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About this book

This volume comprises select proceedings of the 7th International and 28th All India Manufacturing Technology, Design and Research conference 2018 (AIMTDR 2018). The papers in this volume discuss simulations based on techniques such as finite element method (FEM) as well as soft computing based techniques such as artificial neural network (ANN), their optimization and the development and design of mechanical products. This volume will be of interest to researchers, policy makers, and practicing engineers alike.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Simulation

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Some Investigations on Drilling of Aluminium Alloy from FEA-Based Simulation Using DEFORM-3D

The production of holes is one of the most common operations among all the machining processes and is more complex than the other metal removal processes. During the drilling, burrs form on both the entry and exit side of the hole as a result of plastic deformation of the material. In order to investigate the burr height, finite element analysis (FEA)-based DEFORM-3D simulations are performed during drilling of aluminium 6061 and 7075 alloys. The influence of variable drill geometry and machining conditions on burr height, thrust force, stresses and strain rates apart from thermal aspects between the drill bit and work pieces are examined. Simulated results analyse the reduction in burr height which can be achieved using the selection of input parameters to attain multiple performance characteristics of output responses, will have a wide range of application prospects saving time and cost of post finishing operation of a drilled hole.

R. Sreenivasulu, Ch. Srinivasa Rao

Chapter 2. Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm to Minimize Module Changes at Machine-Level in Reconfigurable Manufacturing

A reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) is designed at the outset with the capability of rapid adjustment of production capacity and functionality in response to fluctuations in product demand. This paper is presenting a model of RMS containing reconfigurable/modular machines assembled from sets of basic and auxiliary modules to exhibit two key characteristics: a defined range of functionality and scalable capacity. By suitable selection of modules, different operation capabilities with a varying degree of capacity can be developed. Products with alternative process plans and two discrete levels (low and high) of capacity requirements are considered for the modular machines. The objective of the work is to identify the best production sequence and respective process plans in order to minimize the total number of module changes while fulfilling the capacity constraint. Self-organizing migrating algorithm (SOMA) an evolutionary migration algorithm-based search is applied to find the near-optimal solution for the NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. The approach is illustrated through a numerical problem along with computational results as applied to a hypothetical RMS model.

L. N. Pattanaik

Chapter 3. Modelling and Simulation of Deep Drawing Process of Circular Cup on AL1200 Using Finite Element Analysis

Deep drawing process is the mostly used sheet forming process. This method is used in the automobile and aerospace industries and also used for the production of kitchen utensil and cold drink cans. In deep drawing, there are some factors which influence the process those factors are called process parameter of deep drawing. Blank holding force, friction, strain rate, thickness, blank shape, temperature, punch force and punch speed, etc. are the most important parameters. Wrinkles and spring back defects in the drawn component are highly undesirable defects. Wrinkling when insufficient holding force is applied on flange. The objective of this work is to analyze the wrinkling and spring back problem in the deep drawing of circular cup and to determine range of process parameters to minimize the wrinkling defect and spring back defect. A finite element model is developed for 3-D numerical simulation of a circular cup for blank material AL1200 forming process in finite element software ABAQUS 6.14 and ANSYS18.1/APDL. Properties and tool design parameters were used as input parameters for simulation. Wrinkling and spring back defect was observed in the simulated cup. From the FE simulation, we found out the minimum wrinkling occurs in the deep drawn cup at flange region when the Blank holding force is 1 KN and coefficient of friction is 0.02 and the minimum spring back effect occurs in the deep drawn at the BHF of 1 KN and friction of 0.01. Max punch pressure is needed to draw a component when punch velocity is 0.23 mm/s, friction 0.01 and BHP of 33 MPa. Defects like cracking, tearing and necking are not observed in the deep drawn components.

Y. K. Sahu, M. K. Pradhan

Chapter 4. Numerical Investigation on Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) of Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs)

TWB gives weight and cost-saving which are the ultimate desires of the automobile and shipbuilding industries. Despite having such tremendous advantages, the applications of TWBs have been limited due to the limitations of weld line movement and formability reduction compared to the base metal. In this research work, attempts have been made to study the forming behaviour of the tailor welded blanks (TWBs) during the single point incremental forming process. In this work, numerical simulation has been carried out using ABAQUS/Explicit. The TWBs are considered to be made from the friction stir welding (FSW) process. Different strategies of tool path movement have been adopted during the simulation of SPIF process and its effect on weld line movement has been studied. It has been found that the tool dragging effect plays an important role in weld line shift. As a conclusion, it was also observed that the initial position of the SPIF tool affects the weld line shift and stress–strain development as well.

Jeet Raut, Shalin Marathe, Harit Raval

Chapter 5. Force and Thermal Variational Analysis by FE Approach on Dry Turning of Inconel 718

In the present work, dry turning process of Inconel 718 was simulated using DEFORM software. The Johnson–Cook fracture model was implemented in the FEM platform to develop and to analyse the 2D turning process model. The existing dire needs to reduce environmental pollution, and production costs have forced the manufacturers to limit the use of cutting fluids. In view of the above, the process was simulated at dry machining condition to investigate the influence of the two critical input factors: cutting speed (at 125, 300 and 475 m/min) and feed rate (at 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mm/rev). The variational analysis of the predicted machining responses, viz. cutting force, feed force, workpiece and tool interfacial temperature showed an incremental trend with time and cutting speed, respectively. The temperature simulation results were in agreeable concordance with the experimental results, from existing literature, with a maximum error of only 3.38%.

Bishal Das, Jibin T. Philip, Kore Mahesh, Basil Kuriachen

Chapter 6. Experimental Investigation and Finite Element Modelling of Electrical Discharge Machining Using Hollow Electrodes and Injection Flushing

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a non-contact machining process in which rapid electric discharges are used to remove material from a workpiece by melting and vaporisation. The need for components with intricate and difficult to manufacture features have increased drastically over the past few years in different fields of application. The objective of this work was to carry out experimental investigations on the machining of EN31 steel alloy by varying input parameters like peak current and pulse-on-time, with different tool electrodes using the injection flushing configuration, to compare the effect of electrodes on material removal rate, tool wear rate and surface roughness in drilling annular holes on the workpiece. Finite element modelling of the process was done using COMSOL Multiphysics to calculate the temperature distribution and the volume of the craters formed during sparking. The results obtained from the model are then compared with the experimental data and were found that they are complementing each other. Copper is a better electrode material for machining EN31 alloy steel to obtain better material removal rate with least tool wear rate.

Tony M. Shaju, G. L. Samuel

Chapter 7. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of Residual Stresses in Tailor Welded Blanks After Springback

Residual stresses are locked-in stresses in the material that is free of external forces and thermal gradients. These stresses self-equilibrate within the cross section of the material and can result in unexpected failure if not accounted for. A good knowledge of variation of the residual stresses and its distribution is of great importance for the accurate assessment and evaluation of fatigue life of cold-formed components. The present study is based on the experimental and numerical characterization of residual stresses in the tailor welded blanks of interstitial free steel with a thickness combination of 0.8 mm × 1.5 mm after springback using a new cos α technique using a portable X-ray device (μ-X360 residual stress analyser). The longitudinally welded specimens of tailor welded blanks are tested on V-bending set-up with three different punch profile radii, i.e. 10, 12.5 and 15 mm, and the residual stress is measured on inner and outer side of the tested samples. The effect of the punch profile radius on residual stress after springback is observed to be very significant in bending of tailor welded blanks. As the punch profile radius increases, residual stress decreases for a given thickness combination. The residual stress predicted by simulations agreed well with the experimental results for all punch radii except a few cases.

Vijay Gautam, D. Ravi Kumar, Subhajit Konar

Chapter 8. Prediction of Cutting Forces in Micro-milling of P-20 Steel by TiAlN-Coated WC Tool: An Analytical Approach

Micro-milling is one of the emerging tool-based micro-manufacturing processes to fabricate miniaturized features on different materials. Still, there is a need of enhancement in tooling performance as the tool wear and breakage significantly affect the produced feature quality. Hard coating of the tool is a significant approach to improve its tooling performance by reducing the tool wear and tool breakage. However, the coating can increase the edge radius which increases the cutting forces. Therefore, the prior prediction of cutting forces is very much essential to enhance the tooling performance. We proposed an analytical approach for prediction of cutting forces by combing FEM simulation for orthogonal cutting followed by mechanistic modelling by the consideration of tool run out, minimum chip thickness and elastic recovery for TiAlN-coated tool. Finally, adequacy of the model is verified by experiments, and good agreement between predicted and experimental results is observed.

