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2023 | Book

Advances in Smart Materials and Innovative Buildings Construction Systems

Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Humanity (ICATH'2022)

Editors: Ayman S. Mosallam, Brahim El Bhiri, Vistasp M. Karbhari, Shadi Saadeh

Publisher: Springer Nature Switzerland

Book Series : Sustainable Civil Infrastructures


About this book

This book contains a comprehensive guide to the latest developments in building and bridge construction. The book covers a wide range of topics, including the use of advanced materials such as fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites and the incorporation of smart technologies into design and construction of buildings and bridges.

The book discusses advantages of using FRP composites in building and bridge construction. It then goes on to explore the use of smart technologies, such as sensors and structural health monitoring systems, to improve performance and safety of structures. It also covers the use of advanced concrete and masonry materials and methods, including high-performance concrete, self-consolidating concrete, and advanced masonry systems.

The book is written for engineers, architects, and construction professionals and provides a detailed overview of the latest research and developments in the field. It includes case studies and practical examples to illustrate key concepts and techniques, making it an invaluable resource for those involved in building and bridge construction.

With its comprehensive coverage of the latest advances in building and bridge construction, "Advances in Concrete, Masonry and FRP Composite Smart Buildings and Bridges" is an essential guide for anyone looking to stay current with the latest trends and technologies in the industry.

Table of Contents


Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Structures

Chapter 1. Assessment and Calibration of the ACI Punching Shear Resistance of LW Slabs Using Reliability Methods
Failures due to shear are brittle and required reliable strength models. The challenge of refining those methods has been brought to question recently. This research study aims at applying recent reliability approaches for the case lightweight concrete (LW) slabs under shear. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) was selected. An experimental data base gathered from existing literature was implemented. A brief review of both the Second-Order Methods (SORM) and First-Order Method (FORM), which are commonly used for the computation of reliability are outlined. The FORM was selected to calculate the sensitivity index and reliability index were calculated for the ACI. A comparative analysis between those indices and the internationally set target ones was conducted. The ACI was found to be lacking the adequate reliability. Thus, ACI provision was optimized to achieve target reliability indices.
Soliman Alkhatib, Ahmed F. Deifalla
Chapter 2. Evaluation of Damage Caused by Soil Settlements in a Historical Masonry Building
Masonry structures, characterized by their brittle behavior, are susceptible to easy damage when subjected to external forces. Especially, soil-structure interaction problems are important factors which may cause deterioration or complete loss of structural integrity in the masonry structures. For this reason, different settlements and deformations occurred in the soil domain should be considered in numerical analyses of this type structures for a correct structural assessment. The objective of this paper is to ascertain the modal response and assess the damage condition of an authentic historical masonry building, the deterioration of which can be attributed to underlying soil issues. The structure is a historical masonry school building which is constructed in the 1870s in Samsun, Turkey. The numerical evaluation encompasses the creation of a numerical model that takes into account the soil-structure interaction. This model is then utilized to gauge the impact of soil settlements on dynamic properties, and to scrutinize the state of damage through nonlinear explicit analyses.
Ali Fuat Genç, Ahmet Can Altunışık, Esin Ertürk
