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About this book

This book comprises the select proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Trends in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (ICETMIE) 2019. The conference covers current trends in thermal, design, industrial, production and other sub-disciplines of mechanical engineering. This volume focuses on different industrial and production engineering areas such as additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping, computer aided engineering, advanced manufacturing processes, manufacturing management and automation, sustainable manufacturing systems, metrology, manufacturing process optimization, operations research and decision-making models, production planning and inventory control, supply chain management, and quality engineering. The contents of this book will be useful for students, researchers and other professionals interested in industrial and production engineering.

Table of Contents


Effect of Angular Orientation of Continuous Fibers on the Extensional Properties of Carbon Fiber Composites

The strength of the unidirectional composites depends on factors like types of the fibers, types of the matrix, the volume fraction of fibers (Vf), volume fraction of matrix (Vm), angle of fibers to the horizontal axis, etc. If the direction of fiber and the applied force is the same then the angular orientation is 0° and the composite behaves like an isotropic material. In this condition, if extensional stress is applied to the composite then predominantly extensional strains are generated. In the same condition, if shear stress is applied to the composite then predominantly shear strains are generated. If the direction of fiber and applied stress is not the same then the composite behaves like an anisotropic material. In this condition, if extensional stress is applied to the composite then both extensional strains and shear strain are generated in the same component. In the same condition, if shear stress is applied to the composite then both shear strains and extensional strains are generated. So, as the angle of orientation increases, the behavior of composite moves from isotropic material to anisotropic material. The maximum value of the angle of orientation can be 90° when the fiber is oriented in the lateral direction. At such orientation, the tensile strength of the composite depends on matrix and the fibers act as stress concentration factor (SCF). Therefore, fibers have a negative influence on the tensile strength of the composite. The elastic behavior of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites (CFRC) was studied as a function of the angular orientation of the carbon fiber in the composite. The change in modulus of elasticity, as well as variation of stress and strain with an increase in the angle of orientation the carbon fiber, were calculated by theoretical approach. The results of the same are presented here.

Joginder Singh, M. R. Tyagi

Simulation of Nanowires on c-Si Surface for Reflectance Reduction

Presence of surface structures has been found to reduce surface reflectance. Structures like Nanoholes, Nanopyramids, AR coating, etc. have been found useful for the purpose. In this work, the reflectance of c-Si with nanowires on its surface is simulated with the aim of reducing its surface reflectance. It is observed that the presence of Si nanowires on the surface of c-Si reduced the surface reflectance to 23% as compared to a reflectance of 38% in the case of bare c-Si. The simulations are based on Fast Fourier Transform and implemented through an online simulation tool called Stanford Stratified Structure Solver (S4). Results obtained from simulation are thereafter utilized in development of a mathematical model.

Arka Bera, Sourav Nag, Arjyajyoti Goswami

Investigation of Surface Roughness of Miniature Spur Gears Fabricated Using WEDM by RSM Approach

The present investigation is based on micro-geometry of miniature spur gears manufactured by wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). Effects of pulse-on time, pulse-off time and feed rate on surface roughness were analysed using response surface methodology and ANOVA analysis. The miniature gears have an outside diameter of 9.889 mm, face width 3.105 mm and nine miniature spur gears were fabricated. It was revealed from the observation that errors were seen during the fabrication of miniature spur gear at a high level of discharge energy. Scanning electron microscopy is also performed to analyse the geometry of the gears. This study found optimum surface roughness for miniature spur gear is 1.48 µs.

Vyom Singh, Abhishek Patel, Ashish Goyal, Anand Pandey, Ravikant Gupta, Rahul Goyal

Multi-objective Analysis of Nd-YAG Laser Welding on Dissimilar Metals

Welding is the science of metal joining, usually performed on similar metals. In the current study, Nd-YAG laser welding system was used for joining two different categories of steel (Mild Steel and SS-304), expected to have different properties. Dissimilar joints play a crucial role in the current industrial situation where multiple materials are used for everyday tasks. DOE was used to optimize the system input parameters. Quality of a weld is determined by the aspect ratio (depth of weld/width of weld), which was determined using metallography. Microhardness test was also inducted to study the hardness of these welds. A relationship was determined between microhardness, quality of weld and input parameters using Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) methodology.