P. Sahoo, T. Pratap, K. Patra

Chapter 9. Effect of Mechanical Constraints on Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Laser-Welded Dissimilar Joints

Titanium and its alloy exhibit eminent properties such as low density, creep and corrosion resistance, which attribute miniature applications in medical industry. Joining of dissimilar material poses challenge due to great difference in their thermal and mechanical properties. Residual stresse is an important cogitation for the component integrity and life assessment of welded joints where its magnitude arises up to yield strength. The present study involves finite element-based modelling of dissimilar welding (Ti–SS) to examine the thermo-mechanical behaviour of welded joints. The temperature profiles are validated with experimental data. In thermo-mechanical analysis, the mechanical constraint plays an important role which substitutes the practical welding condition. Hence, the influence of different restraint conditions on the residual stress and distortion are analysed in the present work. No significant difference is found in magnitude and trend of residual stresses for different boundary condition. However, remarkable variation is observed in distortion analysis for different conditions.

Bikash Kumar, Rachit Nawani, Swarup Bag

Chapter 10. Thermal Modeling and Simulation of Crater Generation on Wire Electrode During Wire EDM Operation

In the present research, the wire cross section is considered for analysis to evaluate the peak temperature obtained by the wire during machining. The crater shape and crater area on the wire have been estimated from the temperature profile which can be used to evaluate the wire erosion rate. Gaussian heat flux is considered in the model as it gives better results compared to other approaches as available in literature. In the present work, we have considered the latent heat of melting of brass wire as it is a very important factor in the thermal modeling of EDM because latent heat signifies the consumption of the amount of supplied heat in the phase change of the wire material. The developed model successfully predicted the temperature profiles across the wire cross section. It will be useful in the prediction of wire rupture during adverse process conditions.

Sanghamitra Das, Shrikrishna N. Joshi

Chapter 11. Optimal Vendor-Managed Inventory Models for Single-Vendor Multiple-Retailer Supply Chains

This research developed an analytical approach for a single-vendor multiple retailer’s vendor managed inventory system. In this paper, various factors like lead time, probability of producing defective items when process goes out of control, shipment size, and safety stock have been considered to modify the models available in earlier literature. Numerical models have been developed that helps in optimizing the total cost that may incur due to various factors at both vendor and retailer levels. Analysis has been carried out for single-vendor and multiple (four) retailers. The total cost that has been optimized is the summation of total vendor cost and total retailer cost. The condition under which each approaches may be preferred has been thoroughly discussed. Significant factors that influence the total cost of the system have been identified by means of various plots.

Narayan C. Nayak, Amar C. Mohanty

Chapter 12. Simulation of Torsional–Axial Chatter Vibrations in Indexable Drilling for Noise Generated

Nowadays, indexable drills are the most commonly used drills for short hole-making operations because of their high performance and economic usage. Although there is much advancement in the indexable drill designs, they make high-pitched noise during the drilling operation which is unpleasant, cause poor surface finish, and may damage the tool too. Regenerative chatter vibrations are the main cause for this high-pitched noise, and a study conducted showed that the coupling between the axial and angular deflections in these drills causes the chatter. Thus, a numerical simulation model of the chatter occurring in these kinds of drills is done by considering torsional–axial vibrations. The model is used to predict the dominant frequency of the drill in which it is working, deflections of the drills under vibrations, and the variation in the forces because of these vibrations. Finally, the spectrum obtained from the noise generated, during the drilling operation, is compared with the spectrum obtained from the simulation, which shows that the numerical simulation is giving the agreeable results.

Pavan Joshi, Mahesh Todkar, B. S. Suresh, Ravi Halasur

Chapter 13. Finite Element Analysis of Sheet Thickness and Force Variation in AA6063 During Single Point Incremental Forming

The single point incremental forming (SPIF) using aluminum alloy-based sheets is widely used in automobile and aerospace industries due to its high strength to weight ratio. SPIF is one of the evolving manufacturing processes due to its potential for die-less forming of metallic sheets. The maximum allowable formability of AA-6063 is limited to the elongation ranging from 12 to 30%. This process generally uses hemispherical end-shaped forming tool which traces the generated CNC code path to acquire the desired shape. In this study, a conical geometry is formed through experiments and simulations using SPIF. This study presents a comparative finite element analysis (FEA) between implicit- and explicit-based computational techniques for SPIF using Abaqus®. In this study, output responses include sheet thickness variation, Von-Mises stress distribution, fracture limit curve and solver time for each computational method. Implicit computational method proves its advantages over explicit for accuracy.

Saurabh Rai, Hreetabh Kishore, Harish Kumar Nirala, Anupam Agrawal

Chapter 14. Analysis and Prediction of Electrical Discharge Coating Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

Surface modification through electric discharge coating (EDC), a common feature of EDM machine, was done with the use of green compact electrode at negative polarity that builds a layer on the workpiece. Green compact sintered electrodes were prepared from the mixture made up of tungsten (WS2) and copper (Cu) powder in different proportions. In this study, effect of input experimental parameters (duty factor, peak current, and powder mixing ratio) on output parameters (tool wear rate, mass transfer rate, microhardness, and coating thickness) was observed. From FESEM and EDS results, a good coating feature was detected on the top coating with coating material presence. The artificial neural network was applied for prediction of output parameters response. The experimental results and predicted results using the artificial neural network (ANN) showed good agreement. There was a good agreement observed in regression and performance plot between actual experimental results and ANN predicted results.

R. Tyagi, S. Kumar, V. Kumar, S. Mohanty, A. K. Das, A. Mandal

Chapter 15. Machining Performance Prediction for Zirconia Toughened Alumina Insert in Machining of High Carbon Steel Using Computational Approach

This work aims to develop a finite element model for zirconia toughened alumina cutting insert to predict the cutting performances in machining of AISI 1095 steel using an implicit Lagrangian computational method by means of commercially available Deform 3D machining software package. Different cutting forces associated with the turning operation, temperature distribution at the tool tip as well as workpiece deformation zones, induced stress and strain rate at the workpiece shearing regimes are evaluated using this FE model. Material removal rate is also calculated using this computational approach. This computational technique has been found as a suitable approach to predict the cutting performances of the modelled zirconia toughened alumina cutting insert turning against the high carbon steel.

Subhrojyoti Mazumder, N. Mandal

Chapter 16. FEM Approach to Predict Three Jaw Chuck Stiffness and Its Effect on Gripping Force for High Speed Turning and Experimental Verification

Higher safety norms and precision machining has pushed machine tool manufacturers to build high-speed machines with reliable work-holding devices. With advances in bearing manufacturing techniques and easy availability of precision roller bearing, hydrostatic bearings, active magnetic bearings and efforts are reduced to manufacture high speed and high precision spindle, leaving workpiece clamping subsystem as the weakest link. Popular work-holding device in lathe is a power-operated three-jaw chuck because of its self-centering properties. However, the problem with power-operated three jaw is the loss of gripping force at high speeds due to large centrifugal forces that act on three-jaw chuck. This loss in gripping force makes the machine operation detrimental in terms of safety of operator/machine as well as the accuracy of machined components due to loss of stiffness at the work side. It will be advantageous if the stiffness behavior of the work holding is known for the operating range. Though the supplier provides speed versus gripping force plot, this not sufficient as the measurement is done for ideal work holding diameter. The speed versus gripping force plots varies for different static gripping forces as well as for different holding diameters as the stiffness varies due to jaw positioning for different diameters. This paper proposes finite element method to predict the loss in gripping force/stiffness due to high spindle speed for various holding diameters. The finite element results are verified with experimental results.

K. S. Karthik, Aslam Pasha Taj, S. R. Chandramouli

Chapter 17. Experimental Investigation and Numerical Analysis of Thermal Fields and Residual Stresses in Multi-pass GTA Welding of AA 6061T6 Plates

Welding is one of the most widely used materials joining processes in the industries. Plates of different thicknesses used for the fabrication of components can be welded using multi-pass welding, depending upon the applications. However, residual stresses are induced in the welded joints due to the rapid heating and cooling, which leads to inhomogeneous distribution of dimensional changes and consequently the failure of welded joint occurs. This manuscript aims to predict temperature distribution and residual stresses during multi-pass butt joint on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of aluminum alloy (AA) 6061T6 weldments. Transient thermal analysis and mechanical stress contour in three dimensions have been estimated considering three modes of heat transfer, i.e., conduction, convection, and radiation. Temperature-dependent properties such as thermal conductivity, heat capacity, yield stress, elastic modulus, and thermal expansion are employed in the welding simulations. The experimental results of temperature distribution in AA 6061T6 weldments are validated using ANSYS 18.1.

