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About this book

This book presents select proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles (AREEV 2020), and examines related emerging trends, feasible solutions to shape and enable the development of mankind. The topics covered include renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, energy storage systems, power system protection & security, smart grid and wide band-gap semiconductor technologies. The book also discusses applications of signal processing, artificial neural networks, optimal and robust control systems, and modeling and simulation of power electronic converters. The book will be a valuable reference for beginners, researchers, and professionals interested in power systems, renewable energy, and electric vehicles.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

20W Multi-output Isolated Power Supply Using Secondary Regulated Flyback Topology

This paper presents the design and development of 20 W, 200–400 V, secondary regulated closed loop multi-output flyback converter. It discusses the design procedure, calculations and a noise reduction technique to improve the converter regulation. The flyback provides isolation between different auxiliary supplies that are required for operation of ICs, sensors, controller, top side switching of converters, etc. These circuit components require constant supply voltage irrespective of the changes in load and input voltage. The paper implements closed loop flyback converter using PWM IC UCC28C44DR along with opto-isolator LIA130S to provide constant voltage.

Dhanush Acharya, K. Suryanarayana

A Review on Social Group Optimization Technique for Power Capability Enhancement with Combined TCSC-UPFC

Minimization of losses and maintaining voltage stability are the two fundamental requirements of power system operation. Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) devices like thyristor-controlled series compensator (TCSC) and unified power flow controller (UPFC) are employed for this purpose. While they have their own advantages, using their combination to better the power system performance is an important issue. Locating these devices in power system appropriately is a challenging task. Many optimization techniques have been employed for this purpose. Social group optimization (SGO) is a recent advanced technique which promises better accuracy. This paper employs the technique to determine the location of in the transmission line. Two types of FACTS devices are considered. The impact of using a combination of TCSC and UPFC is examined in minimizing the power loss and maintaining the voltage stability of the system. Simulations are performed on standards IEEE-6, IEEE-14, and IEEE-57 bus systems to establish the efficacy of the SGO technique.

A. V. Sunil Kumar, R. Prakash, R. S. Shivakumara Aradhya, Mahesh Lamsal

Analysis and Evaluation of the Impacts of FACTS Devices on the Transmission Line Protection

This paper mainly focusses on the investigation of the new protection attributes of compensated transmission lines. Use of FACTS devices like TCSC, SVC, STATCOM, UPFC, in transmission lines dynamically controls the system parameters and hence the associated protective relay has to function adaptively without encountering errors. In this paper, the protection issues relating to the distance relaying for compensated transmission lines are addressed. Analytical calculations of apparent impedance during both ground faults and phase faults are being done by solving the sequence impedance networks which includes midpoint TCSC for series compensation and midpoint STATCOM for shunt compensation. Based on the observations made in analytical studies and synchronized measurements approach, a new adaptive distance protection algorithm is developed. A modified WSCC 9-bus test system with FACTS devices is modelled and a conventional mho relay based distance protection scheme is developed to obtain the mho characteristics in different modes of operation during ground faults as well during phase faults using PSCAD/EMTDC v.4.6., for zone-1 protection.

B. R. Rajeev

Carbon-Based Textile Dry and Flexible Electrodes for ECG Measurement

The electrocardiogram signals of humans heart are usually estimated using wet silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes. These wet electrodes cannot be reused and require extra skin preparation (application of conductive gel) which may cause skin aggravation in long run, and also during measurement of the electrocardiogram signals, it enhances a common-mode noise due to loose contact with skin. Therefore, this paper proposes the design, fabrication and testing of dry electrodes for recording the ECG signals which overcomes the problems associated with wet Ag/AgCl electrodes. These electrodes are adaptable, biocompatible, reusable and conduction gel-free. Carbon paste was coated on a flexible circular polymer substrate of different diameters (E1-20 mm, E2-16 mm, E3-1 mm) to prepare dry Electrocardiogram electrodes. The conducting performance of E1, E2, E3 and Ag/AgCl electrodes was analysed by measuring the skin–electrode impedance and observed that the skin impedance is inversely proportion to the electrodes area. The skin–electrode impedance results concluded that the electrodes with the largest diameter exhibited better performance in terms of the conductivity for acquisition of quality electrocardiogram signals. The skin impedance of dry electrodes (E1, E2, E3) and Ag/AgCl electrodes was measured and compared at a common frequency of 10 Hz. The raw electrocardiogram signal detected should be pre-processed through various signal processing units to overcome the high level noise. The aim of this work is to design dry electrodes and also pre-process the signals recorded by the dry electrocardiogram electrodes which can be further used for portable applications. Also, this paper presents the working of dry electrodes and its comparison with wet Ag/AgCl electrodes for medical and research purposes.

