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About this book

This book comprises select papers presented at the International Conference on Trends and Recent Advances in Civil Engineering (TRACE 2018). The topics covered include the utilization of industrial by-products as construction materials, sustainable and green materials in construction applications, and latest measures adopted for stabilization techniques. The book also discusses recent advances and techniques related to geotechnical and concrete domain that can be used as a reference guide for various researchers and practitioners around the globe.

Table of Contents


Development of Geopolymer Concrete for Sustainable Infrastructures

This research is based on the development of sustainable concrete which would replace the conventional concrete. This special type of concrete is called as geopolymer concrete (GPC). Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is generally utilised as a primary binder material for casting of concrete around the world. But, it is well known that generation of OPC adversely affects the environment. Thus, researchers and scientists are looking for alternative binder from industrial by-product. One of these by-product are fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) which can used in the presence of alkaline activator to develop GPC. The fly ash is the by-product of thermal power plant, and GGBS is the by-product of steel-manufacturing plant. The combined solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) is usually used as alkaline activators. The objective of this paper is to develop GPC under ambient curing condition by using locally available materials nearby IIT (ISM) Dhanbad, for sustainable infrastructures. Emphasis has been given towards ambient curing so that the developed GPC can be applicable to the general practical application. Various mechanical properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength are mainly taken into consideration. Research outcome reveals that FA-GGBS-based GPC could able to provide comparable mechanical properties to that of conventional concrete and has the potential for wider application in civil infrastructures.
Rohan Jethwani, Mohit Singh Thakur, Satadru Das Adhikary

Feasibility of Using Paper Industry Sludge Containing Calcium Carbonate in Manufacturing Bricks

Bricks have been regarded as one of the most durable and strongest building materials used throughout history. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the behavior of bricks manufactured using waste material like paper industry waste sludge. The objective of this work is to study the stabilization and solidification of industry sludge and then to study the engineering behavior of brick made from it. This paper presents an experimental investigation performed to check the feasibility of using paper sludge waste to reduce the quantity of clay, as there is a greater shortage of clay in many parts of the world. To begin, XRF characterization of paper sludge has been carried out. The bricks were prepared by paper sludge with varying compositions, with reduced quantity of clay from 10 to 50%. After performing various tests, it has been observed that these waste material bricks are lightweighted, sound, corrosion resistant, and strong in compression.
Brij Bhushan, Upasana Grover, Siby John, Varinder S. Kanwar

Experimental Investigations on Fly Ash Geopolymer Mortar

The industrial waste which is rich in silica and alumina activated with alkaline activators such as sodium silicate (NS) or potassium silicate combined with sodium hydroxide (NH) or potassium hydroxide forms geopolymer cement. The present investigation aims to utilize the fly ash in an innovative way that is to activate it using alkaline activators. The use of environmentally friendly cement can reduce greenhouse effect, solve disposal problems, and improve waste utilization. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of activator and curing conditions on the compressive strength and microstructure of alkali-activated fly ash mortar or geopolymer mortar. Two different activators were used to activate the binder such as NS and NH solutions. Six separate mixes were designed with different NaOH concentrations (8M–18M). Furthermore, the effect of the solution-to-binder ratio on the compressive strength (CS) of fly ash (FA) geopolymer mortar (GPM) was investigated. The outcome of the present study revealed that the compressive strength was found to be enhanced with NaOH concentration up to 14M, and after that, this strength reduced. Further, the compressive strength was increased up to solution-to-binder ratio of 0.6, and beyond that, this strength decreased. Heat-cured specimen was more strengthened than ambient-cured specimen.
Sanghamitra Jena, Ramakanta Panigrahi

Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Underground Powerhouse Complex of 720 MW Mangdechhu Hydroelectric Project, Bhutan