Narender Kumar, H. Chelladurai

Chapter 18. Effect of Johnson–Cook Material Model Constants on Predicted Chip Morphology and Forces in FE Simulations of Machining Operation for 93% WHA Alloy

Tungsten heavy alloys (WHAs) with W content 90–95% possess a good combination of high tensile strength as well as high density, thus finding wide applications as counterweights and ballast, radiation shielding, ballistic penetrators, vibration-damped tooling and sporting goods. However, these properties make machining of WHAs to desired dimensions and finish very difficult. A proper understanding of the mechanism of chip formation during machining is surely required that helps in finding the right combination of cutting parameters for achieving higher productivity and better finish. Finite element (FE) simulations help understand the chip formation mechanism with minimum number of experiments. The basic purpose of the current work is to develop an FE model by taking into account three different sets of JC model constants and compare the predicted output variables with experimental machining tests available in the literature.

Chithajalu Kiran Sagar, Amrita Priyadarshini, Amit Kumar Gupta

Chapter 19. Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Co-axial Laser Cladding of Ti6Al4V Alloys

In this article, a 2D FEM model is built to simulate the heat transfer and fluid flow in the laser cladding process of the Ti6Al4V alloy. Physical phenomena such as melt pool generation, mass addition due to powder flow, Marangoni convection, and re-solidification of the melt pool have been incorporated in the developed model. The governing equations pertaining to mass, momentum, and energy were solved in a Lagrangian moving frame to predict temperature and velocity field along with geometrical dimensions of the deposited clad. The temperature and temperature gradients were calculated at “14” located points in three different directions, to scrutinize the thermal behavior of the melt pool. Further, the influence of driving forces such as Marangoni force and thermal buoyancy force was analyzed. The prediction of microstructure evolution was based on the estimation of the temperature gradient, cooling rate, and solidification rate in the fusion zone.

Vijay Mandal, Shashank Sharma, J. Ramkumar

Chapter 20. FEA of Electrical Discharge Machining on the Particle Metal Matrix Composite

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the nonconventional machining processes suitable for machining of metal matrix composites (MMC). In this work, the heat transfer model has been adopted to predict temperature distribution within selected MMC and considered other machining conditions also such as temperature-dependent thermal properties, Gaussian heat flux and plasma radius. The MMC (Al–4Cu–6Si+10%SiC) is used as a workpiece material in this present investigation. The FEA finite element analysis (FEA) axisymmetric model was generated to simulate the MMC using FEA package multi-physics and predicted Material Removal Rate (MRR). Also, the results have been validated with experimental results.

K. Benarji, Y. Ravi Kumar, S. Kanmani Subbu

Chapter 21. Development and Analysis of a Discrete Particle Swarm Optimisation for Bi-criteria Scheduling of a Flow Shop with Sequence-Dependent Setup Time

Most studies in flow shop scheduling neglect the setup times or consider the setup times along with the processing times. However, in industries that manufacture paint, textiles, ceramic tiles, etc., the setup times are significant and are sequence dependent. This paper addresses the problem of scheduling a flow shop operating in a sequence-dependent setup time (SDST) environment considering the objectives, namely minimisation of makespan and mean tardiness. The evolutionary method of discrete particle swarm optimisation (DPSO) based on weighted approach is developed and applied to SDST benchmark problems of flow shop scheduling. The efficacy of the metaheuristic is compared with that of a hybrid genetic algorithm, and it is observed that on an average, the proposed DPSO provides an improvement of 7.8, 22.3 and 11.3% in the values of mean ideal distance, computational time and diversification matrix, respectively. For most problems, the proposed DPSO performs superior to the hybrid genetic algorithm.

V. Anjana, R. Sridharan, P. N. Ram Kumar

Chapter 22. A MATLAB-Based Application to Solve Vehicle Routing Problem Using GA

Application of vehicle routing problem in real-life logistics operations is a need of today’s world, and this paper focuses on developing a vehicle routing problem for the delivery and pickup of products from multiple depot to the graphically scattered customers. The proposed model can be used in real-life applications of various logistic operations where there is a need to determine the optimized location of warehouse for setup so that the demand of customers is fully satisfied. To do so, a genetic algorithm-based solution methodology is proposed to solve the above-stated problem. The proposed algorithm is tested on generated data based on real-life scenarios. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm successfully finds the potential locations for warehouse setup based on the demand and location of customers for minimum transportation cost. The presented approach can provide good solutions to a large-scale problem generally found in real life.

Nikki Rathore, P. K. Jain, M. Parida

Chapter 23. On Modeling the Thermal Behavior of Single and Quad Laser Melting of Powdered Nickel Alloy

Selective laser melting is an additive manufacturing process that uses high laser power beam to melt the powders and fuse together to form three-dimensional parts from CAD model. Inconel 625 is a nickel-based alloy that is widely used in aerospace, chemical, nuclear reactors, and marine applications. As these applications need high service temperatures and corrosion resistance properties, the quality of the parts fabricated should be taken into consideration while fabrication of parts. The formation of the temperature gradient is critical as it affects the stability and dimension of a molten pool, which in turn affects the surface finish and densification of the parts. However, for producing a quality part from selective laser melting, understanding the thermal behavior under laser melting is necessary, when subjected to different process settings. In this paper, using a thermal analysis was used to study the melting by selective laser melting. The different process settings chosen for analysis include laser power and scan speed using constant energy density model. The Gaussian model has been adopted for symmetrical distribution of laser irradiance across the beam. The simulation for temperature analysis was carried out using commercial FEM software for single and quad laser configurations. The temperature profiles were observed at several nodes by varying the process parameter and the temperature distribution during the fabrication was predicted.

Hemnath Anandan Kumar, Senthilkumaran Kumaraguru

Chapter 24. Numerical Analysis of Cutting Modes in High-Speed Machining of Aluminum Alloys with PCD and CBN Tool Inserts

In manufacturing industries, high-speed machining of aluminum alloys is highly recommended for achieving better productivity in terms of cutting force reduction and improved surface finish. Even though an overwhelming number of process parameters affect the high-speed machining operations, tool material is considered to be the most predominant factor in determining the machining performance. Hence, in the present work, experimental and simulation analyses are carried out for understanding the effect of different tool materials in high-speed machining of aluminum alloy. Formation of dead metal zone is taken as the fundamental criterion for analyzing the discrepancy in cutting forces, and the same is discussed in detail in the present paper.

I. Sri Phani Sushma, G. L. Samuel

Chapter 25. Design of Row-based Machine Layout—A Case Study

The layout problem of machines is the determination of the relative location of machines in the available space to minimize the total material handling cost. Machine layout problems are cumbersome and are non-polynomial in nature. Generally, metaheuristics give closer to optimal solution but not precise solution. Since machine layout problems are complex it is, therefore, necessary to obtain the solution by more than one technique like genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithms. The objective of the present study is a case study of Lakshmi Engineering Workshop is taken and optimum arrangement of machines which yield minimum total transportation cost is found out by applying genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm techniques in a multi-row machine layout. By adopting present method, the cost for the optimum layout decreased by 38% when compared with the existing layout cost.

Chandanam Srinivas, Ravela Naveen, Bijjam Ramgopal Reddy

Chapter 26. Optimization of Tool and Process Parameter for Injection Molded Component

Injection molding is a standout among the most imperative techniques utilized for forming thermoplastic parts in industry. In molded case circuit breaker (MCCB), Trip-bar is one of the most critical components as safety is concerned which is manufactured by injection molding process. To get it manufactured within the specified warpage and deformities free, several mold flow simulations are carried out using Creo-MoldFlow. The outcomes of the simulation are used to design the mold tool and optimizing the process parameters. The objective of this work is to optimize the process parameters such as filling time, melt temperature, mold temperature for high glass fiber reinforced polyarylamide composites. This consolidates the gray relational analysis (GRA) and CAE flow simulation software, to simulate the process as well as to anticipate the fiber orientation.

Pratyush Kar, G. Rajesh Babu, P. Vamsi Krishna

Chapter 27. Flow Path Optimization of Pneumatic Valves Through CFD Analysis

Relay emergency valves are typical pneumatic flow control valves which are primarily used in air brake vehicles to speed up the application and release of rear axle(s) brakes. This valve will also have additional provision to apply the trailer brake automatically in the event of accidental decoupling of trailer. The relay emergency valve will graduate, hold, and release of air pressure from the brake chambers to which it is connected. The relay emergency valve is used to reduce the response time of brake applications on heavy-duty vehicles. In order to achieve higher valve response, the valve should yield high flow rate for a wide range of operating pressures. Higher flow output can be achieved with the minimum flow restriction in the valves. To achieve different product functions, the assembly will have subparts like piston, springs, seals, etc. which will restrict the flow passage. To achieve high flow rate without sacrificing the product function, the valve flow area should be maximum. Hence, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be utilized as a useful design tool to optimize the flow area of relay emergency valves and also to study the effect of flow restrictions. This paper covers the optimization of the flow path by finding the nominal flow diameters as per ISO 6358. A thorough CFD analysis with several design iterations of the valve has been made to improve and finalize the nominal flow diameter with the required flow rate at the outlet to meet the design requirements. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experiments.