Newton Rai, Habibuddin Shaik, N. Veerapandi, Veda Sandeep Nagaraj, S. Veena

Comparative Analysis of MPPT Techniques in Grid-Connected and Stand-alone PV System

Solar energy is recognized as most promising energy source. MPPT technique is the optimized technique to track the MPP and to extract the maximum power out of PV panel under all available condition. There are different MPPT techniques available for different applications, and these techniques are used to get the maximum output power regardless of the existing conditions such as solar irradiance, and temperature. The paper discusses about various MPPT strategies in stand-alone and grid-connected PV system considering some features. There is a brief overview on various conventional methods and modern techniques, and all the methods are compared considering the significant key features.

B. B. Tara, H. L. Suresh

Comparative Study of Linear Induction Motor Guns and Coil-Guns for Naval and Ground-Based Artillery

Artillery weapons based on electromagnetic launchers such as linear induction motor guns, railguns and coil-guns are being pursued as an alternative to conventional chemical-driven weapons due to their superior performance both in terms of range and destructive power. This paper presents a comparative analysis of linear induction motor guns versus coil-guns. The analysis is carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. An attempt has been made to identify technology which is better suited for carrying out artillery warfare. The mechanical performances such as muzzle velocity of projectiles, acceleration and thrust on the projectiles are analysed to make an appropriate conclusion for on-field deployability of each of these weapons.

Shreyas Maitreya, Bhushan Raghuwanshi, Priyanka Paliwal

Comparative Study on Flyback Converter with PID Controller and Neural Network Controller

A PID controller is extensively used in many fields because of its structure is very simple and can be controlled easily since modern advanced applications and industrial activities or processes demand to solve more complicated problems and nonlinearities. The conventional PID controller cannot meet these requirements. Neural network has a greater capability to cope with the demands of changing environment. Any continuous function can be accurately approximated using neural network so it has acquired a greater attention in the field of process control. This papers analyzes the performance of closed loop control of flyback converter using the traditional PID controller and adaptive neural network for varying load and source condition which could be used in renewable power conversion applications.

Nutana Shetty, Pradeep Kumar

Comparison of Five Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

Hydrogen is a clean energy source. It produces zero emissions when burn in the presence of air. Hydrogen (H2) can also be utilized as a fuel in so many applications such as for power production, space, and automobile. In this paper, the technology of hydrogen as a green fuel for the vehicles is described. In this paper, it is assumed that the hydrogen is produced by five different types of electrolyzers using water electrolysis technology. This produced H2 is utilized in five different types of fuel cell electric vehicles having a driving range of 40 km per day. If gasoline vehicles are used for same driving range, CO2 emissions are calculated and CO2 emission savings from fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are calculated. 130 g CO2 emission per km is assumed for the study. Life cycle fuel cost of vehicles using petrol, diesel, and fuel cell is also estimated for 15 years life. It was found that the life cycle total fuel cost of the vehicles is in the order of Tucson > Petrol > Diesel > Toyota > Mercedes > Hyundai > Honda with maximum cycle cost was of Tucson, and minimum cycle cost was of Honda. Two ways for improving CO2 emission targets are suggested. First one is by considering some percentage (25%, 50%, or 75%) of total number of vehicles are FC vehicles and remaining are conventional vehicles. Second one is by improving the fuel economy of conventional vehicles. If 25%, 50%, or 75% of total number vehicles are FC vehicles and remaining are conventional vehicles, CO2 emissions are predicted. If all the vehicles are conventional vehicles and no FC vehicles are present, then to achieve same targets of CO2, improvement of 133%, 200%, and 400% in fuel economy of conventional vehicles is required.

