K. R. Nemade, N. N. Gyanchandani

A Framework for Robot Programming via Imitation

In this paper, a framework is described to program industrial robots through human task demonstrations. The framework utilizes the imitation of the human demonstrated motion for robot trajectory generation. The imitation principle is based on the kinematic model-based mapping strategy between the human arm and the robot. The framework also utilizes a state-of-the-art probabilistic model-based generalization architecture to eliminate inconsistencies in demonstrations and retrieve an executable trajectory for the robot. The implementation of the approach is shown for spray painting operation in a six-degrees-of-freedom industrial robot. The experimental results reflect that the framework is capable of generating accurate trajectories for complex applications.

Abhishek Jha, Shital S. Chiddarwar, Sanjay G. Sakharwade

Optimizing EDM Parameters for Machining Cu102 and Finding Regression Equation of MRR and Surface Finish

This experimental study is conducted for finding the optimum parameters in Electro Discharge Machining of Cu102 workpiece with the ETP copper electrode. The varying significant parameters are discharge current, pulse on-time, and pulse off-time and other parameters such as gap voltage, duty cycle, polarity, flushing pressure, etc. are kept constant for the proposed machining. The obtained output data has been used for statistical analysis where surface regression equations for MRR and Surface Finish are acquired with the help of ANOVA. The best surface finish obtained is 0.5 µm and pulse on-time is the significant parameter for it while current intensity is a significant parameter for MRR.

Amit Motwani, Y. M. Puri, Gangadhar Navnage

Multidisciplinary Solution Avenues in Mechanical Engineering

Various disciplines of engineering have contributed immensely to the technological advancements across different sectors of industry. Considering the nature of the discipline, Mechanical Engineering has a predominant contribution towards them. Evolution of man-made machines, a few centuries ago, has helped teams working on different initiatives overcome various challenges. Over the years, the need for technology has changed its form. As a result, Mechanical Engineering principles now apply to a large range of disciplines and are instrumental in improving the quality of human life. As an effect of its diverse application in many sectors right from medicine to nanomachines, Mechanical Engineering has evolved as a highly interdisciplinary branch in recent times. A wide range of research avenues across almost all science disciplines now use Mechanical Engineering in some or the other form in order to solve many modern-day problems. This paper intends to explore the linkages of Mechanical Engineering as core to these new sectoral avenues and establish an analogy between the impacts of Mechanical Engineering, now and then.

Pradnya Gharpure

OLSAC: Open-Source Library for Swarm Algorithms and Communication

Imitation of swarming behaviors of social animals offers a new way of designing systems due to simple rules, local interactions, robustness, scalability, and flexibility. Following this method, a swarm of multiple robots can cooperatively achieve a goal with collective intelligence. However, only a few such robotic systems are developed, and again very few are deployed outside of lab environments. The reason behind this is the lack of easy-to-deploy communication stack and a versatile library of essential swarm building functions from a hardware perspective. As a result, most researchers choose the option of simulation only. Hence in this article, we present an open-source library ( https://github.com/Swarm-Robotics-IvLabs/OLSAC ) integrated with a communication stack and tools which simplifies the process of hardware-level implementation of swarm algorithms. As the library presents multiple functions which are identified as basic building blocks of various swarm algorithms, it helps the user in creating future algorithms. Also, this library is open for collaborations from community and has a potential to become single solution for all swarm-related applications.

Harshad Zade, Mayuresh Bhoyar, Mayuresh Sarode, Neha Marne, Unmesh Patil, Ajinkya Kamat, Vedant Ranade

Development of Crank–Connecting Rod Attachment for Electric Discharge Machining of Curved Holes