N. Prabhakar, G. Gopinath, S. Bharathiraja, M. Praveen, V. R. SwaroopRaj

Chapter 28. Virtual Simulation with Statistical Approach on Performance Optimization

Most of the industries are moving toward the “Industry 4.0,” which is the current trend of automation, data exchange, and manufacturing technologies. Industry 4.0 operates on four main objectives which are interoperability, information transparency, technical assistance, and decentralized decisions. This paper focuses on technical assistance that enables integrating virtual simulation and statistical tool benefits and advantages in achieving first-time right design in a foot brake valve. Foot brake valve provides the driver with a graduated control for applying and releasing the vehicle brakes.

V. Hudson, R. Vinoth Kumar, S. Vivek, G. Anbarasu

Chapter 29. Design, Development, and Modeling of EMLA-Based Wheel Brake Actuation System for an UAV

Wheel brake systems are designed for aircraft became common ever since it participated in transportation and specific applications, as the intricacy and speed of operation amplified and the usage of different airstrips and land surfaces for different conditions. Wheel brake system operation solely depends upon aircraft safe operation on the different surface grounds. The brake system slows the speed of aircraft and stops it in a specific amount of reasonable time and distance. In general, most of the aircrafts having the main landing gear wheels are outfitted with a power-assisted brake assembly and the front or rear landing gear does not having the wheel brake system. This paper presented a development of electromechanical linear actuator (EMLA) based wheel braking system that contained linear actuator, crank arm, master cylinder, and a brake caliper control system. Dynamic model of EMLA-based system simulated with command from flight control computer and actuation system was established. The command control of actuation input and distribution of brake force approach were also discussed. Experiments conducted to estimate the performance of braking system and checked with real system. The simulation studies, and experimental performances show the practicability, effectiveness and implementation of this braking system on a typical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The system was also implemented on a UAV platform, and the actuation requirements for the various braking conditions were quantified.

D. Satish Babu, P. N. Vijay Vittal, Pollov Sarmah, Veena G. Dikshit

Chapter 30. Design, Fabrication and Simulation of Micro-EDM Machined AISI 316 SS Micro-channel Heat Sink

Micro-sized equipment used by many industries like automobile, robotics, micro-electronic mechanical systems, etc., is always prone to generation of heat. The elimination of generated heat from these systems is a difficult and costly affair. Though various approaches may be taken towards the elimination of heat from these systems, a micro-channel heat sink is one of the simplest and cheapest devices employed for the purpose. In the present work, a micro-channel heat sink, using a suitable low-cost material, i.e. AISI 316 SS, is fabricated through the micro-EDM process. Micro-EDM is a non-traditional machining process which allows high precision machining of many difficult to machine materials. Post fabrication, pressure drop and heat transfer in the heat sink are simulated using ANSYS Fluent®. Water, at varying flow rates, is taken as the working fluid, and the effect of surface roughness of fabricated channels is also incorporated in the simulation. Increase in flow rate is found to have a negative influence on heat sink performance as pressure drop increases in addition to decrease in temperature change between inlet and outlet.

H. S. Mali, Vivek Baghela, Siddhartha Kr. Singh

Chapter 31. Geometrical Modeling and Performance Analysis of Textile Composites Using Python Scripted Software Platforms

Textile-reinforced composites offer enhanced strength to weight ratio, bidirectional strength and impact resistance available with multiple weaving patterns and orientations as three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal, angle interlock, two-dimensional (2D) fabrics, etc. To ensure the applicability of these composites, mechanical characterization is performed prior to use. This study aims at exploring all the geometrical modeling utilities including yarn geometry, weaving patterns, binder yarn details and interpolations between yarn nodes, available with the modeling tool and their characterization using finite element (FE) post-processor tools by assigning boundary, loading and constraint conditions, both Python encrypted tools. Textile fabrics are modeled as representative element volume (REV)/unit cell (using Graphical User Interface, Python script or C++ API functions), exported to Python encrypted FE tool for characterization. Further, REV is repeated in desired orientations to replicate the overall fabric characteristics.

Pragati Priyanka, H. S. Mali, Anurag Dixit

Chapter 32. Electromagnetic Transient-Thermal Modeling of High-Frequency Induction Welding of Mild Steel Plates

High-frequency induction welding (HFIW) is a fast, energy-efficient process that is currently being used to weld pipes, primarily used in oil and gas lines. This work focusses on apprehending the process parameters for the feasibility of welding of flat mild steel plate with a fine refinement of weld structure using HFIW. This multi-physics problem is analyzed by three-dimensionally coupled electromagnetic transient-thermal finite element analysis to understand the electromagnetic heat transfer phenomena and melting. The simulations were done through EMS 2018 add-on package after developing an assembly model in SOLIDWORKS. The magnetic field intensity, magnetic flux density, temperature distribution, and time-temperature plot were obtained and the results are found to be at a good agreement with literature. The skin and proximity effect along with hysteresis losses are considered for the development of the model. Suggestions are made for a better working window with proper welding conditions.

Ankan Mishra, Sukhomay Pal, Swarup Bag

Chapter 33. Prediction of Machining Responses in Wire EDM on Stainless Steel-316

In wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), material is removed by means of the rapid and cyclic spark that discharges across the gap between the tool and workpiece. In the present work, process parameters of WEDM are tried to be optimize the response variable on Stainless Steel-316 alloy material. SS-316 combinations have been broadly utilized for their predominant properties. For example, high quality, high electrical and thermal conductivities, and low cost. The input parameters considered are pulse-on time, pulse-off time, and current to optimize the responses, viz. surface roughness (SR), volumetric material removal rate (VMRR), dimensional error (DE), and electrode wear (EW). Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array was chosen to conduct the experiments according to design of experiments (DOE). SR is measured using surftron surface tester and VMRR is calculated based on machining time. DE and EW are measured by micrometer. By using artificial neural network, results were predicted and compared with the experimental results.

G. Ugrasen, D. Rakesh, H. V. Ravindra, K. Guruprasad, Sivanaga Malleswara Rao Singu

Chapter 34. Knowledge Discovery by Decision Tree Using Experimental Data in High-Speed Turning of Steel with Ceramic Tool Insert

The manufacturing industry is of immense importance. Turning is one of the most basic operations performed across all manufacturing industries till date. Process parameter optimization and modeling in this field, which is very complex, have been investigated by many past researchers. Various methods like statistical techniques, and finite element-based and soft computing-based approaches were used to predict the machinability parameters like flank wear based on the given input cutting conditions like cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, etc. Nevertheless, a very few work was done in the area of knowledge discovery with the experimental data. In this work, efforts have been made to extract knowledge automatically using decision tree from the raw experimental data while turning EN24 steel with Cr2O3-doped zirconia toughened alumina (Cr-ZTA) ceramic tool insert. After that, the extracted knowledge in the forms of set of fuzzy rules was fed into a custom-made fuzzy logic control (FLC) system developed for predicting flank wear. The results of predictions are validated with experimental test data, and the capability of the system is stated with scope for improvements.

A. R. Dhar, N. Mandal, S. S. Roy

Chapter 35. Decision-Making System for Accepting/Rejecting an Order in MTO Environment

When multiple orders are to be processed in a make-to-order environment, scheduling them properly is of paramount importance. Further, it is also important to foresee whether or not the product can be completed in the stipulated time period. In this present work, FlexSim is used to simulate and determine job processing time, waiting time, machine working time, ideal time, etc. Job and machine status reports are then made from the obtained results, and it gives the shopkeeper ample results regarding the job. The simulation results further help in identifying the optimal sequence and in determining the capacity required in all the machining centers for the jobs to meet their respective due dates. If the time required for the job exceeds due date, then capacity is increased and the job is rescheduled again. Even then if it fails to complete in due date, then it is rejected, else accepted.

C. H. Sreekar, K. Hari Krishna, P. Vamsi Krishna

Chapter 36. Numerical Simulation of Channel Angles and Their Combination Influence on Plastic Deformation Behaviour of Pure Al Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is one of the most efficient methods of severe plastic deformation (SPD) for obtaining bulk nanostructured materials. The ECAP die consists of two equal channels that meet at an angle, usually between 90° and 135°. In the present study, the effect of ECAP die channel angles and their combination on the plastic deformation behaviour of pure Al during ECAP under friction and frictionless conditions were investigated. A 2-D finite element modelling was used in order to analyse the plastic deformation behaviour as the material passes through the die. The properties of commercially pure aluminium (Al) have been selected in order to perform FEM simulations. A sound knowledge obtained for the plastic deformation (material flow) and understanding the relationships between plastic deformation and mechanical properties of pure Al.