Mayank Gautam, K. V. S. Rao

Design and Fabrication of Hybrid System for Highway Power Generation

In the present generation, the demand for use of sustainable energy sources is increasing for example wind, solar, hydro based, etc. and these sources combined can be utilized to generate desirable power. The vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) and Solar panels utilize these renewable energy sources and have a greater contribution to the worldwide reliance on green energy. This paper presents design analysis of a Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with an improved design which is further connected with the gear mechanism for maximum power output. This model is further incorporated with automatic solar insolation tracking PV panel to collectively give more power output which is termed to be a Hybrid system for Highway Power Generation. It shows how low wind velocity 1.35 m/s carried by the vehicles on the highway are effectively able to drive the vertical wind blade from either direction to generate 0.5812 W power and further increasing the power exponentially as the wind velocity increases. Here the emphasis is laid on the design and fabrication of vertical wind blade structure along with meshing of the driver and driven type of gear measurement for the enhancement of the power generation from the nominal wind turbulence. Comparatively this hybrid power generation system is very feasible based on contemporary design, economical setup, and outcome of the power generation.

N. Kaustubhasai, T. C. Balachandra

Design and Modelling of 1 kW, 200–400 V, Multiphase Boost Converter

In this paper, a 1 kW, 200‒400 V, multiphase silicon carbide-based boost converter is designed. It also presents the modelling and design procedure of the converter. Boost converters play a major role in solar, electric vehicles, FACTS and variable speed drives. Conventionally used single-phase boost converter faces problem of high ripples in input and output side. By introducing multiphase topology, the ripples and size of magnetic components can be reduced. Silicon carbide switch is used in the proposed system which makes it more efficient and reliable as silicon carbide-based switches have higher break down voltage and thermal conductivity leading to better performance and efficiency.

A. Soubhagya, Ravikiran Rao M, K. Suryanarayana

Digital Twinning of the Battery Systems—A Review

The share of renewable energy in the grid is ever increasing. Whenever excess energy is generated, it can be stored in large-scale battery systems to support the grid during peak loads, nullifying the need for gas/diesel power plants. Battery storage is remodelling the global electric grid and is a key element for the shift to sustainable energy. In order to extract optimum performance and to ensure reliable, safe working of battery system, its constant monitoring is a must.Digital twin architecture of the battery system offers digital services to different stakeholders starting from the manufacturing through its secondary usage until the end of its life. Digital twin helps in bridging the gap and offers an innovative approach for both manufacturing and usage of the product. This paper focuses on reviewing different architecture of digital twins along with communication protocols, thus providing readers with an insight into recent trends in digital twin architecture for the battery system.

H. C. Gururaj, Vasudha Hegde

Droop Control Strategies for Microgrid: A Review

In recent times, microgrids are marking their presence with the electrical grid. They are capable of meeting increased load demand, alleviate transmission line stress, support carbon emission reduction, and reduce feeder losses. Their unique capability to operate under grid connected as well as islanded mode of operation makes them more desirable. When connected in islanded mode, stability of grid and sharing of power among parallel connected distributed units are an important concern. Presence of nonlinear, unbalanced load, line impedance mismatch, harmonic current circulation, etc., makes controlling of microgrids a difficult task. Various communication based and communicationless control techniques have been proposed by researchers. This paper reviews droop control techniques for controlling of parallel connected converters and also mentions important features of each control technique.

Neha Bhatt, Ritika Sondhi, Sudha Arora

Economic Analysis of Floating Photovoltaic Plant in the Context of India

Floating photovoltaic power plant (FPV) is an installation of solar photovoltaic modules on the water bodies. FPV, as compared to solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plant, does not require any landholdings, and therefore, the land is conserved. FPV has slightly greater energy generation than SPV due to the cooling effect of water. FPV conserves the water by preventing evaporation. FPV requires additional floating and support structure than SPV, thus incurring higher cost and complexity of installation structure. In this paper, an economic analysis of installing 1 MW FPV power plant in Jaipur, Rajasthan, is done. Economic parameters for 1 MW SPV are calculated by considering different land costs. Economic analysis of 1 MW FPV plant is done by considering different values of cost–benefit of potable water. The cost of potable water saved by FPV is included as income. With a capital cost of installation of ₨. 8 crores; the LCOE for 1 MW FPV plant is estimated to be 5.93 ₨/kWh for zero water tariff. Whereas for water price of ₨. 0.5 per litre, LCOE is just 0.89 ₨/kWh. On the other hand, the LCOE of SPV having a negligible land cost and capital cost of ₨. 4.76 crore is found to be 3.9 ₨/kWh. The LCOE value for SPV increased to 4.7 ₨/kWh (for SPV with ₨. 40.48 lakh per acre land cost). FPV with 0.2 ₨. per litre, water cost yields LCOE of 3.9 ₨/kWh, which is equal to the LCOE value obtained for the SPV plant with the negligible land cost.

