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2018 | Book

Advances in Production Management Systems. Production Management for Data-Driven, Intelligent, Collaborative, and Sustainable Manufacturing

IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2018, Seoul, Korea, August 26-30, 2018, Proceedings, Part I

Editors: Prof. Ilkyeong Moon, Gyu M. Lee, Jinwoo Park, Dimitris Kiritsis, Gregor von Cieminski

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Book Series: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology

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About this book

The two-volume set IFIP AICT 535 and 536 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International IFIP WG 5.7 Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2018, held in Seoul, South Korea, in August 2018.

The 129 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 149 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: lean and green manufacturing; operations management in engineer-to-order manufacturing; product-service systems, customer-driven innovation and value co-creation; collaborative networks; smart production for mass customization; global supply chain management; knowledge based production planning and control; knowledge based engineering; intelligent diagnostics and maintenance solutions for smart manufacturing; service engineering based on smart manufacturing capabilities; smart city interoperability and cross-platform implementation; manufacturing performance management in smart factories; industry 4.0 - digital twin; industry 4.0 - smart factory; and industry 4.0 - collaborative cyber-physical production and human systems.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Lean and Green Manufacturing

Frontmatter
Reverse Logistics Route Selection Using AHP: A Case Study of Electronics Scrap from Pakistan

Selection of optimal route among available choices in the presence of various factors has been a prime focus in logistics. In this paper, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for selection of optimum route among available options for revere logistics of electronics scrap from Pakistan to the industry using End of Life (EOL) products as there raw material. The main objective of this study is to find out the optimal reverse logistic path for electronic scrap considering: cost of transportation, time of transportation, volume of goods to be transported, nature of goods (refurbished, recyclable or scrap), and financial value of the goods being transported. Recently developed China Pakistan Economic Corridor named as CPEC is also considered among available routes which are being analyzed. The results show that CPEC is the best possible route. In addition, the proposed mechanism also provides hierarchical list for the possible route preferences which helps in finding an alternate in case the best/better route isn’t available due to some unavoidable factors.

Fahad Mushtaq, Muhammad Shafiq, Matteo Mario Savino, Touqeer Khalid, Marialuisa Menanno, Ali Fahad
Digital Lean Cyber-Physical Production Systems: The Emergence of Digital Lean Manufacturing and the Significance of Digital Waste

This paper explores the emergence of the next cyber/digital frontier for lean manufacturing practices. It focuses on (a) the new capabilities of information and operational technologies (ITs/OTs) for proactively detecting and eliminating potential ‘physical waste’ in production processes, preventing its manifestation in the real world through powerful virtual models and simulations as well as real-time performance monitoring systems based on advanced data analytics, and (b) on identifying and eliminating ‘digital waste’ that may come into existence in the cyber world due to the non-use (e.g. lost digital opportunities) and/or over-use (e.g. abused digital capabilities) of new digital/smart manufacturing technologies.

David Romero, Paolo Gaiardelli, Daryl Powell, Thorsten Wuest, Matthias Thürer
Effect of Prioritization on the Waiting Time

In industry, it is common to prioritize some orders over others. This is done to reduce the lead time and waiting time of these prioritized orders, hence the customer will get the order earlier than otherwise. However, whenever an order is prioritized, the remaining orders are de-prioritized, and their lead time and waiting time will increase. In industry, a rule of the thumb that no more than 30% of the orders should be prioritized is often used. This paper will verify this assumption using simulations for different conditions. It will show that this rule of thumb is generally a valid approach. The paper will offer more detail on the trade-off between prioritizing some orders and hence delaying other orders.

Yannic Jäger, Christoph Roser
A Small Dice Game for the Kingman Formula

There are three main factors influencing the waiting time of a single-arrival single-process system: the utilization, the fluctuation of the arrival, and the fluctuation of the process time. The influence of these is not linear, and the combination of these effects is worse than the individual sums. Different approximations exist for this relation, the most popular one being probably the Kingman equation. Now it is one thing to understand this in theory, but experiencing this in practice makes it much easier to understand and will prepare practitioners much better for its effect. This paper describes a quick and easy game to have the practitioners experience the individual and combined effects of both utilization and fluctuation.

Christoph Roser, Masaru Nakano
Towards a Sustainable Innovation Process: Integrating Lean and Sustainability Principles

Many companies are heavily investing resources to innovate faster and smarter in order to gain or retain a competitive advantage. Nevertheless, defining and deploying a sustainable innovation vision still represents a challenge to most companies, as a deep change of mindset is required to reflect going beyond the design, development, production and distribution of new products, to also consider their disposal, recycling or reuse, as part of their end-to-end product life cycle. Therefore, this paper aims to: (1) highlight the relevance of including lean and sustainability principles in the early design and conceptualization phases, (2) explain how lean and sustainability can bring benefits when applied as an integrated system considering three axes: the economic, the social and the environmental, and (3) share a case study providing insights of a successful application.

Myrna Flores, Doroteja Maklin, Billy Ingram, Matic Golob, Christopher Tucci, Andrea Hoffmeier
Mathematical Modelling for Sustainable Agricultural Supply Chain Management Considering Preferences Between Farmers and Retailers

This paper considers an agricultural supply chain management to find the best matching between farmers and retailers with contract according to their preferences. It is important to construct the agricultural production system to hold the win-win relationship considering transportation costs. Therefore, in this paper, a mathematical programming problem is formulated to find the optimal matching between farmers and retailers under several uncertainties. It is generally difficult to obtain the best solution directly in terms of multiobjectivity and uncertainty. Therefore, the flexible modeling and the efficient algorithm to obtain these optimal solutions are also developed using a data-driven approach using our proposed information system.

Takashi Hasuike, Tomoko Kashima, Shimpei Matsumoto
Formalising Specific-Energy Consumption Under a Production-Management Form Where Rush Orders Are Added in Time Slots

Factory-production activity is conducted based on production plans, which will unavoidably have to be revised due to changes in the production context. These changes should be considered when drafting production plans because of the frequent occurrence of rush orders with short deadlines. Since rush orders interrupt regular orders, we may consider that increased setup times, lower production quantities, and increased specific-energy consumption will accompany their addition.We have previously supposed a management form that immediately adds rush orders to the production line, and proposed expressions for calculating the specific-energy consumption. Actual companies, looking to restrict increases in setup times, may implement management where rush orders are accumulated and added in time slots. However, in studies on formulae for calculating specific-energy consumption that consider rush orders, we see no consideration of management where the rush orders are added in time slots. Accordingly, this study presents a pre-emptive evaluation method using specific-energy consumption by formalising it for management where rush orders are added in time slots.

Shungo Arai, Hironori Hibino, Takamasa Horikawa, Makoto Yamaguchi
Implementation Challenges Affecting the Environmental Improvement Performance in Pharmaceutical Production:
Results of a Green Kaizen Pilot

This paper reports on working findings in an action research-based project, implementing a green kaizen pilot in a European pharmaceutical manufacturing company. The aim of the study is to investigate how continuous improvement initiatives with focus on environment originally developed for the automotive manufacturing industry could apply to the pharmaceutical industry. It also aspires to understand the enabling and hindering issues are for such implementation. There are considerable similarities of implementing lean in general in the two sectors, however, some key differences and challenges were apparent when implementing this specific green kaizen method called Green Performance Map. An implication for pharma practitioners implementing the green kaizen method concerns how to improve working procedures and production equipment to become more environmentally friendly amid high regulatory demands on process quality. Implementation challenges are discussed in terms of fidelity, locus and extensiveness of lean practices implementation.