Dhruv Bhatt, Ashish Goyal, Vyom Singh

Fabrication and Tensile Testing of DHAK Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

In this Study, DHAK is identified as a potential fiber for reinforcement in making the composites. DHAK fiber reinforced polyester composites were manufactured up to a highest volume fraction of about 0.18 using hand layup method. The density of DHAK is found to be 1098.5 kg/m3. The tensile behavior of the composites was examined as a function of fiber content. It is found that the mean tensile strength and modulus of the composites increases with an increase in fiber content. It has been observed that the highest mean tensile strength of the composite is 114.97 MPa for the maximum volume fraction, which is about 2.356 times higher than that of the matrix. The maximum mean tensile modulus of the composite is calculated as 16.14 GPa for highest volume fraction, which is about 2.07 times higher than that of a matrix. It is found that a firm bond in existed between the DHAK fiber and matrix at the highest volume fraction 0.18. It is found from the results that using DHAK fiber placing in the matrix plays an important part in terms of maximum tensile strength and modulus of a new manufactured composite.

Partha Pratim Das, Gorrepati Srinivasa Rao, Eswara Krishna Mussada, Gadudasu Babu Rao, Bhupendra Prakash Sharma, Umesh Kumar Vates

Determination of Safety Stock in Divergent Supply Chains with Non-stationary Demand Process

In the present world, most of the firms are facing uncertain demand due to different market conditions. This type of demand can be modelled as non-stationary demand. In this paper, different multi-echelon divergent supply chain scenarios with non-stationary demand process are considered. Stock out plays an important role in supply chains; it reduces the service level of each member in a supply chain and causes high supply chain inventory cost. In order to avoid stock out in a supply chain, safety stock is to be maintained by each member. Developed simulation models for studying the operation of divergent supply chains under non-stationary demand processes. It is found that the stock out which leads to lost sales depends on two factors, i.e. the inertia of the non-stationary demand process and the structure of the divergent supply chain. In detail, the structure of the divergent supply chain is, basically, described in terms of the divergence factor. In this situation, we propose a mathematical relation to estimate safety stock by incorporating the divergence factor of the supply chain with non-stationary demand process. The performance of the supply chain against the divergence is analysed and the analysis shows that estimation of safety stock based on divergence factor can give a good estimate of the safety stock for divergent supply chain.

A. M. Ranjith, V. Madhusudanan Pillai

Solving Unequal Area Facility Layout Problems with Flexible Bay Structure by Simulated Annealing Algorithm

This article proposes an application of Simulated Annealing algorithm for Flexible Bay Structure (SA-FBS) based Unequal Area Facility Layout Problems (UA-FLPs). Initially, MILP model of UA-FLPs with FBS is solved using LINGO software, due to complexity of the model, LINGO solver is not giving the optimal solution in a reasonable time. Then, the proposed SA-FBS is developed and applied to test the UA-FLPs reported in the literature. SA-FBS method has either given the same or better solution as compared to the solution reported in the literature. The proposed SA-FBS computational timings are competitive as compared to other meta-heuristics timings reported in the literature.

Irappa Basappa Hunagund, V. Madhusudanan Pillai, U. N. Kempaiah

Mechanical Characterization of Polycarbonate-Graphene Oxide (PCG) Nanocomposite

Polymer matrix nanocomposite are of great interest due to its high specific strength, low cost, and ease of processing & synthesis. Various attempts have been made to improve properties of polymer matrix by introducing nano reinforcement. In present report, effect of low cost nanosheet reinforcement, Graphene Oxide (GO), in Polycarbonate (PC) matrix was studied for mechanical properties of PC-GO (PCG) nanocomposite. PC is used in various mechanical parts and structural applications. Low cost GO was synthesized by chemical oxidation route using low cost graphite flakes. To get better dispersion of GO in PC, solution mixing method was used. First, the thin film of PCG nanocomposite was prepared by mixing sonicated GO in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and beads of PC. After that these sheets were extruded using an injection molding machine to synthesize dog-bone sample of PCG nanocomposites. Morphological studies of samples were performed using FE-SEM machine. Dog-bone samples were characterized using micro mechanical testing machine. PCG composite was prepared for 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 wt.% of GO reinforcement in PC matrix. As the percentage of GO reinforcement increased, both tensile strength and elastic modulus of PCG nanocomposite increased. At 0.2 wt.% of GO tensile strength and elastic modulus was increased by 57 and 13%, respectively. GO reinforcement in PC showed better mechanical performance over pure PC.