Divya Mittal, K. V. S. Rao

Electrical Field and Potential Distribution Simulation of 220 kV Porcelain String Insulator Using COMSOL Multiphysics

Fidelity of the network and its equipment is imperative for the performance of electrical power system. Electrical energy from generating station is transmitted through high-voltage lines to the load centres. Insulators are used to both support as well as separate the conductors at high voltage. They are designed to withstand not only just typical voltages but also over-voltages by the virtue of switching events or lightning effect besides environmental stresses like snow, rain, pollution. Insulators employed to transmit/distribute the electric power are usually made up of ceramic/glass/polymer material. When the local electric field on the surface of high-voltage insulator is greater than the ambient air’s ionization value it leads to the discharge activity. Environmental conditions like rain, fog, pollution along with the high voltage affect the electric field. Electric field grading techniques can be used to better design the insulators provided the electric field on the surface of the insulator is known. Surface flashover may occur on the ceramic insulators when the applied electric field is high enough. Consequently, grading devices are required to keep the electric field under acceptable levels. Objective of the aforementioned research is to study the electric field and potential distribution (EFPD) along the ceramic insulators. Firstly, under clean/dry conditions and then under various levels of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) pollution using finite element method. The computer simulations are realized using commercially available CATIA and COMSOL multiphysics software packages. The simulation results obtained are presented and analysed.

A. M. Vasudeva, H. C. Gururaj

Energy Prospects for Sustainable Rural Livelihood in Vijayapur District, Karnataka India

Energy is the dynamic infrastructure plays a key role in poverty management. Lack of energy accessibility in rural areas affecting every corner of countries progress. In this direction, a study is conducted in rural areas of Vijayapur district, Karnataka India to identify the opportunities in farm and non-farm activities and understand their energy consumption pattern to promote alternative potential power sources to provide hand in hand electric energy. This study provide groundbreaking experience in integration of energy considerations for various activities in energy planning and management. Wind-solar hybrid energy system seems to be viable for electrification of rural applications in study area.

Mukta M. Bannur, Suresh H. Jangamshetti

Estimation of Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) of 1 MW SPV Plants Installed at 33 Different Locations in Rajasthan, India

Rajasthan state with 33 districts is the largest state in India with solar radiation of 6–7 kWh/m2/day. As per the MNRE report, potential of SPV power in Rajasthan state in India is estimated to be 142.31 GWp. If 1% of land area in every district is used for installation of SPV plant, energy generation is estimated as 1,050,852 MWh/year. The thermal power potential of this energy is equal to 114.65 GW. This paper deals with the calculation of levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for 1 MW solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plants assumed to be installed at each of these 33 locations at district headquarters of the state of Rajasthan in India. The calculation has been performed from the power generated data which is simulated using PVsyst and SAM software. The effect of different parameters like capital cost, interest rate (i), and inflation rate (f) on LCOE has been analyzed. A comparative study of the plants is done by varying these parameters to study their effect on LCOE. It has been observed that inflation rate and interest rate have considerable influence on LCOE.

Vineet Kumar Mahaver, K. V. S. Rao

Harnessing Solar Energy from Wind Farms: Case Study of Four Wind Farms

In the renewable energy sector, power generation from solar photovoltaic and wind turbine systems are the most popular. The electricity production has to be increased day-by-day for meeting the ever-increasing demand for electricity. Large-scale wind and solar photovoltaic power plants require a large size of land. In the combined system, both solar photovoltaic modules and wind turbines are installed at the same site. It thus reduces the cost of separate land and transmission lines. In this regard, the paper presents power performance improvement by the integration of a wind power plant with a solar PV power plant in the available installation area. The wind power plants at four sites namely Pratapgarh in Rajasthan (45 MW), Davangere in Karnataka (29.70 MW), Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu (33 MW), and Anantpur in Andhra Pradesh (50.40 MW) are considered for study and analysis. These sites are having enormous solar photovoltaic and wind energy potential. Wind farm array is considered of 5D × 7D configuration and the possibility of installing solar photovoltaic power plant is analyzed. The electricity generated by solar photovoltaic systems at wind farms sites is estimated by using PVsyst software. Six cases of wind farm area such as 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% are taken into consideration for the installation of solar photovoltaic power plants. The annual average performance ratio and annual average capacity utilization factor of solar photovoltaic power plants are varying from 77%–79% to 18%–20%, respectively, for the four locations. The annual solar electricity generation is estimated the highest at Pratapgarh (Rajasthan) and annual wind electricity generation is estimated highest at Davangere (Karnataka). The combined annual electricity generation is estimated highest at Davangere (Karnataka) and is followed by Tirunelveli (Tamil Nadu), Anantpur (Andhra Pradesh), and Pratapgarh (Rajasthan).