Seyoum Eshetu Birkie, Martin Kurdve, Monica Bellgran, Jouni Korhonen
A Stochastic Programming Model for Multi-commodity Redistribution Planning in Disaster Response

When a large-scale disaster occurs, a set of relief centers should be determined to accommodate evacuees and a variety of multi-commodity should be distributed to these relief centers to provide basic life support. Because the multi-commodity distribution at peacetime may be imperfect and unbalanced, the surplus commodities in some relief centers can be redistributed to other relief centers with shortages, to make the effective and efficient use of these commodities. This multi-commodity redistribution problem is also an important issue in the emergency management. Various uncertain elements include transportation network, supply and demand, making this problem a big challenge. To handle this problem, a two-stage mixed-integer stochastic programming model was proposed to facilitate this multi-commodity redistribution process. In our model, we define the dissatisfaction cost based on the relief center size, unmet demand and oversupply of commodity in the relief center. Then, our objectives are to minimize the total dissatisfaction cost in the first stage and minimize the total transportation time in the second stage, sequentially. Finally, a randomly generated numerical instance is tested and computational results show that the proposed model can provide effective and efficient decisions in the multi-commodity redistribution process.

Xuehong Gao, Gyu M. Lee

Operations Management in Engineer-to-Order Manufacturing

Frontmatter
Dual Resource Constrained (DRC) Shops: Literature Review and Analysis

The majority of manufacturing systems in practice are constrained by machine capacity and labour capacity. Consequently a broad literature on Dual Resource Constrained (DRC) shops exists. However, to best of our knowledge, no systematic review of the literature has been presented. Rather, existing reviews follow an ad-hoc procedure for article selection. In response, this study presents a systematic review of the literature concerned with DRC operating issues, such as worker assignment and production planning and control methods. Results highlight that, while early literature on dual resource constraint job shops was mainly simulation based, recent literature tends towards advanced scheduling mechanisms. This arguably introduces a bias towards deterministic contexts. Moreover, most DRC literature focuses on shop floor control decisions as labour assignment and dispatching. This neglects higher-level planning and control methods, such as order release control.

Matthias Thürer
Controlling Customer Orders in the ETO/VUCA Contexts

Under hyper-competition customers expect to accept last-minute changes in their orders. In such circumstances ETO manufacturing exhibits the VUCA specificity and suffers from many issues like delays, excessive costs, low quality etc. This paper examines operative controlling as a mean to facilitate discovery and response to the changes and disturbances. The approach derives from the phenomenological research and the reflection on theory and practice. The solution uses an integrated model that represents all workflows subject to changeable contexts and is based on three pillars: (i) run-time data extraction; (ii) integrated representation of workflows; (iii) providing current information to shareholders. The concept was validated by prototyping and a use-case.

Stanisław Strzelczak, Viswavikram Viswanathan
Defining Solution Spaces for Customizations

Customization in different flavors have been identified as an important differentiator if low-cost competitiveness is not viable. To provide a customer unique solution is however not the same as providing a solution that is designed and individualized for a particular delivery to a customer. These two cases are illustrations of how customer requirements may be fulfilled differently depending on the match between stated requirements and the solution offered. The range of solutions that can be offered is represented by a solution space consisting of either predefined or postdefined solutions. Predefined refers to solutions that are defined before commitment to a customer and postdefined refers to solutions that are defined after commitment to a customer. Both cases are constrained by a boundary of possible solutions but the postdefined solutions provide opportunities for bounded innovation beyond what the predefined solutions can provide. Combining the properties of the different solution spaces provides not only an operational definition of customization but also supports in identifying strategic opportunities for extending the solutions and types of customizations a business provides.

Nikolas Käkelä, Joakim Wikner
A Conceptual Framework for Stage Configuration

Increased competition for creating best business cases in the ETO and capital goods industry forces companies to provide increased variety of product configurations to match diverse operating conditions, while simultaneously reducing the cost of supply. The ETO and capital goods industry is further characterized by rapid new technology introductions, constantly setting new standards in product performance and by an external environment with frequently shifting local regulations. To remain competitive in this volatile and unpredictable situation, this paper suggests a conceptual framework enabling companies to align new product development with sales order processes in a step-wise approach using product configuration. This alignment supports a five-stage approach in committing order specifications, thereby postponing configuration decisions according to the maturity of the sales order. Moreover, the stage-wise postponement enables the management of product specifications on different aggregation levels. The committed level of specifications, targets the relevant decision-making processes in product configuration without needless over-specification of the product. The stages are (1) qualifying a sales opportunity, (2) recommending an optimal solution, (3) signing the sales offer and performing supply chain planning, (4) releasing the order for production and completing customer specific design, (5) executing production, transportation and service operations.

Bjørn Christensen, Thomas D. Brunoe, Kjeld Nielsen
Dynamic Weight Configuration of Dispatching Rule Using Machine Learning

The manufacturing execution systems (MES) is one of the key elements consisting smart factory. It is responsible for shop floor control by performing managing resources, dispatching production orders, executing production orders, collecting production data, analyzing production performances, and so on. Through these functionalities, the MES aims high productivity. The dispatching in the MES helps these aims. The selection of job in manufacturing execution systems (MES) is performed by dispatching rule. The dispatching rule is composed of several factors affecting scheduling objective and constraint. In most cases, the dispatching rule is expressed as the weighted sum of factors and the weight moderates the relative importance among factors. To find optimal weight configuration requires heavy calculation burden so that it cannot adapt dynamic order changes. To solve this problem, one of machine learning algorithms is used in this study. The multi-layer perceptron learns the best weight configuration according to orders and predict the best weight configuration for new orders. The proposed method is tested by field data and proved its usefulness.

Jong-Ho Shin, Chaekyo Lee, Sangrae Kim, Jun-Gyu Kang
Customizations vs. Platforms – A Conceptual Approach to COSI

In recent years, many manufacturers have experienced an increased demand for customized products and services, which requires the manufacturer to simultaneously offer both standardized and customized products. Consequently, several manufacturing strategies must be efficiently employed. These companies do not express the same prerequisites as ‘pure’ ETO companies since they need to be able to differentiate customized orders from standard orders, but also be able to differentiate between the manufacturing dimension and the engineering dimension of customization. Whereas standard orders can be processed with a platform approach, the customized orders contain specific requirements and information represented by ‘customer-order specific information’ (COSI). This paper defines and presents competitive scenarios where platform constraints are combined with COSI for efficient customizations. Implications for the approach and a path forward is discussed.

Jenny Bäckstrand, Martin Lennartsson
Barriers and Success Factors for Continuous Improvement Efforts in Complex ETO Firms

This paper focuses on the factors that may influence the implementation of continuous improvement efforts, in an Engineer-to-Order (ETO) manufacturing setting. In general, one-of-a-kind production nature and temporary organizational structures of ETO firms may hinder the successful implementation of continuous improvement programmes. This study investigates this issue deeper through a single case study in a producer of offshore oil platforms and outlines the barriers and success factors for continuous improvement in ETO manufacturing.

