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About this book

This proceedings volume highlights the latest research presented at the 8th International Conference on Research on National Brand & Private Label Marketing (NB&PL2021). The topics covered include: retailing, private label portfolio and assortment management, marketing of premium store brands, using national brands to exclude (delist) and include, optimal assortment size, consumer store patronage, etc. Several contributions also focus on private label pricing and promotion, especially on the relative pricing of standard and premium private labels, and with regard to the national brands in the assortment.

Table of Contents


Product Variety and Loyalty to National Brands – A Combined Measurement of Purchase Sequence and Coverage of Demand

The manufacturer brand industry is continuously faced with the challenge of retaining their current customers and acquiring new ones. Increasing brand loyalty can help to face these challenges and to compete in the market. In this paper, a combined behavioral approach to measure customer loyalty is presented and empirically analyzed using national brands (NBs) of chocolate bars. This innovative measurement integrates both concepts of purchase sequences and coverage of demand. The derived hypotheses are tested by a multilevel analysis using the pooled-OLS method. The negative effect of product prices of NBs on the number of loyal households is moderated by leading NBs (top 10). The higher the price of a leading NB, the lower the number of loyal households to this NB. In contrast to price, neither purchase frequency nor the number of competing NBs influence NBs loyalty of households. The positive influence of the NBs’ product variety is particularly strong compared to the other variables. Through the specific use of product variety, on the one hand, consumers with a high exploratory propensity can be bound to the NB. On the other hand, product variety can be used to attract and persuade new households to the NB.
Mona R. Springer-Norden, Rainer Olbrich, Philipp Brüggemann, Carsten D. Schultz

The In-Store Location of Promotional Displays Alters Shoppers’ Attention and Buying Decisions

In-store displays are a frequently used tool in shopper marketing. Empirical studies show the effects of promotional displays on sales; however, they seldom attend to the determinants of the effects of displays from the shoppers’ perspective. Thus, there are hardly any findings about the role of the display’s location in the shop. In this paper, we assume that the congruence of the product presented on the display with its setting has an influence on the effect of the display. In particular, we assume that although a display in an incongruent setting attracts more attention, it can turn this attention into purchases only to a lesser extent than a display in a congruent setting. The results of a field experiment in a Swiss grocery store support this assumption. Using observational techniques and electronic checkout data, we are able to show that displays in an incongruent setting gain more attention but lead to fewer sales than displays in a congruent setting.
Sascha Steinmann, Masoumeh Hosseinpour, Gunnar Mau, Markus Schweizer

First Insights on Brand Attitude Towards a Retailer’s Individual Private Labels

Without Abstract
Olivier Reimann, Oliver Thomas, Gunther Kucza, Stefan Schuppisser

Brand Architecture: Strategy for the Development of a City Brand

The objective of this research is to identify the importance of brand architecture during the process of creation and conception of the Bogotá city brand, leveraged on theoretical bases that allow having one’s own knowledge of the important concepts to take into account during the development of the brand, which allow us to understand the relationship of these concepts with the final research material that is the Bogotá brand. It is important to be able to identify which are the key moments and tools that must be taken into account when building a city brand and to be able to recognize if these were really applied during the conception of the Bogotá brand, understanding that they are key tools for achieving a product that seeks to have its own identity.
Sandra Milena Sánchez Cárdenas, Diego Andrés Álvarez Oliveros, Néstor Fabián Díaz Huertas, Jose Armando Deaza Ávila

Consumers’ Channel Switching Behaviour from Off-line to On-line: The Role of the Fear of Covid-19

The spread of the Covid-19 pandemic is heavily altering how people shop. For instance, a push in on-line purchases is evident. The current work applies the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to understand consumers’ intention to switch from off-line to on-line channels in the aftermath of the lockdown. Specifically, within this framework, we explore how different sources of consumers’ fears generated by the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic – symptomatic and emotional - impact on consumers’ channel switching behaviour, leading shoppers to switch from buying grocery in physical stores to purchase them on-line. The empirical analysis is settled on 310 questionnaires collected on-line survey and processed using a linear regression analysis. Our findings show that consumers’ switching intentions to on-line channels are significantly and positively impacted by attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control, showing a better predictive power when the dimensions of Covid-19 fear are added. While symptomatic fear acts positively on the intention to switch to on-line, emotional fear exerts a negative role. Managerial insights for retailers are provided.
Elisa Martinelli, Francesca De Canio, Giuseppe Nardin