Monika Agrawal, K. V. S. Rao

HVDC Fault Analysis and Protection Scheme

Long-distance transmission presents issues related to transmission losses due to long and multiple transmission cables. High-voltage direct current transmission technology provides key advantages in the bulk transmission of energy as compared to other modes of transmission. Due to the long length of HVDC line, protection and maintenance of the system are a challenge. Various types of faults could potentially occur in an HVDC system, both AC and DC, which are not only dangerous for the system itself but also people and the surroundings .In this paper, detection-isolation-restoration (DIR) algorithm has been developed and proposed based on IEEE 1159 standard, which provides a clear distinction between each fault state and provides a unique response for the same. The proposed protection algorithm has been implemented through simulations for three-phase symmetrical fault on the AC side and line-ground fault on the DC side of the Monopolar HVDC system for different fault durations. The fault current measured through the DC transmission line serves as an indicator.

Sankarshan Durgaprasad, Shreya Nagaraja, Sangeeta Modi

Integration of Solar Photovoltaic Generation in a Practical Distribution System for Loss Minimization and Voltage Stability Improvement

In present days, power systems are more complex and highly stressed due to rise in population, and it requires more electrical demands. Presently, the distribution losses in India are approximately 25–30%. In recent days, distributed generation (DG) units are attracting the utility and consumers to use it largely in distribution system, to get more benefit from this like reduced power losses, increased reliability and maintain voltage stability. To get more benefits from DGs, it is necessary to find out its proper size and position. In this paper, a new analytical method is used to calculate the loss sensitivity factor at the buses, which is used to find best size and location of DG to increase the performance of distribution system. The mainly used DG units are PV unit and shunt capacitor for analysis of proposed method in one of the practical feeders with 41-bus emanating from 110/11 kV Alkola substation in Shivamogga, Karnataka, India. The loss sensitivity factor method is used to find optimal position and size of DG in the practical system. Power World Simulator (PWS) software is used to model the practical feeder, and simulated results are analysed for voltage magnitude and system losses. The result indicates that optimal position and size of DG will recover the voltage profile in the system within the suitable limits, and system losses are reduced.

S. J. Rudresha, Shekhappa G. Ankaliki, T. Ananthapadmanabha, V. Girish

IoT-Based Patient Health Monitoring System Using STM32F103C8T6

IoT, i.e., Internet of Things, envisions a prospect of anything, anywhere by anyone at anytime. Amongst broad solicitations empowered via IoT, digital tracing of wellbeing of a person is primarily a needed one. IoT presents a solid stage enabling interfacing of complete means and advances the worth of life. Projected framework offers private healthcare unit which tends to be equally adaptable as well as versatile. Utilizing sensors makes the framework to track certain wellbeing constraints including pulse, blood pressure as well as temperature. Furthermore, procured information is to be communicated with 32-bit STM32F103C8T6 which processes and analyses obtained information. The whole system is interfaced with a Wi-Fi transceiver (ESP-8266) module which is to be connected to any available network. The data can be monitored by mobile or PC through the corresponding IP address.

K. R. Nishitha, M. Vittal Bhat

Islanding Detection of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems Using Active Disturbance-Based Techniques

There is increasing demand for electric power generation and attempts are being made to reduce the dependency on use of non-renewable resources for this purpose. Due to this, generation of electric power from solar energy has gained prominence, which has resulted in increase in the number of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. Increasing number of these systems also needs to comply with the safety and reliability requirements of the existing grid. The possibility of “islanding” of such grid-connected PV systems in particular poses serious threat to the safety of personnel and utility system. In order to prevent such a situation, islanding detection techniques have to be incorporated in grid-connected PV systems. Active islanding detection techniques apply periodic disturbances to the system and measure the corresponding changes observed in the system to detect islanding. Sandia voltage shift and reactive power disturbance methods of islanding detection are discussed in this paper, and their simulated results are also presented for a grid tie inverter system.