Emrah Arica, Kristoffer Magerøy, Marta Therese Mathisen Lall
Engineering Change Management in the Engineer-to-Order Production Environment: Insights from Two Case Studies

Engineering changes (ECs) are part of any Engineer-to-order (ETO) project. The engineering change management (ECM) literature provides various tools, methods and best practices, and this study investigates ECM practices in the ETO production environment. Through two exploratory case studies, we identify five main ECM challenges; EC impact analysis, EC data management, internal and external collaboration and communication, and EC post-implementation review. Both companies have implemented the main ECM steps recommended in literature but there are considerable weaknesses in the execution of the post-implementation review process. More ETO cases are needed to confirm the findings and investigate how ECM tools and approaches vary by different dimensions.

Natalia Iakymenko, Anita Romsdal, Marco Semini, Jan Ola Strandhagen

Product-Service Systems Customer-Driven Innovation and Value Co-creation

Frontmatter
Economic Assessment of PSS Value Networks – An Algorithmic Approach

Product-Service Systems (PSS) are one of the business innovation drivers in terms of increasing the value for the customer and for the actors involved in PSS provision. This paper reports on a framework for assessing the economic value out of PSS provision considering a multi-actor perspective. The originality of the proposed framework is twofold: enabling an attribution of the costs (and revenues) to the actors involved in the value network, and considering the peculiarities of the use phase in cost and revenue calculation, i.e. impact of PSS contract duration and of the intensification of the product use through take-back systems.

Khaled Medini, Xavier Boucher, Sophie Peillon, Hervé Vaillant
Modularity in Product-Service Systems: Literature Review and Future Research Directions

Modularity is a well-known concept that has been widely applied in both product and service design, respectively, for efficiently creating and offering variety to serve heterogeneous customer demand. However, the application of modularity in the design of a product-service system in which products and services are integrated is less addressed in previous research, despite servitization being a differentiating factor and promising strategy in many manufacturing companies. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to review state-of-the-art research on the development of modular product-service systems. The literature review assesses development methods for modular product-service systems proposed in previous research and categorizes these in regard to the development steps proposed, the research method applied, focus of the product-service systems, and the industry in which the research is conducted. Among others, the literature review concludes that research tends to focus on modular service development in the product-service system and the proposed methodologies for modular product-service system development mainly consists of four generic steps. Based on the findings of the literature review, areas of interest for future research are proposed.

Maria Stoettrup Schioenning Larsen, Ann-Louise Andersen, Kjeld Nielsen, Thomas Ditlev Brunoe
Mass Customization as a Productivity Enabler in the Construction Industry

Mass customization (MC) has improved productivity in the manufacturing industry, and it may be applicable in the construction industry, even though only limited literature for the implementation of MC is present.This paper focus on how MC as a strategy can apply to the construction industry improving the overall productivity. This is done by analyzing the three fundamental capabilities of MC to determine their potentially contribution to improving the productivity relative to the well-known phases of a construction project. Any such contribution affect directly the productivity of a company as well as whole industry, and this paper points out where to seek for improvements to increasing the productivity in the construction industry by using MC as a strategy.

Kim Noergaard Jensen, Kjeld Nielsen, Thomas Ditlev Brunoe
How Can Hackathons Accelerate Corporate Innovation?

In recent years, the way corporates innovate has changed significantly. Going from ‘behind closed doors’ innovation to open innovation where collaboration with outsiders is encouraged, companies are in the pursuit of more effective ways to accelerate their innovation outcomes. As a result, many companies are investing to create more entrepreneurial environments, which not only empower employees to proactively propose and test new ideas, but also reach beyond company walls to involve many others in the co-creation of new solutions. In this paper, we outline the most notable benefits of hackathons from the perspective of large organizations, and present the benefits and a methodology for organizing hackathons, i.e. competition-based events where participants work in small teams over a short period of time to ideate, design, rapidly prototype and test their ideas with a user-centric approach to solve a determined challenge. This paper also provides a brief insight into the CEMEX Hackathon, which was organized following the aforementioned methodology.

Myrna Flores, Matic Golob, Doroteja Maklin, Martin Herrera, Christopher Tucci, Ahmed Al-Ashaab, Leon Williams, Adriana Encinas, Veronica Martinez, Mohamed Zaki, Lourdes Sosa, Karina Flores Pineda
Smart Supply Chain – Development of the Equipment Supplier in Global Value Networks

Digitization and its effect on markets, production conditions, and intercompany interaction forces companies to adapt continuously in order to stay competitive. Factory equipment suppliers are especially affected by this development. Their customers expect them to digitalize their products and at the same time, request new service-based approaches in short periods. Ultimately, they are taking a new role within the automotive supply chain. With their smart products and solutions, factory equipment suppliers build the fundament to digitalize their customers. As suppliers of smart solutions, they will gain strategic importance in global value creation networks and smart supply chains. This paper examines the transformation of the equipment suppliers through the progressive networking of supply chains, using the automotive industry as an example. It shows how their new strategic role within the supply chain is developing and what requirements consequently arise.

Martina Schiffer, Michael Luckert, Hans-Hermann Wiendahl, Benedikt Saretz
Mass Customization Capability Planning with Additive Manufacturing

Mass customization aims to manufacture large quantities of customized products at low costs comparable to that in mass production. However, the two operational objectives of mass customization, production flexibility and cost-efficiency, conflict with each other. In this circumstance, one of the famous prototyping technologies, additive manufacturing (AM), began to draw attention with its multiple function in the production system, which enables mass customizers to achieve the two contradictive objectives. This study defines mass customization capability planning (MCCP) as a production planning process which balances between production flexibility and cost-effectiveness. Also, the mathematical planning model of MCCP is developed to support it. Since the MCCP model includes stochastic parameters, a heuristic method is applied to the solution searching process. After, the MCCP model was validated by the experiment analysis.

Songi Kim, Bongju Jeong
Construct a Customized Product Service System Utilizing Multi-agent System

Over the years, the way customers measure value has changed drastically. If companies still focusing on pure product quality or cost, will gradually lose competitiveness. Considered as a solution to the strategy, the product service system combines tangible products, intangible services, and back-end support systems to reduce the risk of uncertainties and meet diverse customer needs. Although there are many studies on product service systems, there are still opportunities of improving design methods that can provide different content in response to changing need. In view of customization, this paper utilizing text analytic technique to capture PSS improving opportunity, and realizing customization with a MAS-based recommend system.

Cheng-Yen Chang, Chi-Hsuan Tsai, Ming-Chuan Chu
The Demand-Pull Approach to Business Model Innovation Through Product-Service Systems: A Case Study

Industry is facing a deep transformation of the modes of production and consumption, resulting in a shift from product-centric practices towards sustainable and customer-oriented ones. In this context, Product-Service Systems (PSS) exhibit the potential for innovative and customer oriented value propositions. To take full advantage of PSS, it is essential to design suitable business models enabling an alignment of the processes, products and services to customer needs. Innovation Management is an important literature stream contributing to understand the business model transformation by differentiating between two main approaches of innovation: technology-push and demand-pull. Until now, little attention has been put in the demand-pull approach for business model innovation. The central question this paper addresses is: How does the demand-pull approach for the design of a PSS value proposition affects the whole business model of a company? To answer this question a literature review is a carried out, and then a research-intervention methodology is applied to a real case.