Devising a best possible design is often considered as the main important stage in the development of a new device for making curved holes effortlessly. This study deals with the development of a crank–connecting rod attachment for the circular motion of the electrode into the metal body to generate a curved hole by electric discharge machining (EDM). This attachment helps to convert the periodical linear motion of EDM ram to the electrode (curved) circular motion into the metal object. To make the curved hole in the metal body, the electrode also should be in a curved shape. In electric discharge machining, both tool and workpiece are in interaction during sparking; therefore, while producing the curve hole, the curved electrode also gets melted and is not useful for the next production. The fabrication of the curved electrode is also a difficult task. Hence, the attachable electrode inserts (copper) have developed to protect the curved electrode during the EDM process. So that, the combined setup (electrode element + insert) could move in a circular motion during EDM machining to generate the circular holes. Hence, the copper insert only gets melted during ED machining, and it is changeable. The insulating bearings (nylon bushes) were also developed for a rotating shaft to avoid the short circuit between the electrode linkages (electrically negative) and supporting base (electrically positive). By using this device, the EDM experiments were conducted with four rough setting parameters consists of pulse-on time (Ton), pulse current (IP), sensitivity of ram (SEN), lifting time of ram (LFT). Finally, the curved hole was generated successfully in a hard metal block using this device.

Diwakar Makireddi, Y. M. Puri, V. D. Ghuge

Effect of Crack Angle on Stress Shielding in Bone and Orthopedic Fixing Plate Implant: Design and Simulation

In the present study, laminated composites of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)—titanium (Ti) with different ply orientation were designed and three different crack angles (20°, 40° and 50°) were considered in femur bone to investigate the effect of crack angle on the stress distribution in the bone. PMMA was selected as matrix and titanium was selected as fiber from 0.2 to 0.5 volume fraction (Vf). 3D model of bone implant assembly was designed by using computer-aided drafting (CAD) and simulation was carried out with the help of ANSYS Workbench® software. Laminated composites with different ply orientations with different volume fractions of fiber were analyzed, and optimum combination was abstracted with an objective to attain higher and uniform stress distribution throughout the bone. From the results, it is observed that the crack angle effects the stress distribution in the bone even though the same laminated composite is used as implant.

Ratna Raju Lam, V. V. Kondaiah, Y. Naidubabu, Ravikumar Dumpala, B. Ratna Sunil

IoT-Based Ambiance Monitoring System

This paper introduces a flexible ambiance monitoring system that records the real-time values of its surrounding’s environmental factors and then plots their line graphs. Its architecture include humidity, temperature, air quality and sound sensor connected to a single ESP8266 NodeMCU micro-controller. These sensors monitor the corresponding environmental aspects and return these readings to the NodeMCU. Since the accuracy of these sensors is quite respectable, this system could be utilized in many sectors like hospitals, military, mining, etc. Due to its simplicity and economical price, it can be potentially extended by adding more sensors and hence can be interfaced to meet specific requirements.

Hritwik Singh Parihar, Rajesh Nagula, Mayank Bumb, Danish Gada, Sharan Bajjuri, Rishesh Agarwal, Simran Chauhan

Hand Gesture Control of Computer Features

Using hand gestures for controlling laptop features is a creative and innovative strategy of communication between users and devices. As compared to existing methods, the technique of hand gesture has the benefit of being easier to use. By using this technique, the conventional method of using mouse, keyboards, and controllers will have to change since by utilizing the proposed solution, one can interact with the computer with hand gestures. In this technique, ultrasonic sensor is used to classify the hand movement in real time. Ultrasonic sensors (HC-SR04) measure the distance of the user’s hand by using sound waves to calculate the time difference between reflected waves. The principle thought of our methodology is to accelerate the interaction with the computer, by using universally used equipment like a laptop, Arduino UNO board, and low-cost sensors like the HC-SR04. By the use of PyAutoGUI and PySerial, the device was able to communicate and interpret the input data by the Arduino. Hence by acting along these lines, any user can easily interact with the computer using simple, easy to learn hand gestures.