Jaskaran Singh, Suneev Anil Bansal, Amrinder Pal Singh

Comparative Experimental Analysis of Machining Parameters for Inconel 825 on Cryogenic Treatment

This paper investigates machining of Inconel 825 with and without cryogenic treatment. The micromachining of Inconel 825 was done using CNC lathe and PVD coated (Multilayer TiAlN/TiN) carbide inserts as a cutting tool. Improvement in output parameters was observed when the workpiece material was treated cryogenically. The experiments were designed using the Taguchi method. A mathematical model has been established using the regression analysis of the experimental results. The independent variables in the developed mathematical model are cutting speed (Vc), feed (f), and depth of cut (d). The surface roughness and temperature are the dependent variables. The effect of independent variables on dependent variables with and without cryogenic treatment of the workpiece (i.e., Inconel 825) was analyzed. Nine experiments were conducted on a CNC lathe machine. Surface roughness of the workpieces was measured after machining the workpieces and the temperature was measured while machining of the workpieces. A mathematical model was formulated by using regression analysis. Based on the developed mathematical model surface finish was calculated.

Shivaji Vithal Bhivsane, Arvind L. Chel

Optimizing Gas Injection Stir Casting Process Parameters for Improving the Ultimate Tensile Strength of Hybrid Mg/(SiCp + Al2O3p + Grp) Through Taguchi Technique

In this experimental research work Taguchi technique has been utilized for finding out the optimal parameter combinations that result for better ultimate tensile strength of hybrid Mg/(SiCp + Al2O3p + Grp) MMC. The process parameters that are used for the analysis are the furnace temperature (oC), stirring speed (rpm) and stirring time (min). Also considering significant process parameters mathematical models related to the ultimate tensile strength (MPa) has been established. An L27(313) orthogonal array has been utilized for finding out the optimum conditions. The optimal parametric combination where maximum ultimate tensile strength has been achieved are A3B2C3, respectively. The results of this investigation result in selecting suitable casting process parameters in fabricating hybrid Mg-MMC of desired strength and longer durability.

Jaspreet Hira, Alakesh Manna, Pushpinder Kumar, Rohit Singla

Microstructural Characterization of Aluminium Alloy 6061 Powder Deposit Made by Friction Stir Based Additive Manufacturing

Consolidation of powder inside Additive Friction Stir (AFS) tool poses a problem of hindering its application. Additive Friction Stir Processing (AFSP) is a simple modification of this technique which can negate this. A slightly modified version of this AFSP is used in the present work to successfully make a 3D deposit structure of height 5 mm and width 64 mm. Microstructural study was done both in longitudinal and transverse directions. Induced isotropy was predicted from similar microstructures in these directions. No layer effect was seen in a particular deposit layer, unlike layered Friction Stir Welding. Also, the microstructure was similar in the deposit along the build-in direction. Reduction in the number of voids that was observed in the deposit might help to increase its hardness and other mechanical properties.

Akash Mukhopadhyay, Probir Saha

Service Quality—A Case Study on Selected Hotels in Goa

Goa is an international tourist destination where tourism is considered to be one of the main sources of revenue generation for the state. Hotel is considered to be a part of the hospitality sector in a service industry. Service and customer satisfaction are the prime objectives of any service-related organization. The service offered by every hotel is not uniform across all the hotels. Therefore, in order to standardize the service quality and reduce the gap, it is essential to fix service quality attributes which determine the customer satisfaction. A case study has been carried out on four hotels of five-star category across the state of Goa. The paper aims at measuring service quality and examining service quality attributes significant to the customer satisfaction. A SERVQUAL model was chosen for the conceptual frame work of the data. A feedback data of 200 respondents across hotels and travel websites were analyzed by gap, factor and the multiple regression analysis. The analysis results revealed a gap in the service quality perceived and expected by the customers. Exploratory factor analysis extract three factors of service quality, namely service reliability, staff assurance and physical facilities which significantly impact customer’s satisfaction measuring 51.061% of total variance. The relationship between three extracted factors of service quality and customer satisfaction is expressed in the form of multiple regression equation. This study will help the managers as a guide to improve service quality and enhance the customer satisfaction across the state of Goa.