Martha Orellano, Christine Lambey-Checchin, Khaled Medini, Gilles Neubert

Collaborative Networks

Frontmatter
Scenarios for the Development of Platform-Based Networks for Additive Spare Part Production

The additive manufacturing technique “Selective Laser Melting” (SLM) provides the basis that is required for a fundamental paradigm shift in industrial spare part manufacturing, which affects both technological and organizational company practices. To harness the full potential of the SLM-technology with regard to agility and customizability, decentralized additive production networks need to be established. According to the principles of just in time, just in place and just enough, a global online platform that distributes construction orders to local manufacturing hubs could empower the market participants to utilize production capacities at optimal costs and minimal efforts. This work evaluates relevant fields of action by developing three future scenarios, which point out different future developments of key factors within the subject area. These scenarios enable market participants to react better and more agilely to unexpected market developments and, by doing so, make it easier for them to use the full potential of plat-form-based additive spare part production.

Jana Frank, Philipp Jussen, Lennard Holst, Timo Lütke Meyring
Embedding Memorable Experience to Customer Journey

Customer journey mapping (CJM) is a well-known customer-oriented technique used to document and understand a customer’s emotional responses (dissatisfaction-satisfaction) to a product or service on an individual journey for improving the overall experience. Despite the widespread use of CJM, the intention has been centered on providing a good and failure-free customer journey but may not guarantee success in today’s competitive market wherein the aim is towards creating customer loyalty. Type and characteristic of experiences that create memorable experience have not yet been intentionally considered in this technique. Meanwhile, the 4Es model describing four distinct types of experience has been pervasively used, especially in the tourism industry, for providing the richest customer experience. Researchers found that the 4Es model has a positive effect on customer memories and loyalty. Therefore, presented in this paper is an approach to embedding memorable experience to customer journey by incorporating the 4Es model in CJM. A kick-off meeting program of a curriculum development project was used to illustrate the implementation of the proposed approach. The results show that the approach can be practically applied and appropriate for continuous improvement.

Duangthida Hussadintorn Na Ayutthaya, Pisut Koomsap
Overcoming Barriers Against Interaction on Innovation Capabilities Within and Between SMEs

Handling metadata and module-based capabilities are enablers for radical new ways of interaction within and between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in terms of innovation. A challenge in this often complex actor and interaction picture is that there can be organizational, process-related, financial and practical barriers which tend to reduce innovativeness. There is thus a need for methods which can provide dynamic and company-based innovation networks. This study investigates the main barriers for effective interaction and sharing of innovation capabilities within SMEs. The factors identified are individual, technological and organizational factors. The success of SMEs lies in overcoming all these barriers in order to ensure effective interaction and sharing of innovation capabilities through their networks. This study suggests the main conditions and elements which can contribute to overcoming the barriers against effective interaction on innovative capabilities among SMEs.

Sara Hajikazemi, Anandasivakumar Ekambaram, Carl Christian Røstad, Bjørnar Henriksen
Controllable Production Rate and Quality Improvement in a Two-Echelon Supply Chain Model

The flexible production plays the key role within any production system. An optimization model is developed for a production system with flexible production rate within a fixed limit, defined by the management, with quality improvement in a supply chain management. The aim of the model is to obtain the best optimum production rate with the global minimum cost. It is assumed that the lead time demand follows a normal distribution and a lead time crashing cost is used to reduce the lead time. A classical optimization technique is used to solve the supply chain model. A theorem is established to obtain the global minimum total cost. A numerical example is given to illustrate the model. Numerical studies prove that this model converges over the existing literature at the global minimum cost.

Mitali Sarkar, Byung Do Chung
Reduction of Decision Complexity as an Enabler for Continuous Production Network Design

Today, the continuous design of production networks is challenging due to their high complexity and diverging interests of individual sites. In order to increase the efficiency and agility of global producing companies, this paper presents a method that shifts the often-present focus on locations towards a market and production process oriented design approach of production networks. By subdividing the product range into product families, the complexity of decision-making processes is reduced. Subsequently, target conflicts between product families are resolved systematically from an overall corporate view by deriving the smallest possible holistic decision scope. The method was applied to a machine tool manufacturer.

Günther Schuh, Jan-Philipp Prote, Bastian Fränken, Stefan Dany, Andreas Gützlaff
Collaborative and Sustainable Network Design in Courier Services

While the courier service demand has been continuously increasing over the last decade, the unit price has been dropping due to the more severe competition among the courier services. The courier service companies with low market share are making several types of efforts to survive in competitive market. Collaboration via the economy of sharing can allow the courier service companies to extend their service network and increase the market share. This study suggests a collaboration model to increase the competitiveness of every participating company. In addition, a nucleolus-based profit allocation method is applied for fair allocation of the profits to each participating company based on a cooperative game theory. An illustrative example problem demonstrates the applicability and efficiency of the proposed model.

Ki Ho Chung, Seung Yoon Ko, Chang Seong Ko
Measuring Throughput Times in Wood Component Production: A Case Study

An increasing number of manufacturing companies acknowledge the importance of flow efficiency. As an important key performance indicator in lean implementation processes, being able to measure the throughput time of products is important to assess the current situation. This paper presents a stepwise method for measuring the throughput time in manufacturing environments with no unique identification of products, products made up of several levels of subcomponents, as well as varying batch sizes throughout the process. With relatively few data points, the method calculates the average throughput time of products for a chosen time period. The method is applied to a case company who manufactures wood components.

Sven-Vegard Buer, Oladipupo Olaitan, Jan Ola Strandhagen
Possibilities and Benefits of Intermediate Care Units in Healthcare Systems from a Logistics Perspective

Intermediate care units have been established as a response to the emerging challenges of healthcare systems to maintain high quality and continuous care. While the term is well known in both literature and practice, it lacks a unified definition. There is no common consensus of how intermediate care units can be successfully implemented and properly utilized in healthcare systems. Large variations of services in intermediate care units can be found. This literature review has structured the existing research on intermediate care units, identifying the possibilities and benefits of intermediate care units in healthcare systems from a logistics perspective. The main findings discussed in this study concern the following topics: the effect of intermediate care units on healthcare system performance and patient outcomes, and potential users of and services provided by intermediate care units. This study presents the state-of-the-art research on intermediate care units and suggests topics for further research.

Aili Biriita Bertnum, Giuseppe Ismael Fragapane, Marco Semini, Jan Ola Strandhagen

Smart Production for Mass Customization

Frontmatter
A New IT Architecture for the Supply Chain of Configurable Products

Many ERP systems support configurable materials. Due to an ever increasing number of product variants the benefits of this approach are well understood. However, these implementations are not standardized. In this article we propose a new standard interface for the exchange of configuration data. This would lead to further benefits as systems as Advanced Planning systems could better use manufacturing flexibility while web shops as Amazon could easily integrate manufacturers of complex products with much reduced implementation effort.