Ramulu Malothu, Krishnaiah Arkanti

Chapter 37. Teeth Wear Enhancement Along the Tooth Profile of Spur Gear Drive by Balancing the Fillet Stress Through Positive Correction Factor

This article suggests a modification in the correction factor which will improve the wear resistance for the equalized fillet stress in spur gear drive. As ruled, higher transmission proportional drives have an altering stresses in the fillet of pinion and the wheel. This fillet stress can be equalized by utilizing addendum alteration system. This changed addendum can bring down the fillet stress in the pinion subsequently enhancing the load conveying limit of the drives. Here, the fillet stress is assessed utilizing finite element analysis (FEA) technique for various blends of S+ drives. This correction factor is given in the pinion; wheel with the end goal that the bending strength of the drive is improved. At last, the fillet stress is equalized by varying the correction factors for every one of these drives, and the upgraded estimation of balanced strength with enhanced wear resistance is recommended for the spur gear drive.

R. Ravivarman, K. Palaniradja, R. Prabhu Sekar

Chapter 38. A Coupled Thermal-Structural Model for Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheets

Computational simulations using the finite element method are advantageous in predicting the response of the weldments during the welding processes. These welding simulations help in ensuring the correction in the process design to compensate for the effects of the welding before the commencement of the actual fabrication process. In this work, a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model is presented for simulating the gas metal arc welding process on thin aluminium alloy plates. For modelling the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the weldments, finite element ANSYS software is used. Temperature-dependent properties of plates are used in the simulation. Effects of conduction and convection due to air and argon gas are considered. For modelling the welding heat source, Goldak’s double ellipsoidal heat flux distribution is implemented. With the help of finite element solutions, transient temperature and transient stress distribution in aluminium alloy weldments are estimated.

Tapas Bajpai, H. Chelladurai, M. Zahid Ansari

Chapter 39. Numerical Modelling and Simulation of Single and Multi-spark Impacts in Electrical Discharge Machining

In this paper, the 2D surface model of single and multi-spark impacts on electrical discharge machining (EDM), with precise consideration of spark propagation, has been developed and simulated. Theoretical correlation between the input parameters, viz. discharge voltage (V): 30–110 V, discharge current (I): 5–75 A and spark on time (Ton): 10–200 µs, were preliminarily established, using the governing equations. The scope of the paper was to model the spark impact phenomenon, so as to determine the most influential factors which can be controlled to produce the required surface finish, for specific applications. Fine/finish machining is achievable at low discharge current, moderate discharge voltage and medium pulse on time, whereas coarse machining requires reverse conditions, preferably. Multi-spark analysis imparts insight into the possibilities in prediction and evaluation of material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) through further design considerations.

Jibin T. Philip, Basil Kuriachen, Jose Mathew

Chapter 40. Finite Element Simulation and Experimental Investigations to Predict Tool Flank Wear Rate During Microturning of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy

Mechanical micromachining has gained wide acceptance in the manufacture of miniaturized components for a wide range of applications including aerospace, biomedical, electronics, etc. in recent decades. Microturning is one of the important machining techniques used for manufacturing these components. In micromachining, as the undeformed chip thickness becomes comparable with the cutting edge radius, size effect highly influences the material deformation mechanism. Therefore, the tool experiences a nonlinear variation in cutting forces and specific cutting energy, which accelerates the tool wear. The tool wear mechanism becomes even more complex in the case of micromachining of difficult to machine materials like Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Tool wear is influenced by the combined effect of mechanisms like material adhesion, abrasion, erosion, diffusive wear, fracture, etc. In the present work, the adhesive tool wear model, proposed by Usui et al. is used for the tool wear estimation in micro regime. The tool wear model is calibrated using a hybrid approach based on both finite element simulations and cutting experiments. Validation experiments are done to compare experimental and predicted flank wear rates. Results show that the predicted flank wear rates using Usui model, using calibrated constants, showed better agreement with experimental results.

Jiju V. Elias, S. Asams, Jose Mathew

Chapter 41. Analysis of a Few Heuristics Proposed Based on Slope Indices to Solve Simple Type—I Assembly-Line Balancing Problems

In an assembly line, any product is subdivided into many tasks which may include subassemblies and processing. These tasks are carried out in several work stations which are responsible for a single or a set of operations. Assembly lines need to be balanced to have even distribution of work for both men and machines. Type—1 simple assembly-line balancing problems (SALBP-1) refer to minimization of number of work stations by keeping the cycle time constant. This paper proposes a new set of heuristics that can be used to solve simple type—1 assembly-line balancing problems and analyzes them using a few benchmark problems available in the literature. They use slope indices to order the jobs and allot them to different work stations.

A. Baskar, M. Anthony Xavior, N. Nithyanandan, B. Dhanasakkaravarthi

Chapter 42. A Thermo-Mechanical Finite-Element Analysis of Resistance Spot Welding of Dual-Phase Steel and Austenitic Stainless Steel

In this paper, a three-dimensional axisymmetric finite-element model for resistance spot welding of automotive steel materials is prepared to analyze the transient thermal and mechanical behaviors of weld pool. Thermal analysis is carried out to analyze the transient thermal properties of the process of resistance spot welding. Based on the results of the thermal analysis, a mechanical (structural) analysis is conducted to evaluate mechanical characteristics of resistance spot welding process. The thermal characteristics and temperature distribution within the body of weld metal have been validated by comparing it with the experimental work. The mechanical characteristics such as distribution of stresses and contact pressure at faying surfaces and electrode–sheet interfaces, the stress and strain distributions in weldment, and the changes during the welding process have been evaluated. The effect of welding parameters on weld strength was investigated. Results obtained through numerical modeling showed good agreement with experimental results.

Sagar Rathod, Sunil Ghunage, B. B. Ahuja

Chapter 43. The Effect of Process Parameters on Pulsed Through Transmission Laser Welding of Acrylic and Polycarbonate Sheets

In the present research, the Taguchi method is applied to obtain the best combination of weld parameters to optimize weld characteristics in through transmission laser welding of two transparent materials namely acrylic and polycarbonate. Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array has been chosen for the experimental design. Laser power, welding speed and frequency have been selected as the process parameters. The individual effects of welding parameters on width (WW) and ultimate load (UL) of weld have been carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Next, grey-based Taguchi method has been applied for multi-objective optimization for maximization of ultimate load and minimization of weld width simultaneously. Finally, confirmatory tests have been performed to validate the applied optimization technique.

Nitesh Kumar, Nikhil Kumar, Asish Bandyopadhyay

Product Design and Development

Frontmatter

Chapter 44. Design and Development of Combination Tool for Drilling and Tapping Operation on PVC

Form or friction drilling is becoming popular due to its ability to quickly form the hole with bushing on the sheet material. The formed hole is to be tapped with form tap, and thus, tapped holes on the sheet materials are used in sheet metal working processes. This process requires two separate operations of form drilling and form tapping and consumes extra time causing more cost of production. This paper proposes the design and development of combination tool, made of high-speed steel (M2) tool which combines the friction drilling and form tapping operation in a single step. The main objective of designing the combination tool is to minimize the operation time and cost of production as both operations can be performed on the same machine using a single tool. The combination tool have been designed keeping in mind polymeric sheet material and the geometry of form section and ta section decided according to the requirement. The two sections of combination tool, viz. form section and tap section used to carry out the operation in that sequence. Form section of combination tool has the geometry vis-a-vis friction drilling tool. The rotating conical tool when contacts the work piece generates the frictional heat resulting in softening of work piece material. Further advancement of tool into the work piece leads to plastic flow of material along the direction of feed which reproduces the cylindrical hole resembling cylindrical portion of form section. Tap section which is located just above the form section carries out the second sequence of operation, i. e., form tapping. Process involves the reproduction of threaded profile on the drilled holes which completes the cycle of forming and tapping the holes on the sheet materials.

Yogesh G. Kamble, P. D. Pantawane, B. Rajiv, B. B. Ahuja

Chapter 45. Processing and Characterization of a High Entropy Alloy in Application to Golf Club Head

High entropy alloys are known for their excellent mechanical and wear-resistant properties. The main objective is to incorporate the concept of high entropy alloys in the manufacturing of golf club head to enhance the compressive strength, impact strength, hardness and wear-resistant properties. An equiatomic, multi-principal elements were processed to form AlCuFeNiCr high entropy alloy using permanent metal mould casting technique. Mechanical tests were conducted and studied. Pin-on-disc wear test was conducted to determine wear rate using L9 orthogonal array. Results proved that AlCuFeNiCr alloy exhibits superior mechanical and wear-resistant properties compared to other golf club heads which are processed using conventional alloys. Influences of input parameters on output parameters using Minitab software were studied. Scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and optical microscope were utilized to study microstructure, elemental composition and worn surfaces, respectively. BCC phase was noticed which conveys better hardness properties.