Chapter 3. Critical Shear Crack Theory for Shear Strength of Elements Subjected to Tension or Reinforced with FRP
Many factors have led to revisiting the old problem of shear, including the following: (1) the brittle and catastrophic failure of concrete elements under shear strength, which is a complex phenomenon; (2) the new material advancement, including and not limited to FRP reinforcements; (3) the limited number of rigorous models that exist for such a problem. In this communication, A series of research investigations are briefly described. These works attempted to provide an extended critical shear crack theory model (ECSCT) for a variety of shear situations, such as reinforced concrete using fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP). The critical shear crack theory (CSCT) was selected because it is the base for the new Euro-code. The CSCT is a pioneering mechanical model for both one-way and two-way shear of concrete elements. More than 1000 specimens evaluated under one-way shear were used to verify the ECSCT. Comparisons were made between the model strength predictions and current design codes. In comparison to previous design standards, the model is more accurate and consistent while still making physical sense.
Faisal Mukhtar, Ahmed Awad, Amr El-Said, Mohamed Ahmed Salama, Taha Elsayed, Ahmed F. Deifalla, Maged Tawfik
Chapter 4. Large-Scale Shake Table Tests on Pounding Response of RC Buildings
This study presents large-scale shake table test results to investigate the responses of RC structures exposed to earthquake-induced pounding effects. The effects of pounding on structural responses and damage were discussed by comparing the experimental results with and without interaction. In the shake table test, ½ scaled two-story RC specimens were used. To investigate structural responses under seismic excitations of different intensities, a series of shake table tests was organized. Hence, a sum of 15 tests were carried out. Due to the destructive effects caused by column and slab interaction, the collision between RC structures with different story heights was simulated in the experiments. Experimental results show that critical increases occur in acceleration values measured at floor level due to pounding, and column-slab poundings can cause significant damage to columns.
Fezayil Sunca, Ahmet Can Altunışık
Chapter 5. The Effect of Earthquake Damages Created by Shaking Table Tests on Dynamic Characteristics of Masonry Structures
Masonry constructions are edifices created through the amalgamation of fragile substances like stones, bricks, and pumice utilizing mortar. The masonry structures, which do not show the desired ductile behavior against dynamic effects, show a brittle behavior. In scenarios like earthquakes, when masonry structures surpass their load-bearing capabilities, this circumstance leads to heavy damage. Knowing the dynamic behavior of masonry constructions will help to take precaution to minimize the loss of life and property, since a significant part of people live in masonry buildings. Both analytical and experimental methods are employed to determine the damping ratios, natural frequencies and mode shapes of the buildings. which depend on the dynamic properties of the structures subjected to dynamic loads. This study explored variations in the dynamic attributes of a half-scale, single-span, and single-story masonry model constructed with hollow bricks under various damage scenarios. To acquire varying levels of damage cases, the model is tested on a shaking table with gradually different earthquake data. To observe the earthquake damages experimentally, the modal parameters of the masonry model were ascertained through ambient vibration tests conducted under both intact and impaired conditions. Also, A nonlinear analytical one-story masonry model is developed using finite element ABAQUS software with macro modelling methodology for examining the characteristics of masonry models subjected to different earthquakes. Six different test cases using same model are investigated analytically.
Ali Kaya, Boudjamaa Roudane, Ahmet Can Altunışık, Suleyman Adanur