Vallabh S. Prabhu Gaunker, Rajesh S. Prabhu Gaonkar

Influence of Nozzle Distance on Tool–Chip Interface Temperature Using Minimum Quantity Lubrication

In Manufacturing Science machining play a very important role in making the finished product. There are several metal cutting operations like, turning, milling, drilling, shaping, grinding, etc., by which the product can be machined. During machining operation heat is produced due to rubbing of sharp edge tool and work material. As the cutting speed increases, the amount of heat at different rubbing sections increases. The foremost objective of coolant is to reduce the emission of heat using different cooling methods. Traditionally, cutting fluids and lubricants were applied in abundance to reduce heat with the aid of flood lubrication system. Undoubtfully, this approach of lubrication reduces the temperature while machining, contrary to this, it has a negative impact on the worker, environment and most importantly costlier in the present era of machining. Therefore it was essential to find an alternative to stated muddle that should be safer for the worker, environmental, and economical too. So, as to keep these facts in mind the minimum quantity lubrication was applied in turning operation, which uses a very smaller extent of cutting fluid along with air to contribute cooling and lubrication action. In the present investigation, minimum quantity lubrication containing very low quantity of vegetable-based lubricant and air pressurized stream was utilized to cater heat generation in orthogonal machining. The outcomes of thermal reading at insert chip articulation were compared in dry and least coolant conditions. From experimental observations, it was revealed that MQL had significantly reduced the heat generation by 10–30% contrary to the dry turning of EN-31 steel. The maximum cutting temperature was recorded during dry machining when the nozzle was positioned at 55 mm gap from the cutting zone. It was evaluated that the nozzle distance of 30 mm gap was proved significant as compared to other distance. Furthermore, it was reported that the process capability of turning operation was enhanced using minimum quantity lubrication due to its economical behavior, better cooling and lubrication action and environmental friendly nature.

Gurpreet Singh, Vivek Aggarwal, Sehijpal Singh, Ajay Kumar

Investigation of Kerf Characteristics Using Abrasive Water Jet Cutting of Floor Tile: A Preliminary Study

Abrasive water jet (AWJ) is a technology concerned with cutting of difficult materials and performs cutting without changing the mechanical and physical properties of material. Floor tile is widely used in various commercial and industrial filed. One of the major applications of floor tile is its use in decoration of floor. Cutting of floor tile is very difficult by conventional machining methods. In the present work cutting of floor tile was done by the use of advanced abrasive water jet technology. The effects of input process parameters (water pressure (WP), nozzle transverse speed (NTS), and abrasive flow rate (AFR)) on the output response (kerf characteristics and surface roughness) were investigated while performing cutting of the floor tile. It was found that top kerf width is reduced with increase in the WP, NTS, and AFR. Further, it was observed that with the decrease in WP and NTS kerf, taper angle is reduced significantly.

Ramesh Chand, Vishal Gupta, N. K. Batra, M. P. Garg

Effects of Process Parameters on Surface Roughness, Dimensional Accuracy and Printing Time in 3D Printing

In this study, the interaction of different process parameters on printing time, surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of a 3D printed object are investigated. The impact of different parameters on the performance of the 3D printer is also investigated and their optimal values have been identified. From the study, it was found that layer height, infilled density and printing speed are major influential factors affecting the surface roughness, printing time and dimensional accuracy of the 3D printed piece.

Rajat Jain, Shivansh Nauriyal, Vishal Gupta, Kanwaljit Singh Khas

Optimization of Process Parameters on MRR During Face Milling of Rolled Steel (AISI1040) Using Taguchi Method

Mass production at low cost in industry can be obtained by reducing the manufacturing time. In this study, a systematic approach based on Taguchi’s philosophy is proposed to optimize the metal removal rate (MRR) during face milling of rolled steel (AISI1040). Experiments are performed on vertical milling center (HURCO-VM10) using face milling cutter of 80 mm diameter. Cutting velocity, feed per teeth, and depth of cut are considered as quantitative parameters. Whereas rolling direction, cutter offset, and soaking time are considered as qualitative parameters under cutting strategy. Experiments are conducted on the basis of Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array and MRR is calculated. Signal to noise (S/N) ratio is calculated to evaluate the optimum levels of process parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is conducted to identify the significant parameters, optimum settings, and percent contribution of each process parameter. The outcomes of ANOVA reveal that feed per teeth and cutting velocity are the main process parameters contributing to MRR. A confirmation test is performed to compare the predicted and experimental results of MRR. Results show that there is a significant improvement in the MRR by adopting the proposed optimization technique.