Private Label Products Buying Decisions: A Comparative Analysis on Consumer Perspective

The purpose of this study is to understand which factors have influence on the private label products buying decisions. A survey was conducted on a sample of consumers of food products. The have been collected through the administration of a questionnaire to 587 consumers in the Italian market. Results have been analyzed with the Extra Tree Classifier methodology, which allows to measure the importance of each variable included in the model, also in case of correlation between variables. The results show that consumers’ choice seems to be influenced by groups of heterogeneous variables related to: the perception of consumers on the product, the satisfaction of post-consumption, the role of the store, and the trust built over time by retailers. The results of the study provide useful indications on the role of the private label products in retailers’ assortments.
Marcello Sansone, Laura Bravi, Annarita Colamatteo, Federica Murmura, Maria Anna Pagnanelli, Fabio Musso

I Am Free to Be in a Grocery Store: Profiling Consumers’ Spending During Covid-19 Pandemic via Big Data Market Basket Analysis

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic has forced individuals to modify their routine and lifestyle, pushing them into a different social, economic, cultural, political, and consumption reality. Restrictive actions preventing contagions, such as general lockdown and curfew, inevitably changed consumption models and behaviors. Against this backdrop, the current study aimed to investigate the Coronavirus pandemic's impact on consumption patterns by adopting Big Data Analysis (BDA) techniques, such as text mining, regression, and correlation analysis. Specifically, was analyzed a dataset comprising of 4.5 million transactional and textual data obtained from a supermarket chain, including large retailers and proximity stores, based in Salerno, Italy. Results pointed out relevant information for marketing practitioners concerning brand choice and family expenditures.
Francesco Smaldone, Mario D’Arco, Vittoria Marino

Re-thinking Street Food Marketing in COVID-19 Pandemic Period. “Pescaria” as Pilot Case Study

The paper examines the role of “marketing agility approach” for managing street food marketing in the COVID-19 pandemic period, adopting offline and online practices to sustain competitive advantage in a turbulent scenario. In particular, the work analyses the marketing strategies related to the point of sales and social media marketing practices to create customer engagement and to co-design a new hybrid customer experience. To validate these research statements, we identify a pilot case study in Italian context: the case of Pescaria. This is a valuable company in the street food industry to provide take-away food fisher products related to Apulia fishing cultural values. The main findings of the explorative study put in evidence that the competitive advantage is based on agile marketing capabilities for supporting point of sales management using social media practices to encourage hybrid customers engaged in Pescaria’s world.
Marcello Risitano, Giuseppe La Ragione

The Vegetarian and Vegan Communities Supporting Sustainability Through Responsible Consumption

Plant-based diets are more and more popular across the world, together with the growing concern of consumers towards environmental issues and animal welfare. In this context, a better understanding of vegetarian and vegan consumer motivations and buying behaviour is required. Aiming to fill in this gap in the literature, a quantitative analysis was performed among 628 vegetarians and vegan consumers in Israel and Spain. Results show that the main motivation for following a meat-free diet is animal welfare, followed by environmental concern and health concerns. Vegan motivations are significantly stronger compared to those of vegetarians. Only a few relevant differences were observed between the two countries. Most vegans and many vegetarians in both countries avoid purchasing unsustainable products, particularly leather or cosmetics that have been tested on animals, thus protecting both animals and the environment.
H. Gendel-Guterman, B. Derqui

When Measuring the Actual Purchase of Private Labels: Attitude Dethrones the Price Sensitivity

The aim of this study is to investigate the behavioral influence of four different factors presumably affecting the purchasing behavior of private-label brands (PLB), namely the price sensitivity, consumer trust, attitude toward PLB, and store brand loyalty. A quantitative research was conducted with shoppers who purchase from French retail chains (Carrefour, Casino, Leclerc, and Intermarché). Data derived from 479 respondents have been analyzed using the binary logistic regression technique. Results indicate that attitude toward PLB and less loyalty positively influence the actual purchase behavior of PLB, while no significant effect has been found on the price sensitivity. Moreover, logistic regression analysis reveals that the attitude toward PLB predicts the event Y = 1 (actual purchase), exceeding other factors. Findings of this study challenge the traditional belief toward PLB, showing that consumers no longer buy PLB because they are cheap.
Sedki Karoui, Samy Belaid, Jérôme Lacoeuilhe

