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2024 | Book

Advances in Renewable Energy & Electric Vehicles

Select Proceedings of AREEV 2022

Editors: Suryanarayana Kajampady, Shripad T. Revankar

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering


About this book

This book presents select peer-reviewed proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles (AREEV 2022). The topics covered include renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, energy storage systems, power system protection & security, smart grid, and wide bandgap semiconductor technologies. The book also discusses applications of signal processing, artificial neural networks, optimal and robust control systems, and modeling and simulation of power electronic converters. The book is a valuable reference for academics and professionals interested in power systems, renewable energy, and electric vehicles.

Table of Contents

Review and Study of Solar String Inverters for a PV System
A solar system is a setup that generates electricity by utilizing solar energy. Grid tied PV plants have the advantage of more effective utilization of generated power. Grid interconnection of PV systems is accomplished through the inverter, which converts dc power generated from PV modules to ac power used for power supply to electric equipments. Solar inverter system is therefore very important for grid connected PV systems. String inverter topologies have an important role in this system with complying to the code and standards.
G. B. Praveen, M. Satyendra Kumar Shet, K. Latha Shenoy
An Improved Strategic Analysis on Fault Diagnosis in Modular Multilevel Converter
Modular multilevel converters are most popular among all converters due to not only their modular structure but also the power handling capacity. To ensure continuous availability and energy security, these converters are designed with fault diagnosis techniques. This paper presents a strategic review on key theories, models, and techniques utilized in the fault diagnosis strategies proposed by previous researchers till recently. In this paper, a detailed critical, comparative analysis of fault diagnosis strategies, and the major research gaps has been presented. A new classification of fault diagnosis methods based on system parameters which reveal fault characteristics and thus the presence of faults is also suggested. An experimental study was conducted to determine, understand the causes, sources, and effects of short circuit, and open circuit faults developed by the MOSFETS/IGBTs during their operation. Finally, the paper suggests a possible automated, fault diagnosis system that can not only be used in modular multilevel converters but also in any converters or systems.
Sujo Oommen, Burri Ankaiah, Mahesh Kumar, M. H. Ananda, K. Narayan Swamy, M. C. Rashmi
Mathematical Model Approach to Study and Analyze FOC-Based PMSM Control
This paper focuses on mathematical model development of Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) to design and tune the digital controllers required to regulate various parameters such as speed, current, and torque. The mathematical model involves modeling of electrical and mechanical parameters to arrive at analytical equations used for controller design. A widely used Field oriented control (FOC) technique is implemented and motor parameter-based controller tuning approach is presented. The simulation model has been developed using MATLAB/Simulink and various motor parameter control strategies are analyzed to validate the proposed approach.
H. Swathi Hatwar, Anup Shetty, K. Suryanarayana
Review on Power Converter Topology for EV Fast Charger
To recommend a green and clean world and to decrease carbon emission, the aim of the Indian Government is to make India run on 100% electric Vehicle by 2030. A huge number of electric vehicles started running on the roads of India. We require the fast charging station and infrastructure. Here we analyzed the different topologies of power converter for electric vehicles. In charging infrastructure, we consider the time of charging and safety for battery. Chargers are designed in two ways, i.e. unidirectional and bidirectional power flow facility. The options of unidirectional and bidirectional chosen depends on the place of installation. Topology and structure of the unidirectional charger is easier then bidirectional. If the Vehicle not in use, Bidirectional charger allows to transfer stored energy in the battery to the grid. These type of controller is very useful for smart grids in V2G concept. The target of this paper is to find the suitable topology for battery fast charger with the comparison parameters like efficiency, cost and topology for EV application.
Saptadipa Das, V. Joshi Manohar, A. V. Sunil Kumar, R. Rajatha
Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Interleaved Two-Phase Boost PFC
Power factor correction (PFC) is a technique used to shape the input current of the power supply to be in synchronization with the mains voltage, in order to maximize the real power drawn from the mains. The paper deals with active PFC to shape the input current, thus harmonics are moved to much higher frequencies, making them much easier to filter out. Here an active interleaved two-phase boost converter topology is analyzed. The paper gives an in-depth study of current control and voltage control strategy of PFC. The developed boost converter converts rectified DC input voltage to regulated 400 V DC output voltage. The proposed converter is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink.