Prajwal Puranik, Bharath Prabhu, Anantha Saligram, K. Suryanarayana

Low-Cost Image-Based Occupancy Sensor Using Deep Learning

An occupancy sensor is going to be an integral part of smart buildings for energy efficiency as well as for providing human-centric lighting. This paper presents a low-cost image-based alternative for conventional occupancy sensors using deep learning. The developed system works as a standalone unit and can integrate with heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting control schemes. Here, a Raspberry Pi 3B + is utilized as the hub for occupancy detection. Single-shot multi-box detection (SSD) is used as the primary architecture and is compared with you only look once (YOLO), the test results are computed for several test rooms, and an evaluation of the practical requirements in terms of camera and images captured for accurate detections is measured based on positives obtained. Here, a low-cost system is designed which avoids the use of multiple sensors and is most suitable for offices and libraries, and classrooms.

T. M. Sanjeev Kumar, Susan G. Varghese, Ciji Pearl Kurian, Chandra Mouli

Modeling and Analysis of 1.2 kW, 36–375 V, Push–Pull Converter

Increase in demand for power in the world has intensified the need for renewable energy power resources due to the scarcity of non-renewable power sources. Solar power is gaining popularity as it is ecofriendly, portable and clean. Isolated DC–DC converters are popular in a wide range of applications. High efficiency, conversion ratio and isolation between the low- and high-voltage circuit are the main features of the isolated converter. This paper proposes design, modeling and simulation of the push–pull converter in MATLAB/Simulink. The design procedure and principle of operation are also presented in the paper. The state space averaging technique is used to model the converter, and Bode plot is used to design a PI controller to obtain the required output voltage.

Raksha Adappa, K. Suryanarayana

Modeling and Analysis of GaN-Based Buck Converter

With the advancement in technology and the need for a portable, compact and high-efficient converters, wide band gap (WBG)-based SMPS are promising converter technology. Among the WBG devices, SiC- and GaN-based converters are becoming more popular in the field of power electronics. These converters when compared to Si counterparts are more efficient, compact, and have high power density. This is due to material properties of WBG devices which include high band gap, electric field strength, electron mobility, ability to switch at higher frequency leading to tiny filter size and achieving higher power density. Mathematical modeling of any converter will ease the designer to analyze the system with reduced efforts during the implementation stage. Precise design of a control loop for any DC-DC converter requires modeling and study of dynamic variation of parameters like voltage, current, and switching. This paper deals with the modeling and control of an non-ideal buck converter. The non-ideal parameters induced in the model are: on-state resistance of the switches, inductor loss component, and loss tangent of capacitor. Transfer function is derived using state-space analysis, and the obtained results are simulated in MATLAB/Simulink which gives the response of system for the perturbations. The simulation results are verified using a 300 W, 36–12 V GaN-based buck converter, and the achieved efficiency is in the range of 95–98% various loading conditions.

H. Swathi Hatwar, Ravikiran Rao M, Suryanarayana K.

Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Static Synchronous Compensator Using OpenModelica

The static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is a voltage source converter (VSC)-based shunt flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) controller. It is a shunt-connected VSC-based reactive power compensator using gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) devices. This paper presents an approach by which a STATCOM and a reactive current controller are modeled and implemented using OpenModelica, an open-source Modelica-based environment. Simulation performance obtained is also presented.

K. Navaneeth, Harshita M. Bharadwaj, Aakash, R. Shreya, Apoorva Gopal

Modeling and Real-Time Simulation of Photovoltaic Plant Using Typhoon HIL

This paper presents the hardware in -the loop (HIL)-based test bed for development, testing, and verification of PV plant operation. Many advanced control strategies have been developed to achieve these goals. However, final development and validation of the controls can be difficult due to the need for large and costly hardware test beds. Real-time hardware in the loop (HIL) simulators can enable the emulation of test beds while developing the real-time control hardware to implement and verify theoretical optimal control strategies. The PV simulated test bed is tested for different engagement of load and charging/discharging of the battery. Perturb and observe technique is used here to trace the maximum power point in the PV plant. Typhoon HIL (version 402) software is handed down for carrying out the simulations.