N. A. Srinidhi, M. Ramachandra

Chapter 46. Design and Development of Improved Ball End Magnetorheological Finishing Tool with Efficacious Cooling System

Ball end magnetorheological finishing is a magnetic field-assisted nano-finishing process in which the electromagnet is used to generate the required magnetic field. The electromagnet is energized by DC current which also generates heat in the electromagnet. Nano-finishing is a time-taking process which requires the machine to run for a long time such as hours or days. Sometimes the material which is to be finished requires higher magnetic field for finishing. Due to these two reasons, it requires continuous cooling of the electromagnet so that the finishing operation can be prolonged without stopping the finishing operation. To see the above requirements, a new cooling system has been developed in which the electromagnet is cooled continuously by the electrically insulating oil circulated at low temperature. In this new cooling system, the electromagnet is cooled from the inside too for effective cooling of the inner layers of the copper wire. Results on this newly designed tool show that it continuously works without getting heated.

D. A. Khan, Z. Alam, F. Iqbal, S. Jha

Chapter 47. Analyzing Enablers of Emission Reduction Strategies of Cement-manufacturing Industry of India under Fuzzy Environment

Cement production is the most emission-intensive industry. The Indian cement industry is the second-largest greenhouse gas emitter. Continuous emissions are responsible for global warming and extreme climate change. The cement industry is currently under pressure to reduce emissions. Therefore, we seek to evaluate the enablers of emission reduction strategies of Indian cement industry. In the present study, fuzzy AHP is used to assess the enablers of emission reduction strategies of cement industry. The FAHP helps in establishing the priorities of the enablers of emission reduction strategies. According to the study outcomes, there are 17 enablers related to emission reduction practices. FAHP analysis showed that enabling factors: Litigation risk, health issue, local public or societal pressure for emission reduction, cut in subsidies and increased taxes on fossil fuels and demand for low-carbon product are on top priority as per global rank.

Sachin Balsara, P. K. Jain, Anbanandam Ramesh

Chapter 48. Role of Product Development Process for NPD Success in Indian Manufacturing Industries: Quality, Cost and Technological Aspects

‘MAKE IN INDIA’ necessitates the boost in Indian manufacturing industries to be involved in new product development (NPD) for achieving industrial sustainability. Product development process (PDP) is one of the most vital factors of NPD for developing new products as per customer demand. The successful adoption of PDP requires the top management support (TMS), external collaboration (EC) and market analysis (MA) to develop the suitable environment for successful NPD by producing the high-quality products with technological developments in reduced cost. This study develops a framework comprising of the aforesaid factors and measures by structural equation modelling (SEM) approach with the primary data collected from 263 experts of Indian manufacturing companies. The analysis infers that PDP is escalated by TMS, EC and MA to develop new products trading off among product cost, quality and technological developments for NPD success. The positive influence of TMS on EC has also been explored.

Sudeshna Roy, Nipu Modak, Pranab K. Dan

Chapter 49. Design of Open Battery Pack Interface for Electric Vehicle Personalization

Satisfaction of personalized customers’ requirements of battery packs determines the competitiveness of electric vehicles. To meet the personalized requirements of battery packs, this paper develops a method for the design of an open interface for the connections and disconnections of battery pack modules to the electric vehicles. First, location and initial design scheme of the open interface are proposed based on relation analysis between customer demands and the electric vehicle module. To better facilitate the functional interactions between battery pack modules and electric vehicles, adaptability of open interface is then enhanced through design evaluation and modification. Influence of uncertainties due to unknown battery pack modules to the performance of electric vehicle is minimized through structure optimization of the open battery pack interface. The design can support electric vehicle personalization, better lifecycle flexibility, open technology innovation, and open business model.

F. Chen, J. Zhang, M. Wu, X. Chu, Uday Shanker Dixit

Chapter 50. Enhancement of Static and Dynamic Characteristics on Micro-lathe Bed by the Use of Alternate Form Design and Composite Materials

Machine tools are operated at higher speeds vibrations are generated between workpiece and tool, results dimensional variation and poor surface finish on machined components. Hence, machine tools are developed with high dynamic stiffness by using high stiffness and damping composite material to reduce such effects and to achieve better dimensional accuracy with good surface finish on machined components. The machine tool structure considered in this study is a cast iron (CI) micro-lathe bed. The numerical model of the reference cast iron micro-lathe bed taken up for study was developed and experimental validation of the same was done. Static finite element analysis of the validated numerical model with worst-case cutting forces and moments was carried out for three different materials, namely gray cast iron, epoxy granite, and nettle polyester, and the results were compared, and the need for form design was justified. Static characteristics are improved through the use of cross sections and rib configurations with higher bending and torsional stiffness. Dynamic characteristics are improved through the use of stone- and fiber-based composite materials with higher specific stiffness and damping properties. The improvements in static and dynamic characteristics of the newly developed structures are investigated.

N. Mahendrakumar, P. R. Thyla, P. V. Mohanram, M. Ramu, V. Prabhu Raja, C. Raja Kumaran, K. N. Manojkumar, A. Siddarth

Chapter 51. Development of Indigenous Direct Drive Rotary Guide Bush Device and Establishment of Three-Spindle Synchronization for Sliding Headstock Automat

CNC sliding headstock automat (SHA) has two spindles that work simultaneously along with turning tools and rotary tools to manufacture complex components with higher productivity. The concept of Swiss-style machining is adopted, wherein the job is fed as bars and held in a collet system and cutting happens close to guide bush support. This facilitates slender parts machining with ease. In the present context, guide bush device is developed with an exclusive built-in motor design, compact enough to optimize the end piece. At times, jobs that are machined in the main spindle with the support of guide bush need to be further carried by the sub-spindle. In such a situation, three-spindle synchronization is a challenge. An effort is put to understand the limitations of mechanical and electrical sub-systems to bring out a methodology for three-spindle synchronization.

S. Deepak, Nagesh Nadig, S. R. Chandramouli

Chapter 52. Development of 3-Axis Micro-Step Resolution Desktop CNC Stage for Machining of Meso- and Microscale-Features

Requirement of miniaturization in manufacturing equipment for micro-scale components and product is drastically increasing. Recently, desktop CNCs have proved to be more convenient than other micro machines due to its precision and accuracy. This paper presented a low cost indigenously designed and developed micro-step resolution desktop CNC stage which can be used for machining precision components at comparatively reasonable cost. Mechanical resolution of 1 µm has been achieved by designing and developing precision drives and controller for obtaining micro step by controlling stepper motors and drivers. The work is also focused on designing noise- and vibration-free mechanical structure of the CNC stage to achieve micro resolution motion. Universal G-code Sender is used as GUI and sends G-codes to machine. The developed desktop CNC stage which can have the potential use for various precision machining applications, especially, aimed for micro-machining domain. The developed stage can also be employed for the precise movement of workpiece and/or tool for various micro- and mesoscale-machining processes such as laser machining, electrochemical micro-machining, as well as tool based micromachining.

Shweta Patil, Sandip S. Anasane

Chapter 53. Design and Development of a Pump-Driven Variable Buoyancy Engine (VBE) for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles/Gliders

A change in buoyancy for an ‘Autonomous Underwater Vehicle/Glider(AUV/G)’ in conjunction with wings can be used to convert vertical motion to horizontal motion, improve propulsive efficiency and power consumption, design a compact shape, and increase the AUV/G’s endurance (range and duration of the operations). Thus, an efficient buoyancy control can extend the ocean-sampling missions from hours to weeks or months, and to thousands of kilometers of range. In this regard, we propose to develop vehicles that employ the ‘Pump-Driven Variable Buoyancy Engine (PDVBE)’ to have the capability to self-ballast and buoyancy control. Herein, we present the design and development of a computer-aided design (CAD) model for pump-driven variable buoyancy engine (VBE) for the AUVs/Gs. The proposed CAD model is modular in architecture and its various modules like design, simulation, control, and testing are scalable. Furthermore, the CAD model is integrated into the overall design of the AUVs/Gs. Finally, we present the various applications that are currently under investigation to demonstrate the applicability of our proposed design model.