Dhanush Acharya, Suryanarayana K, Krishna Prasad, L. V. Prabhu
Design of a Solar Battery Charger with Maximum Power Point Tracking
In recent times, an immense amount of effort is put into moving from conventional sources of energy to renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, hydroelectricity, and so on. Solar energy is more advantageous in comparison to other sources due to lower maintenance costs and reduced plant size. However, due to the large variation in irradiance, generating power efficiently from the solar panel is a challenge. A suitable MPPT algorithm can be implemented to increase the power obtained from the solar panel. This paper describes the design of a solar battery charger that utilizes a buck converter with the duty ratio controlled based on the Perturb and Observe MPPT algorithm.
Adrian Dsilva, Samith Suvarna, Laxmisha G. Ballal, H. Swathi Hatwar
Implementation of Edge Computing Model for the Processing of Data in Mines
Mining is one of the most dangerous industries. The risk factor involved in underground mining is exponentially higher than in other forms of mining, with the risk of mine collapse, hazardous gases, ventilation problems, mine inundation, etc. Internet of Things (IoT) can be a viable solution to monitor the working conditions of miners as well as in evacuation and rescue procedures in case of a mishap. This paper proposes a module (Rakshak module) that senses conditions inside a coal mine and sends data to managers above ground to monitor working conditions inside mines. The sensor module is attached to the suit’s collar neck, which workers wear in mines. This sensor data consists of carbon level, heart rate, oxygen saturation, temperature, and humidity are recorded and used for future trends and risk analysis. In order to tackle the problem of the slow data transmission rate, an edge computing model is used wherein multiple localized servers are placed across the mines and process the data on the network’s periphery. The proposed communication method reduces the time lag and logistical hassle involved in data transfer in a harsh environment. This will increase the overall safety of the miner. Also, the simulation results of the developed Rakshak module are predicted to reduce the number of accidents and mishaps inside mines.
K. Aneesha Acharya, Akshit Gaurav, Aman Srivastava
Adaptive Protection of Solar PV Microgrid Without ESS
Conventional sources play a major role in today’s power scenario. However, the trend has now been shifted toward non-conventional sources, viz., Solar, wind, tidal, etc. considering the depletion rate of fossil fuels, transmission losses and environmental impacts. As a result, Microgrids are getting popular nowadays due to its high reliability, nature of operation, and low operational cost. In this paper, an adaptive protection scheme is developed in MATLAB for a solar PV Microgrid without Energy Storage Systems (ESS) which can operate in both Grid connected mode (GCM) and Islanded Mode (IM).
L. Poireiton Meitei, K. P. Vittal, James Antony Pinto
Comparative Study of Sensor and Sensor Less Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) used in controllers demand precise and accurate estimation of shaft positions for high-level controlling actions. Shaft positions can be obtained by sensors or can be estimated without sensors. This study does a comparative study of obtaining the shaft position of PMSM with and without sensors. Sensor less control is based on closed-loop control system using Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS). MATLAB/Simulink is used to implement the developed model and simulated to obtain the results. This paper highlights the significance of sensorless control of shaft position. Sensor less method eliminates the need of costly and clumsy sensors thereby making the system more compact and Economical.
P. Sandhya, B. Rajalakshmi Samaga, Ramzeena
An Exposition of Digital Taylor-Fourier Transform
Digital Taylor-Fourier Transform (DTFT) is a Taylor series-based extension to Discrete Fourier Transform. It is becoming popular due to its ability to estimate off-nominal frequency phasors accurately, which is lacking in DFT, the conventional technique used in Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs). In light of this, a lucid presentation of the mathematical formulation of DTFT is considered instructive and hence the same is attempted here. Further, the ability of DTFT filter to accurately estimate off-nominal frequency phasors, off-nominal frequency harmonics and exponentially varying sinusoids is illustrated and reasoned out.
Krishna Rao, K. N. Shubhanga
Autonomous Microgrid Using New Perspective on Droop Control in AC Microgrid
Providing higher quality power to consumers through the existent microgrid is now a problem for the renewable energy source. Designing a droop controller for the microgrid is a necessity to construct a dependable and effective microgrid. In this paper, a PF/QV droop method is used to connect several VSIs in parallel. Their parallels and differences are amply discussed in this study. A frequency droop control method and a virtual impedance approach are combined in the suggested method, which is coupled to two distributed generation (DG) local controllers and has each unit having a droop control and a voltage-current controller. An islanded system's load flexibility and microgrid reliability can both be enhanced by adding this controller. The microgrid was subjected to this idea without any real-time communication. Simulink/MATLAB was used to simulate this. The results obtained show that the microgrid (MG) model is effective in autonomous operation.