Kulwinder Singh, Anoop Kumar Singh, K. D. Chattopadhyay

A New Permanent Magnet Type Magnetorheological Finishing Tool for External Cylindrical Surfaces Having Different Outer Diameter

An improved magnetorheological finishing process has been developed with three permanent magnets for nano finishing the external surface of cylindrical workpieces. The cylindrical permanent magnets used in the developed tool are placed at an angle of 90° from each other. The three cylindrical permanent magnets are positioned in such a way that all three maintain an equal working gap with the surface of cylindrical workpiece. Finite Element (FE) analysis of the entire setup has also been performed in the Maxwell Ansoft V13 software to observe the dispersal of magnetic field density in the working gap. In the current study, the preliminary experimentations have been carried out to evaluate the finishing capability of the present developed tool. Experiments have been conducted over the external cylindrical workpiece made of copper which can be used as an electron discharge machining (EDM) electrode. After the experimentations of 45 min over the entire cylindrical workpiece made of copper, the average surface roughness Ra gets reduced from 224 to 67 nm with negligible surface defects which confirm the finishing performance of the developed finishing tool.

Ajay Singh Rana, Talwinder Singh Bedi, Vishwas Grover

Influence of Nanoparticle Addition (TiO2) on Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded AA6061-T6 Joints

Attempts were made in the present study to evaluate the effect of titanium oxide nanoparticles addition on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 6061-T6 aluminum alloy joints. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was utilized to evaluate the microstructures of the produced joints (nanocomposites) and to ascertain the distribution of titanium oxide nano-range particles in the processed zone. Results reveal that the produced nanocomposites have a uniform distribution of titanium oxide nanoparticles across the perpendicular x-section of a welded processed zone via Zener-pinning effect occurred due to the presence of titanium oxide nanoparticles that helps to prevent the coarsening of grains accompanied by recrystallization throughout the friction stir welding process, resulted in significant grain size reduction. With the increase in volume percentage of titanium oxide nanoparticles, a remarkable increase in the microhardness was noticed. It was also noticed that the ultimate tensile strength and the resistance to wear of produced nanocomposite can be significantly increased with the addition of titanium oxide nanoparticles as compared to parent metal joints. The corresponding mechanical properties’ results were correlated with microstructure and fractography.

Tanvir Singh, S. K. Tiwari, D. K. Shukla

An Analysis on the Advanced Research in Additive Manufacturing

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process in which materials are added to the other material in the form of layers through CAD/CAM instead of removing as conventional production process. This design driven technology is a new approach in the manufacturing. AM is advantageous in comparison with conventional production by reduction of material consumption and time, controlling and optimizing the production parameter for better performances of the products. It is also used for coating of different materials on elements or parts to prevent corrosion and wear. A composite layer can be formed on elements or parts. This paper represents the research, developments, and applications of additive manufacturing process. Efforts are made to get the knowledge about the materials selection, process parameters, and their optimization for friction surfacing through systematic review of research articles, technical notes, etc. The conventional techniques are less effective and large quantity of material converted to scrap material after comparatively long production process. AM can be used for highly complex structures as it has a high degree of design freedom. In contrast to pure additive processes, an additive-subtractive process called hybrid process is used commercially. The review of several research papers provides an idea of emerging solid-state surface coating process based on friction surfacing to improve properties and grain structure of the coating and substrate.

Gautam Chandra Karar, Ratnesh Kumar, Somnath Chattopadhyaya

Fabrication and Characterisation of Aluminium Matrix Composite (Al 2024) Reinforced with Zircon Sand and Flyash

Composites are becoming popular in advance engineering. Monolithic metals are replaced by metal matrix composites due to its low cost and improved properties like better strength, good wear resistance, hardness, etc. Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (AMMCs) are used widely in aerospace, automobile, and marine industries. Among the Aluminum Alloys, Al-2024 as a copper-based aluminum alloy shows poor strength as well as poor wear resistance. In the present investigation, Al-2024 is reinforced with Zircon Sand and Fly Ash fabricated with the Liquid metallurgy route. Al-2024 is reinforced with reinforcements in different weight fractions like 0.25, 0.50, and 1 wt.%. The microstructural analysis is carried out with the help of FESEM. XRD analysis investigates the phase and structure of both matrix and dispersive phases. Wear test is conducted on Multiple Tribotester. It is found that with the increase in weight fraction of Ceramic Reinforcement, there is an increase in wear resistance. Reinforced AMMCs with 1 wt.% of Zircon Sand and Fly Ash in equal proportion have shown better results.