B. K. Tiwari, R. Sharma

Chapter 54. Application of Value Analysis and Value Engineering for Cost Reduction of Global Pumping Unit

At present, the competition in Indian retail market for fuel dispensers is leading to a constant battle for an adequate market share. The Indian retail market for fuel dispensers is favouring the lowest bidder. Recent tenders have seen aggressive bidding from all the bidders, which leads to price war between different organizations. Value analysis and value engineering are the concepts, which help in understanding the correct path to proceed with improvements, which will ultimately result in higher customer satisfaction or we can say increased market shares. A case study of Global Pumping Unit is taken for the research, in which the design of components with removal of excess material and change in material have significantly reduced cost of whole pumping unit using VAVE methodology. In this study, a total of three components namely rotor, pump body and stator housing were taken to apply VAVE which resulted in 30, 4 and 10% of cost reduction.

Aniket Bhosle, Avinash Sah, D. K. Shinde

Chapter 55. Development of Prototype Variable Geometry In-Pipe Robot for Reconfigurable Applications

From smart cities to cyberville, infrastructure development of the world has been growing in leaps, off late. While all the domains have shown sweeping progress, handling of waste leaves much to be desired even with all the efforts of the researchers in this domain. The methodology adopted to design reconfigurable robot for moving inside the sewage pipeline that has the capacity to remove the blockage is discussed in this paper including the structural and kinematic analysis of the robots that were done for the design. Many configurations were considered and simulated to recognize the improved characteristics of each model and finally a prototype is fabricated for experimentation. Reconfigurability is achieved through implementation of ultrasound sensors since the robot is to be tested in simulated environment that does not include the wet conditions. Five-layered fuzzy-based integrated control architecture developed for achieving the desired motion and reconfiguration is also presented. The membership function and the corresponding output are also presented for the case of varying pipe diameters of underground sewage pipelines.

S. Pon Vignesh Pappu, M. Ajin, Gopal Satheesh Kumar

Chapter 56. Six Sigma in Battery Assembly of Skid-Steer Loader

Lead–acid battery is the vital part of any automobile, which is used to start the engine, and powers the electric controller and accessories. Quality of the battery determines the smooth starting of engine and working of electric accessories in the vehicles. A damaged battery due to wrong assembly method leads to reduced battery life and frequent starting problems in the working field. This paper eliminates cost of poor quality involved in the assembly of battery on the machine by eliminating the rejection, rework, battery surface damages, and operator fatigue by using Six Sigma methodology with improved quality by using an effective battery mounting bracket design.

R. Kaja Bantha Navas, S. Prakash, M. Mithun, Abhishekshivram

Chapter 57. Concept Design and Development of Position Sensor in Door Control System

Automotive companies are more concerned about safety and comfort. Indian manufacturers are still dependent on conventional pneumatic systems to control door operations, for normal open and close. In case of obstacle sensing between the doors, the current system is capable of sensing obstacle with some restriction that includes higher operating cost, high lead time for assembly, and finally dissatisfies customer requirements. New position sensor to be designed and developed to control door system effectively, which is easily mountable, easily adaptable to all types of mounting, and cost-effective solution. Therefore, a new linear position sensor compatible with existing ECU, Valves, and system requirement is designed and developed.

G. Dinesh Kumar, L. Ragunathan, A. N. Rajaraman

Chapter 58. Remote Monitoring of Axle Loads for Heavy Commercial Vehicles

A practical approach on remote monitoring of axle loads for heavy commercial vehicles with mechanical suspension was presented. At present, there are motor vehicles act implemented in most of the countries against operating commercial with overload. The major root cause for many truck accidents is overloading. When a truck is loaded more than its rated load, it will increase the risk of affecting vehicle stability while driving. Due to overloading of trucks, the driver will loss the steering control during turning and braking, and this loss of control leads to major accidents on roads. In some cases, even when the cargo load is within the rated load, any one of the individual vehicle axle will get overloaded due to non-uniform distribution of payload. Uniform distribution of loads is important for safe vehicle operation. Overloading of trucks will reduce the life of tires and parts related to suspension from their actual service life, which leads to increase in service cost for the vehicle. The best way to overcome these problem is to monitor each axle loads by avoiding traditional method of weigh bridge measurement. Axle load monitoring system presented in this paper works under the technique of capturing axle load with respect to the deflection of mechanical spring suspension. In addition, the system supports remote data capturing using telematics device. This will avoid the physical presence for measuring.

M. Richard Alexander, V. Hudson, Pozhilan

Chapter 59. Influence of TMTM as the Secondary Accelerator on Blooming Resistance of NBR-PVC Blends

NBR-PVC copolymer blend provides a combination of better chemical resistance and weathering resistance. In NBR-PVC blends, di-accelerator system is normally used to achieve desired properties with better cross-linking density. Tetramethylthiurammonosulphide (TMTM) is widely used as the secondary accelerator to achieve various properties like heat ageing and high cross-linking density. When TMTM level is exceeding the soluble limit, blooming phenomena observed in the di-accelerator system. This study deals with the effect of accelerator system on blooming phenomena in NBR-PVC material. Various combinations of tetramethylthiurammonosulphide (TMTM), Mercapto-benzothiazole disulphide (MBTS) and N-Cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide (CBS) were worked out to eliminate the blooming effect with desired functional properties are discussed in this paper.

R. Ananthanarayanan, S. Shanmugham

Chapter 60. Rapid Product Development from an Existing Product Using Reverse Engineering Method

Reverse engineering is a progression of the process which creates a 3D CAD model of an existing part without any engineering drawing. This technology can be utilized when an object having complex shape needs to be copied to produce a prototype. Reverse engineering starts with the collection of point cloud data of object by scanning and digitizing to develop a 3D CAD model. This 3D CAD model is used to produce the object/parts using various rapid prototyping (RP) techniques like fused deposition modelling (FDM). There are several application areas of reverse engineering. It can be utilized to duplicate a product, when unique original drawing or documentation is not accessible. In different cases, it can be used in re-designing an existing part, examination and alterations for enhancement of a product. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reverse engineering process and the different stages involved in reverse engineering and development of a prototype of step cylinder and gear from the existing product.

G. Sen, B. Doloi

Chapter 61. Productivity Improvement by Reduction of Cycle Time Through Implementing Clustering: A Case Study

Productivity is the performance paradigm implying the transformation of man power and material sources into essential goods and utilities. Instant study is concerned with a small-scale production unit near Ambala, Haryana, manufacturing quality tractor parts and fulfilling the monthly requirement of big customers such as Swaraj tractors, Standard, Preet, and Sonalika tractors. The primary goal of the implemented research was to examine the determinants required for reduction of cycle time and betterment of productivity at the manufactory level. The recommended clustering for manufacturing the intended components is designed by developing a universal setup to target the non-productive elements, i.e., setting time. Needful was achieved by stimulating the monthly production and dropping the component manufacturing cost by way of reducing its cycle time by employing clustering principle. p-chart for fraction defectives employed as a statistical tool. Experimentation reveals that validating improved processes and tooling, a total productivity improvement of above 10% was observed.

Satbir Singh, Sandeep Singhal

Chapter 62. Experimental Investigation of Core Shear Properties and Facing Sheet Fracture Stress of Spherical Sandwich Structure

In this study, two different models interlock and stagger spherical structure were designed and developed by using molding process. The matrix used for fabrication is vinyl ester and the woven glass fiber cloth of grade 300 and chopped strand mat (CSM) of 450 grades are used as reinforcement. The size of the model is 330 × 44 mm. Two pitch distances of 24 and 32 mm were selected as spacing between the centers of spheres. The shear stress of core and the fracture stress of facing sheet were tested using three-point bend test. From the test result, it is understood that the interlock model (CSM 32 mm) possess a high shear stress of core having a value of 465 kPa, which is less or more equivalent to honeycomb structure and fracture stress of facing sheet of 37.29 MPa. Whereas the stagger model with woven 32 mm pitch shows low core strength of 69 kPa and fracture stress of facing sheet of 5.58 MPa.