Siddaraj, Udaykumar R. Yaragatti, H. Nagendrappa
Solar Photovoltaic Charging of Electric Vehicle and V2G for Indian Electricity Demand Scenario
The increase in the price of fossil fuels and environmental issues such as global warming due to combustion engines has led people to switch to Electric Vehicles (EVs). The rise in the electricity demand from the Indian grid due to the charging of the large number of EVs is a major concern. The rise in Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) installation and its peak power generation during sun hours should be effectively utilized as the electricity demand during the same period is not much. Thus comes the option of charging the EVs with SPV which will not cause a burden on the Indian grid. The EVs battery is of high-capacity kWh rating and remains idle with 80% of State of Charge (SoC) for more than 16 h in a day. This unused charge with the help of Vehicle to Grid (V2G) technology can be used to inject power into the grid during the peak demand time which will give economic returns to the EV owners. This paper proposes SPV charging of EV and V2G technology to meet the 24 h electricity demand of India in a day with the aid of Bidirectional DC-DC (BiDC-DC) and Bidirectional AC-DC (BiAC-DC) power converters and their controlling strategies. This proposed work also supports the charging of EVs via the grid (G2V) in case of the unavailability of solar power. The simulation of the proposed work is done for a 2-kW rated single-stage SPV and single-phase grid-tied inverter.
S. Suraj, Narayan S. Manjarekar, Soumyabrata Barik
Review of Voltage Sag\Swell Mitigation Control Techniques with Dynamic Voltage Restorer in a Grid Integrated Distribution System
Voltage disturbances in power distribution systems caused by the integration of renewable energy sources can be efficiently minimized with the use of the Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR). DVR is an efficient custom power device that is used in power systems to mitigate voltage disturbances. The DVR's performance is determined by its maximum voltage injection capability and the amount of energy stored in the restorer. Enhancement in the control technique of this non-linear device (DVR) is required to improve its efficiency. To efficiently regulate DVR, Synchronous reference frame Theory (SRF), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Integrated Sliding Mode Controller (ISMC), Fuzzy logic, and a variety of other control approaches have been developed. This paper gives a comprehensive review of voltage quality challenges, as well as the different DVR-based control strategies used in reducing voltage sag and swell in power networks along with their advantages and disadvantages.
N. Sowmyashree, Hrushikesh Kulkarni, M.S. Shashikala, K. T. Veeramanju
Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of STATCOM Supplementary Modulation Controller Incorporated in SMIB System
The low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in power system occur due to inadequate damping torque of the system and LFOs can be damped using a Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) incorporated with Supplementary Modulation Controller (SMC). However, variation in the parameters of SMC can cause oscillatory modes to collide both in eigenvector and eigenvalues. The major focus of this paper is to discuss a parametric variation of STATCOM SMC and its effect on the stability of the system. The investigation also identifies the limitations on damping of the system for parametric variations of the controller without and with energy sources (ES) at the DC bus of STATCOM. The sensitivity of eigenmodes for system parametric changes is analyzed extensively for the various operating conditions of STATCOM to obtain the safe operating range of controller parameters. The illustrative case studies on SMIB system equipped with STATCOM with and without an energy source shows that identification of a safe range of STATCOM SMC parameters and operating points is highly essential to ensure good damping of the swing mode of generators.
Dinesh Shetty, Nagesh Prabhu
Review on the Addition of Antioxidants and Nanoparticles to Natural Ester as an Alternative to Transformer Oil
The power transformer is a critical equipment in the transmission and distribution network that must be managed to ensure uninterrupted power service. Progress of reliable, ecologically harmless insulating oil for the transformer is a boundless exertion of the electrical industry. Current investigation is based on natural ester fluid, which displays exceptional dielectric presentation and environment friendly characteristics. To overcome the disadvantages of natural esters addition of antioxidants and nanoparticles to natural esters was introduced which showed an improved insulating properties in natural esters. Natural esters with addition of antioxidant and nanoparticles are the emerging trend as the potential replacement for the conventional mineral oil. This study details the overview of the effect of adding antioxidants and nanoparticles to the natural esters on the critical properties of natural esters. Natural esters studied in this work are sunflower oil (SFO), rice bran oil (RBO), neem oil (NO), castor oil (CO), mahua oil (MO), and coconut oil (CCO).
S. N. Deepa, A. D. Srinivasan, M. Anusha, K. T. Veeramanju, M. R. Chaitra
Advances in Renewable Energy & Electric Vehicles
Suryanarayana Kajampady
Shripad T. Revankar
Copyright Year
Springer Nature Singapore
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Print ISBN