Laxmikant Swain, Rabinarayan Sethi, A. K. Chaubey, Silani Sahoo

Novel Technology on Recovery of Ceramic Materials from Partially Lateritised Khondalite Rocks-A Bauxite Mining Waste

Partially Lateritised Khondalite (PLK) rocks are found at the mine site of bauxite mining area. These materials cannot be processed for the production of alumina as these contain high reactive silica. But, the materials can be a raw material for other industrial application after processing. In view of this, a research work has been worked out on this problem. The main aim of the present investigation is to see the effect of calcinations of non-mag products for iron removal and to observe the improvement in brightness of the product. In view of this PLK rocks are calcined at 1473°K temperature in a kiln and subjected to Dry High Intensity Magnetic Separator (DHIMS) after crushing to below one mm size. It is observed that a product obtained from calcined non-magnetic product from kiln contains 70% brightness value which is a material for filler industries like paint, pigment, ceramic, pesticides, paper coatings, textile, etc.

Ranjita Swain, Sunita Routray, R. Bhima Rao

A Study on Heavy Mineral Distribution Pattern Along Brahmagiri Coast of Odisha, India and Its Beneficiation to Recover Industrial Minerals

In this research paper, it is attempted to study the grain size distribution of heavy minerals and their distribution pattern along with chemical characteristics of four samples collected from Bhrahmagiri coast of Odisha. The grain size distribution of as it is samples and heavy minerals are carried out. Size frequency mode of 300 and 212 μm are more significant for as it is samples. Whereas, size analysis of heavy minerals show size frequency mode of 212 μm. All the four samples are found to contain higher percentage of magnetic heavies.

Sunita Routray, Ranjita Swain, R. Bhima Rao

Webometric Study of Lean Manufacturing

This paper contains info metric study of lean manufacturing. With the objective of reducing the cost TPS (Toyota Production System) came with the new practice called Lean Manufacturing. The goal of lean manufacturing is to eliminate the non-value added activities by reducing seven types of waste i.e. Overproduction, Over-processing, Rework, Inventory, Wait, Transportation, and Motion. In this paper summarization is done on the statistical data collected. The data has been collected over the years.and classified into various categories on the basis of their source of origin. The various sources of origin of the publications related to Lean Manufacturing are papers by various authors, publications through various international journals, publications among various fields of research and engineering, publications from various countries, and publications from various conferences. By using this data, webometric has been used to explore the impact of the field of Lean Manufacturing, the impact of set of researchers that has been publishing over the years.

Kritika Karwasra, Devesh Kumar, Gunjan Soni, Surya Prakash

Investigation of the Criticality of Flux Leakage of a Magnetizer Assembly of a MFL Tool for Oil and Gas Pipelines Inspection

Almost all pipelines need constant monitoring and frequent inspections. This paper presents the design of a magnetizer assembly and experimental simulation investigation of flux leakage. The simulations carried out in a well known multiphysics software to get insights for the designed magnetizer assembly based MFL tool. Defects of different size and depth are modeled and simulated so that a better design aspect of the magnetizer assembly can be conceived. Several simulations were carried out, and magnetic field density plots of the pipe cross-section were obtained. It was observed that as the thickness of the pipe is decreasing the magnetic flux density in that region increases. The center of the pipe, where the metal erosion is maximum, the flux density was also found to be increased and gradually decreases as we move toward the edges of the metal erosion. These findings helped in selecting the second chamber of the tool consisting of a magnetic section and optimal magnets arrangement for a given material of pipeline. The findings will help in selecting the chamber of the tool consisting of a magnetic section having magnets that are arranged in a crisscross pattern to provide stability to the tool.

Surya Prakash, Bhuvanesh Kumar Sharma, Chandra Prakash, Shubham Saini, Vikas, Ankur Sharma

DIC Correlation with Analysis Under Impact of Fiber Metal Laminates

Impact analyses are performed on fiber metal laminates (FMLs) by free fall of a mass at low to medium velocities and time-out of plane displacement responses are compared with following Digital Image Correlation (DIC) test procedure involving random pattern image projection on the specimen and high-speed camera. CARALL 1 consists of five aluminium layers which are reinforced with twelve embedded quasi-isotropic carbon fibre laminates and CARALL 2 involves three layers of aluminium reinforced with two embedded carbon fibre laminates. The thin plate undergoes predominant elastic deformation and explicit dynamic analysis shows good agreement with experimental results than CARALL 1 that undergoes both elastic and plastic deformation. Both test and analyses show good agreement on the assessment of response time of the FML laminates. The behaviour of deflection under impact loading up to low velocity is found to be linear and beyond which, a non-linear behaviour is observed.