Ernst-August Stehr, Jan Reschke, Volker Stich
Service Rate Control in Mn/Gn/1 Queue

Service rate control in queues is an important problem in practice. For example, when the number of customers waiting for finished products is small production has a normal speed, but if it is greater, the production speed should be faster to meet the demand. For an exponential service time distribution, the optimality of the threshold type policy has been proved in literature. On the other hand, in production systems, production time follows a general distribution in general. In this paper, service control of speed depending on the number of customers is discussed. The analytical results of an M/G/1 queue with arrival and service rates depending on the number of customers in the system, which is called an Mn/Gn/1 queue, are utilized for computing performance measure of service rate control. Constant, uniform and exponential distributions on the service time are considered through numerical experiments. The results show that the optimal threshold depends on the type of the distributions even when the mean of service time is the same.

Koichi Nakade, Shunta Nishimura
Understanding Changeability Enablers and Their Impact on Performance in Manufacturing Companies

Managing and capitalizing on product variety, customization, personalization, decreasing batch sizes, as well as rapid new product introductions are prevailing challenges facing today’s manufacturing companies. Changeable and reconfigurable manufacturing systems have been widely accepted as means to respond to these challenges, due to their ability to accommodate continuous and cost-efficient change in functionality and capacity. However, enablers of reconfigurability that should be selected during manufacturing system design are in current research rarely regarded in terms of their inherent relations and impact on manufacturing performance. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore implementation relations between physical enablers of reconfigurability on system and equipment level and their effect on manufacturing performance. For this purpose, a quantitative questionnaire-based survey has been conducted in various Danish manufacturing companies. The findings suggest that most reconfigurability enablers correlate strongly in their implementation and their extent of implementation generally correlates with critical performance aspects such as profitability, ramp-up time, and life-time of production systems.

Ann-Louise Andersen, Kjeld Nielsen, Thomas D. Brunoe, Jesper K. Larsen, Christopher Ketelsen
A Changeable Jig-Less Welding Cell for Subassembly of Construction Machinery

The cost and technological development of industrial robots suggests a substitution of labor-intensive processes. Jig-less welding is an example of an emerging concept that is derived from this development, providing high flexibility without compensating on efficiency. This paper presents a conceptual solution of a jig-less welding cell for a particular environment with the purpose of investigating potential, expected challenges to overcome before implementation. To investigate the expected, potential challenges the concept is applied to a case study that takes its outset in a low volume, high variety welding facility. A full-scale test on the setup have yet to be conducted.

Mads Bejlegaard, Thomas Ditlev Brunoe, Kjeld Nielsen
Challenges in Production and Manufacturing Systems Platform Development for Changeable Manufacturing

Development of platforms for products has proven a successful way to manage and address several challenges related to increasing variety and accelerating product development cycles. Thus, it is natural to assume that platforms may facilitate similar benefits for manufacturing systems, as they are both technical systems. Production and manufacturing systems platform development is, however, still an area of research lacking maturity. Development of platforms in this field comes with a set of challenges not necessarily found in product platform development. Looking towards other fields of research or science may be necessary to address these challenges. This paper aims to study challenges related to production and manufacturing systems platform development and describe how these have been addressed. It does so through an evolving case study based on four projects with an industrial collaborator. This leads to setting the stage for future research on production platforms.

Daniel Grud Hellerup Sorensen, Thomas Ditlev Brunoe, Kjeld Nielsen
Modelling for Service Solution of a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with the Presence of Third Party Logistics

Service, the word itself is a big issue in the corporate world. One of the most important parts of the reputation of a company depends how much it can provide service to customers. It is very difficult to maintain especially when it is related to a closed-loop supply chain. Quality of products is also a main factor of business that is known to all. In this model, a closed-loop supply chain with multi-retailer, single-manufacturer and single- third-party collector (3PL) is considered where service and quality issues are maintained throughout the supply chain. The model is solved by a classical optimization method and obtains global solutions in closed and quasi-closed forms. Numerical experiments are done to illustrate the model clearly. Numerical results prove the reality of the model.

Mitali Sarkar, Rekha Guchhait, Biswajit Sarkar
Product-Process Modelling as an Enabler of Manufacturing Changeability

Today’s competitive environment demands increased product variety, more rapid product introductions and increasingly efficient operations in manufacturing. Changeable manufacturing, encompassing reconfigurability and flexibility, provides a mechanisms for addressing these new demands, however there is a significant gap between the concept of changeable manufacturing, and what is actually enabled through operational methods. This paper analyzes how integrated modelling of products and processes can be applied when designing, managing, and operating changeable manufacturing systems. This is structured using generic changeability classes and generic changeability enablers. It is concluded that integrated product-process modelling has a potential to support changeability, especially within the classes reconfigurability, flexibility and transformability. However a theory-practice gap still exists, calling for more research on specific methods and feasibility of such approach.

Thomas Ditlev Brunoe, Daniel G. H. Sorensen, Mads Bejlegaard, Ann-Louise Andersen, Kjeld Nielsen
A Model of Dynamic Scheduling of Restaurant Operations Considering the Order and Timing of Serving Dishes

Japanese and French restaurants provide dishes in an order specified by tradition; for example, from appetizers to desserts. On the other hand, customers in a Japanese-style bar or casual restaurant often order several dishes at one time. They may have implicit preferences as to the order and timing of serving the dishes according to the characteristics of the foods and their situations. For example, light meals that can be served quickly tend to be served first to cater to customer desires. This paper proposes a dynamic scheduling approach for restaurant service operations considering the order and timing of serving dishes. Customers specify their requests for the order of serving dishes to floor staff, and then a model configures cooking and serving schedules dynamically according to the customers’ requests. In this paper, three models are proposed. In the first model, cooked dishes are stocked in a storage space until the customers’ requirements for the order have been satisfied. The second model coordinates cooking schedules by considering the order sequence, cooking time, and lot assignment to adapt to customer requirements. The third model combines the first and second models.

Tomomi Nonaka, Terumi Nobutomo, Hajime Mizuyama
A Literature-Based Analysis of the Cyber-Physical Systems Under the Lens of Reconfigurability

Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are an increasingly known set of technologies and applications promising to enable manufacturing firms improving their responsiveness to deal with the unpredictability of market requirements. Indeed, from an operational perspective, responsiveness can be achieved because CPSs are an enabler of the reconfigurability of factories. Reconfigurability is a capability that has been theorized since almost two decades. Therefore, today we can consider such grounded theory as a lens to frame emerging CPS-related knowledge. This paper is an effort to give a contribution in this direction. In particular, starting from the acknowledgement that a relevant characteristic of reconfigurability is modularity, this research proposes a literature-based analysis of the Cyber-Physical Systems of the future smart factory.

Napoleone Alessia, Macchi Marco, Pozzetti Alessandro
The Platform of Intelligent Manufacturing System Based on Industry 4.0

Intelligent manufacturing has become a development trend for manufacture industry. But there only have few labs that can demonstrate more comprehensive concepts of intelligent manufacturing. To fill the blank of this area and promote the development of intelligent manufacturing, we start this project and build up a platform that demonstrate how intelligent manufacturing system is working and upon which we can explore the feasible scheme for companies and teach students about intelligent manufacturing visually. We combine hardware like industrial robots, enterprise management software like MES, ERP and cloud platform to build a sustainable system of intelligent manufacturing. This platform is designed for scientific research, experimental teaching, enterprises training and work out solution for enterprises.