Minal Salunke, Diksha Tiwari

Performance Evaluation of Knowledge-Based Reactive Current Controllers for STATCOM

The voltage source-based STATCOM is a shunt-connected controller to control the reactive current injection. To increase the power transfer capability, the STATCOM is employed at the midpoint of long transmission line. This paper discusses the performance of various controlling methods used for reactive current control. The PI controller and nonlinear feedback controller are the commonly used controllers. The inductive mode of operation of STATCOM with PI controller causes oscillatory instability. Nonlinear feedback controller is opted for maintaining the stability during inductive operation. But it requires parameter optimization as an essential tool to enhance the transient response. This paper presents fuzzy knowledge-based approaches for reactive current control of STATCOM. The data required to compute artificial neural network-based FLC controller is obtained from the reactive current of the STATCOM using PI controller. The performances of Type 1 fuzzy and neuro fuzzy-based system are evaluated by transient simulation for two-level, 12-pulse STATCOM. It is observed that the STATCOM with adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller has comparatively better transient response for the step change in the reactive current reference.

Dinesh Shetty, Nagesh Prabhu

Performance of Intelligent Controller-Based Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor

This manuscript contemplates the mathematical modeling of ANFIS controller simulation, speed rotor displacement control arrangements, to obtain the chosen constant speed, rotor position, its movements when BSRM is under divergent loads and motor parameter variation. Adopting this expected ANFIS, BSRM drive illustrates stability, stable position progression and constant speed which is related to PI, fuzzy and ANFIS controller. Precedingly implementing suspension loads, torque loads to rotor, rotor must be descended to midpoint and must retain it in a standstill place. To preserve current inside a predetermined band, hysteresis controller is activated on the torque phase currents, and the suspension force currents. If load torque transfigures, rotor has anomalous displacement, but can rapidly recoil to midpoint position, owing to the remission control agility of the phase currents.

E. Himabindu, D. Krishna, Venu Madhav Gopala

Review of Battery State-of-Charge Estimation Algorithms

State of charge (SOC) is an important parameter used by a battery management system (BMS). Accurate and robust algorithms ensure the safe and reliable functioning of cells or batteries. Thus far, the algorithms developed depend mainly on the current and voltage data received from individual cells or the entire battery. To ensure battery safety usage and reduce the average lifecycle cost, accurate state of charge (SOC), tracking algorithms for real-time implementation are essential in different applications. This paper aims to compare SOC estimation algorithms and modular algorithms that employ more than one traditional SOC estimation method. This paper aims to describe the basic theoretical concepts involved in the standard algorithms. It also discusses more accurate algorithms suited for online implementation, which is favorable for real applications.

Kaustubh Kaushik, Devang Sureka, H. V. Gururaja Rao

Self-Sustaining Community for a Green Future—A Case Study

India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world and the demand for energy is ever increasing. Traditionally, the majority of the energy demand in India is met by fossil fuels. India, being the second most populous country in the world naturally the demand for automobiles is high. The reliance on fossil fuels for generating electricity coupled with large number of automobiles contributes heavily toward emission of greenhouse gases, thereby polluting the air in most of the metropolitan cities. To overcome the reliance on fossil fuels, the past decade saw heavy investments being made by both government and private sector to generate clean and green energy using renewable sources like solar and wind energy. Today, India is the fastest growing renewable energy market in the world. In order to tackle the emissions from vehicles, the government has adopted many policies to encourage the buying and usage of electric vehicles (EV). The electric vehicle, can be “truly non-polluting” only if the energy that is used to charge the battery is generated from a non-polluting source like solar or wind energy. If everyone in the country switches to EVs, the greenhouse gases emissions and the resulting air pollution would drastically come down. On the contrary, it may turn out to be very difficult to generate and supply the amount of energy needed to charge all those EVs. Hence, it calls for distributed generation at the community level. The climate in most parts of India is very conducive for generating electricity using solar energy and some parts of the country receive adequate solar and wind energy, one such place is Chitradurga, Karnataka. This paper proposes generation of electricity using solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) placed on the rooftop of the building to meet both household and vehicular energy demand of the occupants. Making the community completely self-sustained and contributing to a green future.

H. C. Gururaj, Vasudha Hegde

Simulation-Based Design for an Energy-Efficient Building

The energy performance of a building is affected by environmental changes and building parameters. Simulations on building energy play a significant role in the design of an energy-efficient green building. This paper presents a simulation-assisted design for investigating the influence of various building parameters like glazing, roof material, HVAC loads, wall materials, infiltration, etc., on the annual energy consumption of an existing test room. The variation in the cooling load consumption with the change in parameters like cooling set point, occupancy, glazing material, and window orientation are considered in this study. The thermal conditions of the room for different values of relative humidity were also observed to find optimal cooling set point temperature. With the above workflow, it was observed that around 20–45% of annual energy savings could be achieved for the building under consideration. It was also observed from the study that the significant impact on energy consumption in an interior space is due to solar heat gain. The simulation shows that in a building, overall heat gain is mostly affected by glazing type and roofing material. The comparative energy analysis of double glazing (low E) and electrochromic glazing gives an energy savings of around 30% and 10% by replacing double glazing by an electrochromic glazing considering different scheduled operations.