S. K. Abhishek, G. Sunil Kumar, R. Ramesh Kumar

Evaluation of Tensile Strength Behaviour of Friction Stir Welding Joints of Aluminium Alloy with Interlayer

In the present study, the influence of interlayer is evaluated on friction stir welding of AA6082 aluminium alloy. Zn and Cu alloying elements in proportion mixed with adhesive are used as an interlayer. Interlayer is preplaced in a gap of 0.2 mm between the abutting plates. Friction stir welding is carried out at various rotational and welding speeds. Thereafter joints are evaluated for tensile properties. It is found that FSW joints prepared with interlayer possess higher tensile strength than joints produced without interlayer.

Avtar Singh, Vinod Kumar, Neel Kanth Grover

Effect of Machining Parameters and MQL Parameter on Material Removal Rate in Milling of Aluminium Alloy

In the current work, Taguchi technique is applied on aluminium alloy (Al-6061) during face milling to optimize the machining parameters and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) parameter for increasing the material removal rate (MRR). The MQL method is applied during face milling of Al-6061using coated carbide inserts. Coolant flow rate (CFR), cutting velocity, feed per revolution, and depth of cut are selected as input parameters. Taguchi L9 (34) orthogonal array is chosen for four input parameters with three levels for experimentation. Signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio is calculated based on “larger the better” for each experiment. Analysis of means is used to evaluate the optimum settings of input parameters. Significance and contribution of each input parameter is evaluated by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results of ANOVA show that depth of cut has a major contribution of 80.287% on material removal rate.

Kamaljeet Singh, Anoop Kumar Singh, K. D. Chattopadhyay

Influence of Cutting Force and Drilling Temperature on Glass Hole Surface Integrity During Rotary Ultrasonic Drilling

The surface integrity of the machined surface is having a significant impact on the application of the glass and ceramic materials. Surface integrity is of paramount importance to the industries to prevent the loss of useful life of critical components. However, conventional machining processes are unable to fulfill the demands of the present scenario but hybrid machining processes such as rotary ultrasonic drilling process has shown its potential for enhanced surface integrity. Nowadays, researchers are focused on getting superior machined glass quality because of the hardness and esthetic look. Therefore, the authors performed an experimental investigation to estimate the surface roughness while drilling a hole in glass specimen using rotary ultrasonic machining (RUD). It is concluded that the best drilling condition to get the least value of average surface roughness (167.702 nm) is the usage of coolant with 5000 rpm of spindle speed. At 5000 rpm with coolant supply, the cutting force and drilling temperature have been reduced. It is noticed that the least value of drilling temperature is 54.7 °C with a cutting force of 26.65 N. Finally, the improved surface integrity has been achieved noteworthy using RUD process. It would directly enhance the life span of the glass component and increase its functional usage.

Ankit Sharma, Atul Babbar, Vivek Jain, Dheeraj Gupta

Analysis on Development of Beeswax as Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage

The current review article is focused on the development of beeswax as phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy storage. Beeswax is an organic non-paraffin PCM, which is suitable for heat energy storage. But the main hamper of the beeswax during energy storage is less thermal conductivity and leakage during phase transformation. So, the researchers have been started attacking to resolve this kind of problem. During this fashion they were started to add high thermal conductivity particles with beeswax to improve thermal conductivity and at the same time leakage prevention porous material to prevent leakage during phase transformation. During the review, it is established that expanded graphite, graphene, carbon nanotube, expanded perlite carbon fiber, copper oxide, polymer, dammer gum, and tallow were used for conductivity enhancement and leakage preventing agent.

Durgesh Kumar Mishra, Sumit Bhowmik, Krishna Murari Pandey

Evaluation of Material Handling Using MCDM Techniques: A Case Study

Choosing the best possible Material Handling Equipment (MHE) is a significant assignment in MSEs due to the extensive capital involved. There are numerous substantial and impalpable factors affecting the selection process of appropriate MHE. Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) has been observed to be a helpful way to deal with and break down these clashing components. The assessment of MHE alternatives from different criteria and the weight of these different criteria are normally communicated in various ways. This paper proposes an MCDM strategy for assessment and selection of MHE type for small-scale industry in Punjab. Two-phase is used for getting weights to different criteria and for their ranking enabling us to get more reliable results required for the selection of suitable MHE. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) are utilized to compute the priority weightage and ranking of alternates, respectively. Selection of the most appropriate MHE is our objective while taking into account the tangible and intangible criteria.