Fiber Reinforced Polymeric (FRP) Composite Structures

Chapter 6. Numerical Modeling of DCB Mode 1 Delamination Propagation in Composite Laminates Using Cohesive Zone Model
In this study, utilizing relatively refined meshes, we present a novel Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) to predict delamination propagation precisely and reliably in composite laminates under static loads. This finite element analysis consists to define elements at the interface between two composite plates and an interface damage law. This analysis was conducted using ABAQUS software, where we employed the guidelines outlined in the ASTM D5528 standard for composite Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) testing to numerically simulate the propagation of delamination under pure mode 1 conditions. We have compared the outcomes of this numerical model with existing literature and engaged in a discussion regarding their validity.
Mouad Bellahkim, Ahmed Ouezgan, Nawal Achak, Aziz Maziri, El Hassan Mallil, Jamal Echaabi
Chapter 7. Durability of High-Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites Subjected to Freeze–Thaw Cycles
The application of high-performance fibre-reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCCs) represents one of the most advanced solutions in the civil engineering field for both mitigating the criticisms of ordinary concrete while ate the same time enhancing its overall mechanical performances. Moreover, due to its significant durability resistance, HPFRCC material is highly recommended also in the view of reducing the cost for the long-term maintenance of reinforced concrete elements. More specifically, the capability of resisting against freezing promotes its possible use in cold regions where freeze–thaw cycling can lead to significantly degradation of cement-based composites. In this context, this study summarized the key results of an experimental campaign aimed at investigating the degradation processes generated by freeze–thaw actions on the resulting HPFRCCs. Furthermore, a numerical simulation is also performed for unveiling the degradation effect induced by the freeze–thaw cycles.
Luciano Feo, Enzo Martinelli, Rosa Penna, Marco Pepe
Chapter 8. Numerical Simulation of Fatigue Delamination Growth of Adhesively-Bonded Pultruded GFRP Double Cantilever Beam Joints Under Mode I Loading
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is widely used in the industrial field. Delamination damage is one of the main failure forms of FRP laminates. In-depth exploration of fatigue-induced delamination behavior in laminates offers valuable insights for the structural design of FRP composites. The behavior of fatigue delamination hinges significantly on factors such as the stress ratio R. In this paper, experimental data on the relationship between the fatigue delamination growth rate and the strain energy release rate of the adhesively-bonded pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer double cantilever beam (GFRP DCB) joints were fitted based on the Walker equation. A 2D finite element model based on Virtual Crack Closure Technology (VCCT) is adopted to simulate the fatigue delamination propagation behavior. Finally, the fatigue delamination propagation behavior of the adhesively-bonded pultruded GFRP DCB joints under Mode I loading was successfully simulated by two sets of finite element models.
Haohui Xin, Qinglin Gao, Ayman S. Mosallam, Dan Wang, Jielin Liu
Chapter 9. Fire Damage Prevention Using Innovative Insulation Systems
Energy consumption is rising alongside the associated danger of fire due to the increased industrialization and urbanisation of previously rural areas. An example of a building that is predisposed to fire has a furnace on the bottom floor, one that is used in the production of iron and steel, or thermal power plants. It’s difficult, time-consuming, and potentially hazardous to intervene in a fire from the exterior of a high-rise structure, whose number is expanding every day with construction technology. It’s hard to forecast how long a fire will burn or how far it will spread. Complete fire safety practices are especially important in densely populated buildings to prevent fire dangers to people and property. Because of the high temperatures produced by the fire, the structural system's parts may lose stiffness and strength, resulting in structural damage. A wide variety of insulation materials are utilised to shield the elements of the building carrier system and the materials on which they are constructed from extreme heat and flame. A combination of these materials is utilised to create the insulation systems in use today. Although there are a variety of insulation applications that may be developed for fire protection, covering the environment is more frequent these days. To insulate anything, you can use the wrapping technique, which is wrapping or covering the outside of the item to be protected with insulation. Three cutting-edge insulation technologies, all suitable for application in fire prevention, are presented within the framework of this research.
Yunus Emrahan Akbulut, Ahmet Can Altunışık, Süleyman Adanur, Ayman S. Mosallam, Ashraf Abdel Khalek Agwa