Private Label and Brand Equity. Opportunities in New Trends

The global pandemic has reshaped the scenario for marketing organizations across several industries, as the former apparently represents one of the most remarkable environmental changes in modern marketing history, with relevant consequences on consumer behaviour. Overall, the latter had more time at home, which resulted in new habits and new opportunities of engagement. In this context it is becoming more and more important to study the relationship between the magnitude of brand loyalty and store loyalty as PLs enhance customer store loyalty. PLs have been able to build brand equity throughout their development, with considerable differences across product categories. The aim of the paper is to analyse the components of Private Label equity and the positive relation between PL loyalty and store loyalty: PLs enhance customer store loyalty, setting the basis for further research in this field. Higher level of PL brand equity reduces the price competition between PLs and NBs and enhances their differentiation, which allows more market power for both.
Anna Claudia Pellicelli

Examining the Network of Visitors’ Traffic in a Mall: Frequency of Visits and Educational Level

This study suggests an alternative method to mall managers and investors that might be helpful to find an ideal tenant mix. Paths of 700 customers in a super-regional shopping mall were determined and their interactions were analyzed by using network analysis techniques. Interaction patterns of the visitors among stores according to the frequency of visits and educational levels were compared. The findings highlight emergence of different patterns between groups.
Cenk Sozen

Sustainable Communication and Customer Engagement on Social Media

Given that there are increasing concerns regarding the ethical issues and sustainability of fashion products, fashion retailers are communicating their sustainable efforts on social media on a larger scale. Through analyzing 12,744 tweets from six fashion brands, we find that the tweets about sustainability positively affect consumer engagement on social media. Compared to the tweets about environmental sustainability, the tweets about social sustainability have a significantly positive effect on customer engagement. Regarding the type of fashion brands, we find that the tweets from luxury brands can increase customer engagement. Therefore, we suggest managers, especially in luxury fashion brands, should put more effort into communicating sustainability with consumers on social media.
Ka Man Yuen, Fan Zeng, Chris K. Y. Lo

Marketing Attribution in Omnichannel Retailing

Although for years the marketing science community has been actively proposing models for measuring the effectiveness and return on marketing investment (ROI), marketing attribution remains one of the major issues today. In fact, the Marketing Science Institute has identified attribution marketing as the number one priority since 2016. In this research we use the calibrated structural equations from a partial least squares model from previous research to estimate the impact of advertising on web and store sales for an omnichannel retailer of electronic consumer goods. From this model, as a novelty, the research derives the marketing metrics on percentage of sales attributable to each advertising channel, including, online, offline, paid search advertising and branded search queries. Finally, we present some managerial implications of our model. We find that not considering the simultaneous cross effects of the different advertising media, managers may make incorrect decisions inferring attribution from misleading calculations.
Mariano Méndez-Suárez, Abel Monfort

South America: An Opportunity for Growth of Private Labels?

Food retail occupies a transcendental place in economic and business activity around the world. As a region, South America has stood out in recent years for its sustained economic growth. In this context, countries within this region, such as Chile, Colombia, and Peru, have changed consumer preferences and behaviors. Based on a bibliographic review of secondary sources and using data from the Euromonitor Passport portal, this article analyzes the most relevant figures and characteristics of the food retail and private label sectors in South America from the perspective of supply and domestic consumption. To this end, an assessment of modern food channels in Chile, Colombia, and Peru is carried out, followed by an analysis of the most critical factors that affect the development of these sectors in these countries, how companies develop in these markets, and the window of opportunity afforded to private labels.
Leonardo G. Garcés-Pinedo, José Luis Ruiz-Real, Juan Carlos Gázquez-Abad, Francisco J. Martínez-López

Correction to: Brand Architecture: Strategy for the Development of a City Brand

Sandra Milena Sánchez Cárdenas, Diego Andrés Álvarez Oliveros, Néstor Fabián Díaz Huertas, Jose Armando Deaza Ávila


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