V. Pandyaraj, A. Rajadurai

Chapter 63. Design Analysis of Brass Cartridge Case for Water Disruptor Application

Brass cartridge cases are being popularly used in various types of ammunition since last 100 years, e.g., armaments of small-arm cartridges, artillery shell, and power cartridges for fighter aircraft. Cartridges are filled with propellants and pyrotechnic composition. With suitable means of ignition, it generates hot gases with pressure and temperature. These gases are utilized to perform certain work on the system. Brass cartridge case for water disruptor applications plays a significant role in destruction of the suspicious objects. Further, it has cumulative consequence to make them non-operational. This paper discusses the design aspects of brass cartridge for disruptor application of suspected improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Performance evaluation of brass cartridge was carried out in closed vessel (CV) using the data acquisition system. Parameters such as maximum pressure and time to reach maximum pressure have been evaluated in this CV. The brass material properties such as tensile strength, percentage elongation, and yield strength were determined using universal testing machine (UTM). In CV test, the cartridge experienced 16.08 MPa. The same cartridge when fired in velocity test rig (VTR) it was subjected to 63 MPa internal pressure. Using the data obtained by above methods, an attempt has been made to determine stress, strain, and deformation of the cartridge case theoretically and numerically using ANSYS software. The results obtained by both the methods were compared. It was seen that the results are in good agreement with each other. It is observed that the percentage error for Von-Mises stresses is 13.2% using numerical and theoretical. The percentage error between numerical and theoretical values of hoop stresses are 11.5% for stress and for strain it is 9.6%. The main objective of this paper is to carry out design and analysis of cartridge case analytically as well as numerically. The results of FE analysis for stress and strain are in good agreement with theoretical calculated results and numerical analysis as percentage error is less than 13. This draws the inference for validating numerical and theoretical results. The novelty in this research work is that the cartridge case is subjected to propellant pressure generated inside the case with pressure of 63 MPa. This pressure is measured using data acquisition system in a specially designed test rig.

Bhupesh Amabadas Parate, Sharad S. Khandagale, Sunil Chandel, Himanshu Shekhar

Chapter 64. Design and Analysis of Hydraulic Fixture for WABCO Body Housing

In order to have interchangeable parts in mass production, jigs and fixtures play a vital role in manufacturing process. A fixture is a special tool designed for specific purpose and specific component for operation. The present work deals with the design of machining fixture for milling and drilling operations for a Wabco body housing. The cutting forces involved in the operations are taken into consideration for designing the fixture. The present fixture designed is hydraulic operated and used for operation like face milling, drilling and boring of the body housing. Design standards are taken from Makino for designing this machining fixture. In the design process based on the geometry of the component to be machined, the machine, the table layout and corresponding clamping slot positions are then selected. Since the final component cannot be produced by a single operation, it is necessary to plan for various operations to get the final shape. The fixture is then designed by considering all the clamping forces from various cutting operations. An emphasis was also made to optimize the manufacturing cycle with respect to the original design and it was possible to successfully improve the cycle time involved in the manufacturing process while still meeting all the required standards.

Govindu Vamshikrishna, Koppaka Shesha Sai Gurudatta, Pranav Ravindrannair, Md Israr Equbal

Chapter 65. Development of Alignment Fixture for Precision Assembly of Aerospace Control Surfaces Incorporating Process and Assembly Variations

Actuator alignment is crucial and of paramount importance in meeting high precision pointing and reliable control performance of Aerospace vehicle emission requirements. In this paper, a holistic approach has been made for precise alignment of the Aerospace control surfaces with the actuators through the development of an Assembly Fixture with the help of CAD software taking into account variations in fabrication and assembly for meeting the stringent specification requirements. The Assembly Fixture resulted in reduction of lead time for 3D inspection and also ensured repeatable functional performance of the actuator assembly.

N. Sankaranarayanan, Ch. Venkateswarlu, G. Ravinder, Shivpal Singh

Chapter 66. Product Design Development and Structural Stress Analysis of Chain Cutting and Riveting Tool for Automotive Vehicle Application

In the past, the rivets of roller chains, used in two-wheelers, were removed manually with great effort, using a hammer and a chisel or by grinding the head of the pin, resulting in the damages of the outer pin, link plates, and the bushes of the roller chain, which in turn reduces the efficiency of the chain drive. In order to overcome this and make it easier for removing, riveting back, and gauging of master link, we intend to design and develop a tool for removing the riveted pin from the roller chain without damaging the chain drive components. The same tool can also be used for riveting the pins as well as gauging master link in a roller chain drive by slightly changing some components of the tool. The chain drive is held by the tool, and the total operation is done manually by a single person, without the help of any additional fixtures.

G. Ponsanjay, M. V. Tamilselvaa, R. Ramanathan, K. Ganesh Babu

Chapter 67. Design and Development of Cartridge-Based Automated Fluid Delivery System for Ball End Magnetorheological Finishing Process

Ball end magnetorheological finishing (BEMRF) is a nanofinishing process, and the surface characteristic of the finished product plays a major role. In this process, the volume of polishing fluid affects the quality of the finished surface. Therefore, there arises a need for automated supply of precise and controlled volume of polishing fluid in BEMRF process. In the present work, a new fluid delivery system (FDS) is developed that supplies a precise amount of material-specific polishing fluid to finish different materials under varying finishing parameters by automated delivery of fluid stored in cylindrical-shaped cartridge. Apart from this, since the composition of the polishing fluid is material-specific, it requires continuous change of polishing fluid for finishing of different materials. This becomes extremely expensive and time-consuming with the existing system of polishing fluid being mixed in a large stirrer tank and supplied to the tool tip via a peristaltic pump. The cartridge-based FDS helps in addressing these issues by allowing economical and quick change of material-specific polishing fluid composition. The new FDS is also equipped with radio frequency identification (RFID) technique which verifies the material-specific fluid and only then supplies the fluid for finishing application.

Z. Alam, D. A. Khan, F. Iqbal, A. Kumar, S. Jha

Chapter 68. ARM Controller Based Smart Loom for Generating Basic Weaves

A Smart Loom is a Computing Intelligence based embedded Loom. The benefits of the Smart Loom include the generation of complicated woven fabric without any intricacies in a less span of time. In the present handloom industry, the incorporation of basic weaves on the sample production is very tedious job, since there is no technological intervention in the present scenario. The Basic weaves determines the structure of the fabric. In the proposed system the weaving shedding mechanism is implemented through miniature stepper motors which are operating at low voltage levels. The required basic weaves are stored in the form of Raw Binary Form using Multimedia Memory Card using FAT (File Allocation System) file system. The shedding operation is activated by the stepper motor mechanism using ELJAC principle and it doesn’t require any punched cards for the basic weaves generation. The Client/Server mechanism is used for the woven data transfer and weaving operation. In this Development, the Embedded System (ARM Processor LPC2148) Architecture with 32 Stepper motors has been incorporated.

R. Kumaravelu, S. Poornima

Chapter 69. Manufacturing of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC): Present Status and Future Trends

Recent researches have indicated the manufacturing of several useful products by using different industrial wastes all over the world. The materials remain as a waste till their potential to right use is understood. The solid waste in India has emerged as a great threat to the environmental health of the country. Nowadays, building materials are manufactured from various environmental wastes based on needs and availability. An overview has been given on the manufacturing of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC), one of the potential building materials. The replacement of major raw material (sand) with the solid/industrial wastes in manufacturing of AAC leads toward a sustainable process. In this paper, present status on manufacturing of AAC as well as possible utilization of industrial wastes for its production is presented. A complete industrial manufacturing process of AAC block along with advantages, applications, cost-benefit analysis, challenging issues, and future scopes have been highlighted.

Amit Raj, Arun Chandra Borsaikia, Uday Shanker Dixit

Chapter 70. Influence of Flow Domain Parameters on Hot Water Actuation of Shape-Memory Alloy Spring for Barrier Gate System

The study concerns the comparison of the experimental and analytical techniques using hot water actuated shape-memory alloy (SMA) spring for energy-efficient barrier gate. Specifically, this script studies the heat transfer analysis of the shape-memory alloy spring, using COMSOL Multiphysics. The actuation rate is one of the important factors for using SMA spring for rapid operation of barrier gates. In hot water actuation, this speed of actuation is influenced by two important parameters, the temperature of the inlet water and the velocity at which the water flows into the system. Parametric sweep for an inlet temperature of 65, 75, and 85 ℃ and velocity rates of 5 and 7 mm/s were studied. The conclusions from this parametric investigation can be used to choose the optimum values for the parameters to achieve the required actuation. The results from the finite element analysis were compared with the experimental results.

R Mithun, Tameshwer Nath, S. S. Mani Prabu, I. A. Palani

Chapter 71. A New Approach to Control the Position of Joint Arm Robot Using Image Background Subtraction Technique

Vision-based systems enhance the degree of autonomy of the robot in manufacturing applications and help to increase productivity. Computer vision systems are used to perform multiple tasks by using various algorithms in the view field. In this paper, a new approach based on image subtraction technique using Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to control the position of joint arm robot for pick and place operations to sort the objects is presented. In this work, a simple vision system is used to capture the images of the robot and objects placed within the work volume of the robot, and these images are processed continuously using GMM background subtraction algorithm to find the coordinates of the objects with reference to robot base. These coordinate points are used to pick the object and place in the desired location. In this work, a prototype of 3R servo robot linkage system is fabricated to evaluate the algorithm using web camera, and a program is developed in MATLAB.

Pramod Kumar Thotapalli, CH R Vikram Kumar, B Chandra Mohana Reddy
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