Jinghui Yang, Guorong Huang, Qi Hang
Achieving Balanced Workload Distribution Amongst Cross-Trained Teams

This research is focused on improving the flow of items through the cross-trained teams of a leather furniture manufacturing company, which manufactures a high mix of products. Presently, a Push control strategy is applied to control production, but this causes uneven build-up of items for processing (i.e. workload) at the cross-trained teams. Hence, this research investigates the application of the CONstant Work In Process (CONWIP) strategy to control Work in Progress (WIP) and at the same time ensure balanced workload distribution amongst the teams. It uses the release signal from downstream to monitor the work rate of individual teams and regulate the release of new items for them to process. Results of simulation experiments conducted on the system show that the application of CONWIP, particularly with consideration of the cross-trained teams in its item release decisions, ensures a balanced distribution of workload amongst the teams. This eradicates the constant need for human intervention to redistribute items between the cross-trained teams, which is a current challenge for the case study company.

Oladipupo Olaitan, Erlend Alfnes, Jørn Vatn, Jan Ola Strandhagen

Global Supply Chain - Supply Chain Management

Frontmatter
Exploring the Role of Information Systems in Mitigating Gate Congestion Using Simulation: Theory and Practice at a Bulk Export Terminal Gate

Using an Australian wood chip export terminal as a case study, this research presents a terminal gate simulation model that improves understanding of the complex interactions at the terminal gate and describes the potential of information and digital systems alternatives for mitigating congestion. The alternatives modelled include: a terminal appointment system to schedule truck arrivals; integrating weigh-bridge information to eliminate one stage of the unloading process; and, reducing conveyor operation time.Simulation results indicate that a terminal appointment system can reduce turnaround times by up to 23%, primarily through a reduction in waiting times. Integrating weigh-bridge information can improve turnaround by up to 18%, while reducing the conveyor operation time can improve turnaround by up to 5%. The paper highlights that achieving these simulated results in practice actually relies on a range of factors and assumptions hard to embed in the simulation. These factors influence the nature of the complex interactions at the terminal gate and include the extent to which stakeholders are willing to share information and develop or retain levels of trust between each other.The paper argues that one potentially effective strategy for aligning stakeholders’ interests involves engaging them all in the decision-making processes in finding and developing a suitable congestion management solution. This approach mitigates concerns regarding system abuse, ensures all technological and business requirements of stakeholders are considered and, enhances the implementation process to deliver increased effectiveness of the solution.This research is part of a major ongoing research project undertaken in Australia funded by the Australian Research Council through the Industrial Transformation Research Program.

Mihai Neagoe, Mohammad Sadegh Taskhiri, Hong-Oanh Nguyen, Paul Turner
Influence of Setup Cycles on the Throughput Time of Rush Orders

Many companies use rush orders in production to meet the heterogeneous delivery times customers demand. Rush orders receive high priority in production and thereby achieve short throughput times. In the context of sequence-dependent setup times, the throughput time of rush orders can be much higher as they have to wait on their respective setup family. This paper presents two different strategies for accelerating rush orders at workstations with sequence-dependent setup times and shows their influence on the throughput time.

Friederike Engehausen, Hermann Lödding
A Flow Based Foundation for Capacity Dimensioning

To proactively decide on the volume of capacity available in a period of time is referred to as capacity dimensioning. The actual dimensioning of capacity concerns both the regular capacity, to cater for systematic variations, and safety capacity, to handle the stochastic variations. Despite the critical impact of these two types of variations, the support in the literature is limited in terms of formal methods for resource management based on dimensioning of capacity in general, and of safety capacity in particular. Capacity is one aspect of resources’ capabilities and as a point of departure for developing such methods, the two overarching challenges of form-place-time matching and capacity balancing are defined. These challenges are exploited to provide a holistic approach to the combination of capacity and the generic form, place and time transformations performed to create customer value. This approach requires alignment between these types of transformation to enable a homogenous perspective on different types of resources such as machines and stock shelves. Such transformations are performed over time and a discrete-time period-based approach requires that the intra-period transfers and inter-period variations are integrated. Finally, the preconditions for proactive and reactive control related to capacity required are outlined. A foundation for capacity dimensioning is then established based on capacity balancing, period transfers and flow control.

Joakim Wikner, Lisa Hedvall
On Comparison of Multiple Non-linear Profiles for Process Selection

A product can be produced by using alternative processes. The processes that can produce the product having consistent quality performance as the existing process are qualified alternative processes. Having several qualified alternative processes can relax the conditions for production scheduling and increase production capacity. This research focuses on analyzing the quality characteristic which is nonlinear profile. The quality characteristic, which is the response variable, has a non-linear functional relationship with the explanatory variable. The objective of this research is to select a subset of qualified alternative processes among I alternative processes, I > 1. A Step-up Test Procedure is proposed to compare the non-linear profile of each process with the existing process. Polynomial regression is used to estimate the non-linear profile models before applying the step-up sequential tests. The proposed method can effectively test the significance of the differences among processes, while controlling the overall error rate of testing I processes below α.

Chen-ju Lin, Pei-Ying Lin
Combinatorial Benders’ Cut for the Admission Control Decision in Flow Shop Scheduling Problems with Queue Time Constraints

This paper presents the mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) based model to approach the admission control in flow shop scheduling problem with queue time constraints, where there are various upper bounds limit in each queue. The scheduling proposed in this paper iteratively retrieves the real-time status of a production system such as machine failures and recoveries, and job arrivals in each step and generate the most updated scheduling result at each decision time. Our objective function is to minimize the occurrence of queue time violation. We solve the MILP using combinatorial Benders’ cut (CBC), where the MILP model is decomposed into two independent parts: the binary variables as a master problem and the continuous variables as a slave problem. We compare the CBC with the results gained from the CPLEX. The numerical results indicate that the CBC indeed effectively and efficiently reaches the good feasible solution within a reasonable timeframe in the context of timely updating scheduling problem.

Rudi Nurdiansyah, I-Hsuan Hong
Simulation Analysis for Demonstrating the Economic Competitiveness of Busan Port in the Northeast Asia

Container traffic between Busan and Japan is continuously blooming as the global economy grows impressively. It is interesting to see that Busan in Korea has great potential to be considered as a transit port for container export/import in Japan instead of Japanese domestic transit ports, due to the special geographic location and economical container handling cost. This paper attempts to demonstrate the economic competitiveness of Busan port for container transshipment. It describes models for analyzing the container transportation time and cost by transshipment mode, specifically, transferring via the ports of Japan vs. via Busan. A simulation programming method is developed to build the models. A case study which considers twenty Japanese regional cities has been presented. According to the comparison of simulation results and sensitivity analysis, the paper concludes with a discussion and suggestions for the container transportation transshipment network design of Japan.

Ilkyeong Moon, Qian-Ru Shen, Xuehao Feng
Causes of Delivery-Time Variance in Maritime-Equipment Manufacturing Supply-Chains: An Empirical Study

The overall performance of manufacturing companies has become increasingly dependent on their ability to coordinate a network of suppliers effectively. For manufacturers of customized equipment, it is even more important to coordinate several such network relationships concurrently to achieve service level objectives while minimizing inventory- and quality-related costs. In this paper, we investigate the causes of delivery variance in an engineer-to-order supply chain. Using four case companies within the global supply chain of a customized maritime-equipment manufacturer, we discuss these causes of delivery-time variance and suggestions for managing them.

Olumide E. Oluyisola, Tuomo E. Salmi, Jan O. Strandhagen

Knowledge Based Production Planning and Control

Frontmatter
Discrete Event Simulation – A New Approach to Multi-level Capacitated Planning?

Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is a well-known approach to simulate production environments. However it was rarely used for operative planning processes and to our knowledge never in terms of multiple disposition levels. In this paper we develop the necessary adjustments to use DES for this purpose and show some theoretical advantages.

Ernst-August Stehr, Jan Reschke, Günther Schuh
Procurement Decisions in Multi-period Supply Chain

Pricing and ordering decision in multi-period supply chain environments is not explored comprehensively. We consider three pragmatic procurement scenarios where the retailer can procure products (i) by maintaining strategic inventory, (ii) in bulk in first-period and distribute them in forthcoming selling period, and (iii) without maintaining any inventory. The results suggest that conventional single period planning exhibit sub-optimal characteristics. Build-up strategic inventory is not always profitable for the retailer. The retailer can also earn more profits by employing a bulk procurement strategy.

Izabela Nielsen, Subrata Saha
Due-Date Based Multi-period Part Selection for Flexible Manufacturing Systems with Controllable Processing Times

This study addresses a multi-period part selection problem for flexible manufacturing systems in which processing times are controllable. The problem is to determine the set of parts and their processing times while satisfying the processing time and the tool magazine capacities in each period of a planning horizon. The objective is to minimize the sum of processing, earliness/tardiness, subcontracting and tool costs. Practical considerations such as available tool copies and tool lives are also considered. An integer programming model is developed, and two-phase heuristics are proposed in which an initial solution is obtained by a greedy heuristic under initial processing times and then it is improved using local search methods while adjusting processing times. Computational experiments were done on a number of test instances, and the results are reported.

Issa B. Zeid, Hyoung-Ho Doh, Jeong-Hoon Shin, Dong-Ho Lee
Inventory Model with the Consideration of Pricing, Product Substitution and Value Deterioration

Nowadays, due to the radical development for the e-commerce means, it becomes a trend to buy the products, especially the electronic products, directly from the manufacturers instead of retailers. It is commonly known that each entity in the market has the autonomy to deciding both the production/inventory plan and the pricing plan. Nevertheless, the existing research focuses either on the production planning or pricing. Using such approach can generate optimal solution for production and pricing, but the global optimal solution for integrated production planning and pricing is not guaranteed. Investigating the literature reveals that there are two literature review studies indicate that it is of great important to study the integrated model in production and inventory control problem with perishable and substitutable product. Therefore, this study aims to discuss the aforementioned problem by solving an inventory model with the consideration of pricing, product substitution and value deterioration. For this purpose, we propose a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model to represent our inventory model and develop a method to find out the best pricing strategy and its corresponding production plan. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed model, we present an example, the results reveal that our model can efficiently handle the proposed problem.

Felix T. S. Chan, J. H. Ruan, A. H. Tai, S. H. Chung, A. E. E. Eltoukhy
Improving Carry-Out Operations of Inbound Containers Using Real-Time Information on Truck Arrival Times

Multiple inbound containers are piled up at the same stack in container terminals, which causes re-handles during the retrieval or carry-out process by road trucks. This inefficiency of the retrieval operation comes from the fact that the retrieval sequence of inbound containers is extremely uncertain and the retrieval sequence is not from the top to the bottom. This study discusses how the re-handling operations can be reduced by utilizing information on the estimated truck arrival times which may be collected from GPS in a smartphone owned by the truck driver. Algorithms for scheduling the pre-marshaling operation and determining the storage locations of re-handled containers are proposed. This study relaxed the constraint that a yard crane may relocate a container into another slots only in the same bay. The performances of the proposed algorithms are compared with each other by simulation studies.

Sanghyuk Yi, Lin Gui, Kap Hwan Kim
Dual Resource Constrained Scheduling Considering Operator Working Modes and Moving in Identical Parallel Machines Using a Permutation-Based Genetic Algorithm

This paper proposes a novel dual resource constrained (DRC) scheduling problem under identical parallel machine environment that consider operator working modes and moving activity between machines with regards to the makespan minimization objective. We define the working modes as all operator activities when the operators interact with the machines such as loading, setup, controlling, and unloading. Firstly, we provide the mathematical model of the problem using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). We add unloading activity beside setup to be included in the model. Also, we consider the moving activity that is usually neglected in DRC scheduling problem. Moreover, we propose a permutation-based genetic algorithm (PGA) to tackle the computational burden of the bigger size problem. Then, we run a full factorial experiment with replication to compare the solution quality and computational time of our PGA to the solver and random search method. The results show that our proposed PGA could solve the problem in a reasonable time that is faster than the solver with a good quality solution that is better than random search.

Muhammad Akbar, Takashi Irohara
Process Planning Assessment Framework

In order to rationalize process planning activities or to improve process planning outcomes, various process planning approaches with different degrees of computerized support and automation have been established. Ranging from general to very specialized approaches to specific problems, these approaches have specific advantages and drawbacks. When designing new approaches as well as selecting existing ones for application in the field, their properties have to be considered comprehensively. However, existing research only selectively touches on the objectives regarding the planning process or the quality of information generally requested from process plans. This paper presents the synthesis of a comprehensive process planning assessment framework, including planning process and outcome related criteria, based on an extensive literature review.

Günther Schuh, Jan-Philipp Prote, Philipp Hünnekes
Dynamic Scheduling of the Dual Stocker System Using Reinforcement Learning

The stocker system is the most widely used material handling system in LCD and flat panel fabrication facilities (FABs). The stocker mainly consists of one or two cranes moving along a single track to transport lots, or cassettes, containing 10 to 30 thin glass substrates between processing machines. Because the stocker system is the primary material handling system in the FABs, its performance directly affects the overall performance. In this study, we investigate the scheduling of a dual stocker system operating with two cranes simultaneously on a single track and propose a learning-based scheduling algorithm for the system. We report some of the results of our long-term efforts to dynamically optimize the dual-crane stocker. We fisrt show the modeling and algorithm to minimize the make-span of the jobs. We incorporate the model to dynamically allocate jobs. In particular, we use a reinforcement learning method in the scheduling algorithm. The model is validated in an extensive simulation study based on actual data.

Seol Hwang, Sang Pyo Hong, Young Jae Jang

Knowledge Based Engineering

Frontmatter
Integrating Experiential Learning and Accreditation Requirements – A Case Study Based Course

The increasingly evolving industrial context in manufacturing and service industries calls for an adaptation of the practices and content of engineering education curricula. More active learning approaches are required in order to easily grasp new business challenges and strategies, such as customer centric enterprise and mass customisation. This paper reports on a case study based lecture about mass customisation which was given to students pursuing a Master of Science degree in Industrial Engineering. The lecture echoes the Kolb model for Experiential Learning and refers to guidelines about accreditation requirements. An analysis of the achievement of learning outcomes is realized based a student survey conducted upon two different classes.

Khaled Medini
Towards the Generation of Setup Matrices from Route Sheets and Feedback Data with Data Analytics

The function or department of production control in manufacturing companies deals with short-term scheduling of orders and the management of deviations during order execution. Depending on the equipment and characteristics of orders, sequence dependent setup times might occur. In these cases for companies that focus on high utilization of their assets due to long phases of ramp up and high energy costs, it might be optimal to choose sequences with minimal setup time times between orders. Identifying such sequences requires detailed and correct information regarding the specific setup times. With increasing product variety and shorter lot sizes, it becomes more difficult and rather time intense to determine these values manually. One approach is to analyse the relevant features of the orders described in the route sheets or recipes to find similarities in materials and required tools. This paper presents a methodology, which supports setup optimized sequencing for sequence dependent setup times through constructing the setup matrix from such route sheets with the use of data analytics.