Pardeep Kumar Verma, Raman Kumar, Gyanendra Singh Goindi

Application of Machine Learning Technique for Demand Forecasting: A Case Study of the Manufacturing Industry

The objective of this work is to develop a machine learning-based Support Vector Machine (SVM) demand forecasting model and its application in supply chain management. The proposed SVM model will predict future demand with high accuracy as compared to the conventional forecasting methods. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the present model, demand forecasting issue was investigated in a piston-manufacturing industry as a real-life case study. In this proposed research, an SVM model is developed using radial basis kernel function and sigmoid function to forecast monthly piston demand for Bajaj Discover motorbikes. Various factors that affect the product demand such as produced units, inventory, sales cost, and the number of competitors have been taken into consideration in the development of the model. A comparative analysis of the SVM model and various traditional forecasting methods used in the company like exponential smoothing, moving average, and autoregressive model has been done and the best demand forecasting model has been recommended to the case company.

Arvind Jayant, Anshul Agarwal, Vaibhav Gupta

A Robust Hybrid Multi-criteria Decision-Making Approach for Selection of Third-Party Reverse Logistics Service Provider

Environmental awareness has universally driven the move for sustainable supply chain management. Accordingly, manufacturing companies or organizations try to seek sustainable business strategies to respond to market pressure toward corporate social responsibility (CSR). Sustainable reverse logistics service provider selection is one of the practical strategies for competitive organizations. With the large-scale development of the automotive products industry, sustainable reverse logistics service provider evaluation method is the key for decision authority when dealing with big data information and possible risks of unstructured data. For instance, the choice of decision authority possibly may responsible for a misleading decision, thus leading to undesirable waste of less available resources and time. Therefore, the objective of present work is to apply the integrated multi-criteria decision methods using the “MOORA and WASPAS” approaches in the evaluation of third-party logistics service providers (3PRLSPs). It also incorporates the significance weight provided by SWARA technique and helps decision-makers for efficient decision-making. The proposed model is to evaluate, and criteria weight is determined using the step-wise weight assessment ratio (SWARA) approach and then ranking of the alternatives was decided by MOORA and WASPAS. The automotive parts manufacturing company may be benefited by their commitment toward environmental safety, economic, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) leading to improved brand value and sustainable business development.

Arvind Jayant, Shweta Singh, Tanmay Walke

Effect of Power Level on the Processing of Ni-Based Casting Through Microwave Heating

In the present research, Ni-based powder casting was developed using a domestic microwave oven with a variable power level of 180–900 W at 2.45 GHz frequency. The power level and exposure time were optimized using a set of experiments. It was found that with increase in power level the exposure time for the development of casting was reduced. The casting was developed within 25 min of exposure time at 900 W of power. Further, the microstructural results revealed the formation of equiaxed grains throughout the casting. The XRD analysis revealed the intermetallic compounds formation during processing. The intense heating led to the formation of nickel silicides and some chromium carbides. The formed carbides precipitated along the grain boundaries as indicated by EDS analysis. The microhardness of developed casting was observed as 404 ± 52 HV and was due to the presence of hard intermetallic compounds.

Gurjot Singh, Dinesh, Sarbjeet Kaushal, Satnam Singh

Optimization of Input Parameters for CNC Turning of SS304: A Grey Relational Analysis and Response Surface Methodology Approach

The present study deals with the investigation of the effect of input parameters on material removal rate and surface roughness during CNC turning of SS304. The turning of the specimen was done using TNMG tool inserts. The paper presents multi-response optimization with the Response surface models. The input parameters chosen for the study are speed, feed, and depth of cut. L-27 orthogonal array was used for the experimentation and Taguchi with Grey relational analysis were used for analysis. The significant parameters were obtained using analysis of variance. Optimal and significant levels were obtained and their regression models were made which are further verified by response surface plots. The relational model demonstrates the relationship between the response variables and input variables. The optimized parameters were further confirmed using a confirmatory experiment.

Anmol Bhatia, Mayank Juneja, Nikhil Juneja
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