Rishabh Runwal, Shivraj Dhonde, Jatin Pardhi, Suraj Kumar, Aadesh Varude, Mayuresh Sarode, Mayuresh Bhoyar, Simran Chauhan, Neha Marne

Industry 4.0 Applications in Agriculture: Cyber-Physical Agricultural Systems (CPASs)

The increase in the demand of agricultural food products that includes processed food, meat, dairy and fish will put the current food production and supply systems under pressure. The high demand for food resources needs high agricultural productivity. Industry 4.0 technologies such as cyber-physical systems (CPSs), Internet of Services (IoS), Internet of things (IoT), cloud computing (CC) and big data promise huge potential in the field of agricultural supply chains through digitalization. This article proposes a framework for cyber-physical agricultural systems (CPASs) which is an intelligent integration of CPS, IoT, CC and big data with agricultural systems. CPAS can be applied in leveraging agricultural supply chains and boosting productivity.

Rohit Sharma, Shreyanshu Parhi, Anjali Shishodia

Person Following Mobile Robot Using Multiplexed Detection and Tracking

Helper robots are widely used at various places like airports and railway stations. This paper presents a pipeline to multiplex the tracking and detection of a person in dynamic environments using a stereo camera in real time. Recent developments in object detection using ConvNets have led to robust person detection. These deep convolutional neural networks generally fail to run with high frame rates on devices with less computing power. Trackers are also used to retain the identity of the target person as well as impose fewer constraints on hardware. A concept of multiplexed detection and tracking is introduced which makes the pipeline faster by many folds. TurtleBot-2 is used for prototyping the robot and tuning of the motion controller. Robot operating system (ROS) is used to set up communication between various nodes of the pipeline. The results found were comparable to recent state-of-the-art person followers and can be readily used in day to day life usages.

Khush Agrawal, Rohit Lal

Sliding Wear Characteristics of Silver Particles Incorporated Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Composite Coatings

In the present investigation, nickel–phosphorus coatings embedded with silver particles are deposited on AISI 1018 steel substrate using an electroless deposition technique. Ni–P/Ag composite coatings were heat-treated at 400 °C for 1 h, and the influence of heat treatment on tribological properties was discussed. The as-deposited (AD) and heat-treated (HT) coatings were subjected to wear test under room temperature and 300 °C sliding conditions. The results indicated that the better tribological performance was observed for the HT Ni–P/Ag coatings tested at room temperature, which is attributed to the combined effect of self-lubrication and higher hardness. Wear track characterization was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to understand wear mechanisms.

Bijoy Ramakrishnan, K. Uday Venkat Kiran, B. Ratna Sunil, Ravikumar Dumpala

Investigations on Engine Emission Using Biodiesel with Different Compression Ratios

The present work investigates the performance of a single cylinder, air cooled, direct injection (DI) compression ignition engine, using blends of biodiesel from non-edible feedstock-Citrullus colocynths L. methyl ester (CCME) and Diesel. The engine was tested with diesel (B0), 10% Biodiesel (B10), 15% biodiesel (B15) and 20% biodiesel (B20). The biodiesel is produced using transesterification process. The investigations have been studied for two compression ratio (CR) values of 14 and 16 with different blends of biodiesel at different load conditions. CO2 emissions were found to increase with increase in blending and CR, whereas increase in load showed a decrease in exhaust CO2 values. HC emissions decrease substantially with increasing blend ratio of biodiesel, compression ratio and load on engine. NOx emissions were increased with all blends of biodiesel, and increase in compression ratio and load also evidenced a subsequent increment in NOx emissions in exhaust.

Mohd Zeeshan, Sanjay K. Sharma

Investigation of Thermal Desalination System Using Heat Recovery

The work presented in this paper is an attempt to investigate the performance of thermal desalination system using heat exchanger. Helical coil heat exchanger has been used as a condenser to condense vapors passing over the coil where cooling water in the coil absorbs latent heat of condensation as well as sensible heat of vapors. Experiments were conducted for different initial temperature of water. Results have shown that application of a separate condenser for thermal desalination system augments rate of distillate output. Condenser also performs the function of heat recovery. In present work, heat recovery has augmented distillate output by 50%. Use of warm water for desalination improved vapor generation and its temperature. This has improved heat recovery of the system.

Rajan K. Petkar, Chandrakant R. Sonawane, Hitesh N. Panchal
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