Moritz Schröter, Ben Lütkehoff, Markus Fischer, Matthias Blum, Volker Stich
Evaluation of Leadership in Nontechnical Skills

Among the knowledge, skills, and abilities related to safety that are required in healthcare practitioners, the present study focuses on skills other than specialized techniques (nontechnical skills), which have drawn much interest, especially in recent years. From our previous research, we know that nontechnical skills may greatly increase the safety of operating rooms, which is also increasingly being recognized by medical workers. Therefore, in this research, we investigated the usefulness of evaluation of nontechnical skills in Japan. We collected data for evaluation at a hospital from between February to and August 2014 using the nontechnical skills (NOTSS) assessment system. The total number of data sets was 270. 18 doctors participated, including five evaluators. We found it difficult for us to evaluate leadership in NOTSS. To perform NOTSS in Japan, different evaluation indicators may be necessary that change to leadership. We will propose that indicator in the future.

Haruka Ohba, Shinya Mizuno, Yoshikazu Fujisawa, Masashi Uramatsu, Mikihiro Kano, Naoki Hirabayashi, Takahiro Souma
A Framework for Task-Based Ambidexterity in Manufacturing SMEs

To be competitive, it is important for companies to create a breeding ground for innovation without jeopardizing productivity. The challenge posed by industrial companies and the innovation research community is how to promote innovation while achieving efficient execution. The ability to balance execution and innovation is referred to as organizational ambidexterity (OA), which includes several dimensions, concepts and approaches where a central task can be identified. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what consequences result from different dimensions of a task in relation to the types of its actions, and their effects on OA. The focus of the task is firstly investigated, followed by the development of nine scenarios via combining the designers’ and the performers’ perspectives of the task. A brief analysis of the scenarios indicates that there is no single optimal scenario; rather, the scenarios represent different states that are appropriate for certain conditions, and dynamic adaptation should be encouraged in relation to the changing conditions. This type of dynamics is particularly expected to prevail in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) because the roles that are responsible for tasks in these organizations are less specialized. Therefore, SMEs must define tasks that include both explorative and exploitative parts, either simultaneously or sequentially, to stimulate employees to work ambidextrously and thereby develop the concept of task-based ambidexterity.

Kristina Sollander, Annika Engström, Joakim Wikner
Analyzing Intuitive Skills of a Waitperson in a Restaurant Dining Room Using a Serious Game

It is important to shorten customers’ waiting times in a restaurant, and their waiting times at the table are largely affected by how waitpersons perform their tasks in the dining room. However, the quality of their work still depends heavily on their experiences and intuitive skills. Thus, this paper proposes a serious game emulating the tasks of a waitperson in the dining room of a restaurant, and analyzes the intuitive skills for the tasks by using the game. It defines two distinctive tactics called collection of multiple tasks and movement on a prediction basis, and introduces several measures on these tactics. As a result, by analyzing the game score, waiting times and these measures obtained from game experiments, several characteristics of the skills have been successfully revealed.

Fumihide Nishimura, Emi Kinoshita, Tomomi Nonaka, Hajime Mizuyama
Revisiting Challenges in Using Discrete Event Simulation in Early Stages of Production System Design

This paper presents challenges of using discrete event simulation when supporting decision in early stages of production system design, when significant changes are introduced. It was based on three real-time case studies performed at one manufacturing company during 2014–2016. Challenges in the cases were mapped to previous literature, pointing out discrepancies and highlighting three additional challenges, specifically related to issues in the early stages of the production system design process. The significant change introduced to the assembly system, and the early phases of evaluation put significant challenges to the use of discrete event simulation and the study points out further efforts needed to support manufacturing companies under change, with an established industrial structure and legacy systems to consider.

Erik Flores-Garcia, Magnus Wiktorsson, Jessica Bruch, Mats Jackson
Knowledge Management as an Important Tool in Participatory Design

Innovation is a necessity for the survival in the dynamic and complex environment companies are currently in. Innovation is not only the result of a creative development process, but comes out also from the value adding process itself, and derives from the generation of knowledge, including the interaction and application of knowledge for market success. Therefore, the ability to collect all possible knowledge and trigger it for success is of great importance for being competitive. This is also the main focus of participatory design activities. In this work, with a special view on the importance of knowledge management, an approach using the analysis of relevant and available knowledge has been set up for the determination of suitable methods for participatory design activities. In detail, objectives of knowledge management are identified according to different requirements of the innovation lifecycle. Cognitive and technology gaps among participants are further analyzed to provide an in-depth view on the problem of participatory design. With the matching of problems with the potentials of possible participatory design methods, proper methods are further identified, which helps to realize objectives of knowledge management, in the end leading to the success of value adding.

Xiaoli Chen, Ralph Riedel, Michael Bojko, Mandy Tawalbeh, Egon Müller
Using Serious Gaming to Discover and Understand Distributed Ledger Technology in Distributed Energy Systems

This paper provides an extension to a family of games that are in the theme of distributed energy systems. This extension of the family of games is a direct result of developing a derived type of game, that is, an energy trading and investing game that involves the infrastructural usage of a new technology, in this particular case, blockchain (a type of distributed ledger technology). The game’s novel architecture is explained succinctly, and some results are discussed. Shortly, the extensions of the generic architecture are listed, and special emphasis is put on the idea that such a game must have a two-phased play – one with the novel technology not active and one with it activated. Finally, some insights in game architecture development and the necessary next steps are posited.

J. W. Veeningen, Nick B. Szirbik
University Education as a Networked Service for Competence Co-creation

Our societies need game changers that have the competencies to develop emerging business ecosystems based on digital data. We claim that these competencies can be taught through a networked education service process between students, companies of the emerging ecosystem, and university teachers. We present a case study of two university courses in Industrial Management that deal with networked business process development and management, and co-development intervention methods. Both courses include student assignments on an emerging ecosystem case. The assignments were integrated into the studying process through co-creative workshops with the case representatives. According to the results, all actors in the networked education process received value. First of all, the students accumulated competencies and expertise in developing business ecosystems. Facilitated by the students, the company representatives co-created in the workshops a shared understanding of their collaborative service process and service model, which triggered real-life innovations. The teachers realized their new roles and tasks as the “process owners” of the education service. - The results support the networked service approach in university education for competence co-creation. More experimental case and action research applying this approach is clearly worthwhile in all disciplines where students need to co-create competences in interaction with external actors that represent the field in practice.

Riitta Smeds, Rita Lavikka, Miia Jaatinen
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Advances in Production Management Systems. Production Management for Data-Driven, Intelligent, Collaborative, and Sustainable Manufacturing
Editors
Prof. Ilkyeong Moon
Gyu M. Lee
Jinwoo Park
Dimitris Kiritsis
Gregor von Cieminski
Copyright Year
2018
Electronic ISBN
978-3-319-99704-9
Print ISBN
978-3-319-99703-2
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99704-9

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