Veena Mathew, Ciji Pearl Kurian, Aravind Babu

Study and Optimization of Piezoelectric Materials for MEMS Biochemical Sensor Applications

Piezoelectric materials have been broadly used in many scientific applications, and they are often entrenched in electronic systems. Piezoelectric biochemical sensors consists of a cluster of diagnostic devices that works on the principle of affinity interaction, recording the piezoelectric effect. Piezoelectric effect is a phenomenon of inducing voltage when a material is stressed mechanically, i.e. mechanical energy is getting converted to electrical energy, or piezoelectric crystal is a part of the sensor which operates based on the theory of resonance frequency of microcantilever that changes due to attraction of the required mass on the piezoelectric crystal plane. In this paper, the piezoelectric material was optimized for the biochemical sensor by using COMSOL multiphysics finite element analysis software. In solid-state principle, the static study was carried on different piezoelectric material embedded on the microcantilever to optimize the piezoelectric material which will induce more voltage and to sense lower biochemical concentration on the surface of microcantilever. From the analysis carried, it was observed that the electric potential obtained is more in quartz material compared to other materials.

M. J. Nagaraj, V. Shantha, N. Nishanth, V. Parthsarathy

Techno-Socio-Economic Sizing of Solar–Diesel Generator-Based Autonomous Power System Using Butterfly-PSO

The autonomous power systems put forward a feasible and economical alternative for electrification of remote areas which do not have access to grid. Instead of employing only diesel generators for autonomous applications, it can be used in combination with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. This can significantly offset the harmful environmental impacts produced by diesel generator. However, solar energy is highly variable. Thus, if system is not optimally designed, it can adversely affect the reliability. In this paper, a techno-socio-economic sizing of components of autonomous power system (APS) based on solar and diesel generators has been conducted. The variability of solar irradiance has been modelled using beta probability density function. A proficient bio-inspired meta-heuristic called as Butterfly-PSO has been used for solving optimization problem. The technical criteria considered is expected energy not served (EENS). Total life cycle cost (TLCC) has been used as economic criteria. The social criterion has been implemented by considering impact of emissions on health and general well-being. The formulation has been implemented by considering a case study on APS located in Jaisalmer, India.

Priyanka Paliwal

Total Harmonic Reduction for a Series H-Bridge Multistage Inverter with Different Switching Methods

In this paper, a nine-level series H-bridge multilevel inverter is introduced and switching techniques like equal phase (EP), half height (HH) methods are used. The conventional multilevel inverter requires more number of switches as the level of switching increases. The proposed nine-stage inverter is more advantageous as the circuit requires eight switches compared to nine-level conventional inverter which requires 16 switches to get multi-step output. The cost and the switching losses for the proposed circuit are reduced. The proposed nine-stage inverter is compared with conventional series multistage inverter, and the total harmonic distortion (THD) is also compared. The THD analysis is obtained using MATLAB tool.

S Anand, Sujata Shivashimpiger, Shreeram V. Kulkarni, C. H. Venkata Ramesh

Variable Frequency and Voltage Control of Induction Motor for Electric Vehicles

Electric vehicles are emerging as the future of mobility systems with recent developments in the energy storage systems and advancements in power conversion techniques. Electric vehicles are becoming popular because of increased reliability and government policies, promoting usage of emission free vehicles. With growing demands, development of a cost-effective EV that can operate in all terrains and environmental conditions is the challenging task. Vehicle driving system and energy storage systems are the two major components of an EV. Expensive driving systems incorporating high-end motors and control techniques are available in the market. Induction motor with scalar control method serves the purpose of cost-effective and robust driving system. This paper presents the study of open-loop scalar control with development and implementation of variable frequency and voltage control of squirrel cage three-phase induction motor. Designed system is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink. The design makes use of sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique to control voltage source inverter. Algorithms are realized with the help of NXP make MC56F84789 32-bit DSP controller.

Anup Shetty, K. Suryanarayana
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