Smart Building Systems

Chapter 10. Importance of Parametric Modeling in New Generation Civil Engineering Projects
Parametric modeling allows a new form to be obtained automatically by changing parameters with variable properties without the need to redraw a geometric form. This situation shortens the project design time and enables the most suitable model to be put forward in a short time. In this paper, it is aimed to explain the importance and latest situation of parametric modeling in the world and to present the parametric modeled turbine structure as an example. The double-sided turbine is designed with the roof system created by integrating the sea wave and bird wing forms, which are the symbols of the football team of Trabzon. Parametric modeling method is used to create the static project of the 13 m wide, 108.5 m long and 5.89 m high tribune structure with an extreme architecture and to determine the optimum structural elements. The tribune structure modeled in the Dynamo program is transferred to the SAP2000 program, which is a structural analysis program, with the add-on named “DynamicSap” developed by the project team. Thus, the transferred model is used as a reference model in the creation of the finite element model, and the analysis parameters are defined in the program. Optimization analysis is carried out in which parameters such as wave width and height are constantly changed for both the preservation of the architectural form and minimum cost. The tribune, which is brought to the city with the project prepared using the parametric modeling method and optimization analysis, is interesting with its aesthetic appearance and contributed to the economy of the city with its affordable cost.
Fatih Yesevi Okur, Ebru kalkan Okur, Ahmet Can Altunışık
Chapter 11. Beyond Codes: Enhancing Infrastructure Resilience Through Creative Design
An unprecedented surge in urban population has led to the creation of megacities characterized by heavy traffic, pollution, uncontrolled growth, changes in land use, leading to accelerated environmental degradation. The vulnerability of the urban infrastructure is exacerbated by the hazards of climate change. Increasingly, code-specified worst case scenarios appear obsolete. Evidence of this is found in escalating global incidences of severe storms, record high temperatures, raging forest fires and floods alternating with drought exposing critical infrastructure to large scale damage. With our current inability to predict the impact of climate change, there is an urgent need to explore affordable alternatives to overcome this shortcoming. This paper profiles creative design ideas developed in US and elsewhere to counter intense environmental loads on existing infrastructure. They provide an alternative approach that relies on engineering insight, effective policies, smart technologies and new materials rather than mere code compliance. The goal is to restore functionality of disaster prone critical infrastructure with minimal disruption to the populace. Awareness and application of the varied approaches used can assist licensed design professionals and policy makers to make better informed decisions for building stronger resilient communities.
Rajan Sen
Chapter 12. Punching Shear Strength of FRP-Reinforced-Concrete Using a Machine Learning Model
The aim of this research is to investigate the strength behavior of Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) - Reinforced-concrete using supervised Machine Learning (ML) techniques. Based on previous studies by the authors, two machine learning modes were found to be the most effective in terms of accuracy and consistency, namely, the ensembled boosted regression model and the medium Gaussian SVM. The ensembled boosted model showed the most accurate predictions. To assess the performance of the two suggested ML models: the 15-held-out validation method and statistical analysis techniques including metrics such as the coefficient of variation (\({R}^{2}\)), mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean square error (RMSE) are used. The ensembled boosted ML model demonstrated the most accurate predictions, achieving \({R}^{2}\) = 0.97, MAE = 43.352, and least RMSE = 71.963. Also, the variation of strength versus effective parameters was captured and discussed.
Nermin M. Salem, Ahmed F. Deifalla
Chapter 13. Structural Collapse Visualization Using Blender and BCB
In recent years, unfavourable actions such as excessive deflection, uneven settling of the soil beneath foundations, structural loads, deterioration of materials, poor maintenance, landslides, deficiency in the initial builder's structural knowledge, flood, earthquake and explosive blast have led to the collapse of structures and loss of human life. It has often been reported that these events do not kill people but rather the affected structures do. Hence, the collapse of engineering structures is a contemporary and critical topic all over the world. However, to simulate these phenomena, a great number of input data and failure criterion definitions are required which have an elaborated form owing to the interaction between several elements of engineering structure. Also, the computational cost is relatively high and time-consuming. Hence the justification for an alternative simplified method using Blender software and Bullet Constraints Builder (BCB). Blender software and BCB add-on work in harmony to simulate collapse scenarios. Blender and BCB averaged a large number of structural features in simplified engineering formulas. Consequently, the time it takes to develop an executable simulation model is much reduced with approximately the same accuracy and debris formation. The debris formulation of the simplified method could be used to trace victims in the event of a collapse in reality. This study aims to review the alternative simplified method that could be used for visualizing collapse. The review is supported by masonry structure as a case study.
Ridwan Adebayo Bello, Murat Günaydin, Ahmet Can Altunişik

Mechanical Performance of Composite Structural Systems

Chapter 14. FRP-RC Slabs Under Punching Shear: Assessment of Existing Models
The purpose of this study is to examine the punching shear behavior of concrete slabs reinforced with FRP. We compared and quickly described 21 strength models. In addition, based on overall performance, strength models were contrasted with one another in terms of the experimentally observed strength. Conclusions were made and discussed, which may help future design codes evolve more effectively, It was decided where to focus future studies. This might aid in the development of future design codes. The ACI is the least realize model, although taking into account the effects of size, dowel action, depth-to-control perimeter ratio, concrete compressive strength, and shear span-to-depth ratio.
Maged Tawfik, Taha Ibrahim, Mahmood Ahmad, Ahmed F. Deifalla, Ahmed Awad, Amr El-Said
Chapter 15. Assessment of Compression Design of CFST
Design codes disagree on the design of Concrete filled steel tubes (CFST). Thus, in this current study, a comparison between the main international design codes for the design of CFST is presented. The considered codes include: AIJ 1997, AISC, EC4, ECP (ECP 205-2007 in Design of steel structures. National research center for housing and construction, Cairo, Egypt). Concluding remarks are outlined and discussed.
Ibrahim S. Hussein, Mona M. Fawzy, M. F. Shaker, Ahmed F. Deifalla, Gouda M. Ghanem
Chapter 16. Evaluation of Early-Age Cracking in Arch Feet of PC Girder-CFST Arch Rib Composite Bridge
The prestressed concrete (PC) girder-to-concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) arch composite bridge has increasingly become popular in recently constructed railway bridges. The CFST arch feet connecting the PC girder and CFST arch rib are commonly cracked during bridge construction. This paper performs experimental and numerical studies on CFST arch feet to uncover the reasons behind the early-age cracking of the arch feet’ concrete. Firstly, the prototype bridge was briefly introduced, and a finite element (FE) model using beam element was established to determine internal forces at the arch feet. Then, a solid FE model was established for the arch-to-girder joint structure, and the procedure of hydration heat for the CFST core concrete was simulated and presented. The accuracy of the solid model was calibrated using the experimental results obtained from the arch feet of the actual bridge. Critical factors that cause tensile stress in the concrete abutment are determined based on the results. It shows that concrete hydration heat caused significant temperature differences between the CFST core and abutment concrete, triggering large tensile stress in the concrete arch feet. The maximum tensile stress measured at the abutment surface was 2.3 MPa on average, which was beyond the concrete cracking strength. Furthermore, recommendations for lowering the risk of concrete cracking are suggested. The outcome of this study is supposed to provide a reference for optimizing the early-age cracking performance of CFST arch feet (CFSTAF) in PC girder-to-CFST arch composite bridges.
Xu Huang, Huaqian Zhong, Shaohua He, Ayman S. Mosallam, Ashraf Abdelkhalek Agwa
Chapter 17. Torsion Strength of Concrete Beams with Steel Fibers, Lightweight, or FRP: Data Driven Code Appraisal
Despite extensive research efforts directed toward the shear and torsional behavior of concrete elements, torsion strength remains an unexplored area. Numerous new materials are being used in construction as a result of advances in concrete technology. The use of lightweight concrete, steel-fiber reinforced concrete, and FRP-reinforced concrete are all kinds of advancements. The objective of the current work is to enhance torsion strength prediction for these three aspects. A summary of a series of power equation models for torsion strength based on a massive experimental database of 346 beams tested under torsion is outlined. The model validation is discussed. The developed models are accurate while remaining simple for design purposes.
Ahmed Awad, Jawad Ahmed, Ahmed F. Deifalla, Maged Tawfik, Amr El-Said
Chapter 18. Use of Recycled Waste Additives to Reduce Moisture Damage in Asphalt Mixes
It is evident that transportation has an enormous impact on the U.S. economy, and on the lives of its residents. Pavement conditions deteriorate over time because of the combined effects of traffic and climate. Exposure to moisture often causes premature failure of asphalt pavements as it reduces the stiffness of the asphalt and enable stripping of the asphalt from the aggregate. A laboratory study to evaluate the use of recycled waste additives in reducing moisture damage in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) was conducted. Two recycled waste additives (Fly Ash and Cement Kiln Dust) along with Hydrated Lime were investigated. These additives were added to the mix in three different application methods; namely Saturated Surface Dry (SSD), slurry and dry methods. The SuperPave mix design was adopted and moisture susceptibility was tested by employing Modified Lottman Test (AASHTO T 283). For all the modified mix combinations tested in this study the standard Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) ratio exceeded the 80% threshold. However, when TSR was calculated as a ratio of the Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) of the unmodified/unconditioned mix, several mixes failed to pass the 80% TSR threshold. Peak amount of additives for both recycled waste additives and hydrated lime were observed in this study. In terms of TSR, mixes modified using the SSD application method performed the best, followed by mixes modified using the slurry application and dry application method, respectively. Cement Kiln Dust and Hydrated Lime proved to be cost effective as compared with Fly Ash additives investigated in this study.
Ashraf Rahim, Anthony Boyes, Shadi Saadeh
Advances in Smart Materials and Innovative Buildings Construction Systems
Ayman S. Mosallam
Brahim El Bhiri
Vistasp M. Karbhari
Shadi Saadeh
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