The underground powerhouse complex of Mangdechhu Hydroelectric Project (MHEP) comprises of a 155-m-long, 23-m-wide, and 41-m-high machine hall cavern and a 135.5-m-long, 18-m-wide, and 23-m-high transformer hall cavern. The engineering design, support system, and excavation methodology of the caverns were designed based on the geological data obtained from surface and subsurface investigations during detailed project report stage investigations, using two-dimensional elastoplastic finite element analysis by Phase2 software. However during the excavation of the caverns, a shear zone of 1–1.5 m thickness with associated fracture zone of 1.5–3 m thickness on either side was encountered. In view of the changed geological scenario, the excavation methodology and support system designed based on two-dimensional analysis appeared inadequate as such progressive three-dimensional discontinuum numerical modeling analysis using 3DEC software was undertaken to optimize the excavation methodology, sequence, and support system. The models were updated at various stages of the excavation using the encountered and anticipated geological conditions, rock mass properties, and instrumentation data to simulate the rock mass behavior during the excavation, to analyze the stress changes and associated displacements in the caverns for particular excavation stage, and to evolve a safe excavation methodology, sequence, and support system prior to benching to next level, while simultaneously revalidating the installed support system. The overall stability of the caverns was also determined after the complete excavation. By the aid of numerical modeling results, the excavation methodology, sequence, and support system were optimized and the excavation of the caverns was successfully completed within the schedule.
Arvind Kumar Mishra, Iqrar Ahmed

Enhancement of Sustainable Mortar by Using Fine Glass Powder

The amounts of waste glass have expanded after some time because of quick industrialization. Moreover, the majority of times has not reused this waste. Concrete is the most generally utilized development element, and the large measure of natural assets is needed to produce concrete. In this way, it is essential to examine the feasibility of reusing of material waste glass as ingredients during the production of mortar. This work describes the aftereffects of an examination directed to evaluate the likelihood of using waste glass powder (WGP) obtained from glass industries, as partial substitution of cement. The objective was to examine the effect of WGP on the fresh properties of mortar. The WGP replacement content is considered as 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% by weight of cement. Based on the outcome, it is found that WGP shows pozzolanic characteristics. By using 20% WGP in the mortar, it was concluded that compressive strength increases by around 11%. This result indicates that the WGP has good pozzolanic reactivity. However, when the WGP replacement level increases, the setting time of cement mix decreases.
Anand B. Zanwar, Yogesh D. Patil

Characteristics of Concrete Prepared with Metakaolin and Recycled Coarse Aggregates

The study tries to demonstrate the effect of metakaolin to enhance the qualities of concrete prepared with natural coarse aggregates (NCAs) and recycled coarse aggregates (RCAs). Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) mixes are made by substituting NCA with 100% RCA and ordinary Portland cement with 10, 15 and 20% metakaolin. The workability of fresh concrete mixes is evaluated by slump test. Mechanical properties of concrete are evaluated by means of compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength after 28-day curing, and the corresponding results are collated with reference concrete. The outcomes of the study indicate that the compressive strength as well as splitting tensile and flexural strength decrease when natural aggregates are replaced with 100% RCA. However, the use of metakaolin up to 15% enhances the properties of both natural and recycled aggregate concrete. The recycled aggregate concrete mixes show optimum performance at 15% metakaolin replacement level and hence can be used in practical fields.
Rakesh Muduli, Bibhuti Bhusan Mukharjee

A Relook on Dosage of Basalt Chopped Fibres and Its Influence on Characteristics of Concrete

In the recent years, the need for the sustainable yet economically viable structural materials has drawn the special attention of the construction industry apart from the traditional parameters concerning safety and serviceability. One such material of interest gaining popularity in the twentieth century is the basalt fibre, due to its cost-effectiveness and desirable engineering properties, especially with respect to fire resistance. Basalt fibres are formed from basalt rocks and hence fulfil the concept of sustainable design and green building. Basalt can commonly be used as structural reinforcing material in the form of bars, sheets, chopped fibres, etc. Talking specifically about chopped basalt fibres, the dosage of fibre plays an important role in its case. This paper mainly highlights the existing studies on the optimum dosage of chopped basalt fibres with respect to strength aspect and points out several critical comments on relation of fibre content with workability through experimental testing.
Sanket Rawat, Rahul Narula, Nitant Upasani, G. Muthukumar

Influence of Nano-modification on Strength Parameters of Concrete

Production of cement results in the release of carbon in the atmosphere resulting in degradation of environment. Involvement of nanotechnology in concrete production can decrease the consumption of cement in concrete. In this study, an effort has been made to analyze the influence of nano-modification on the workability and strength parameters of concrete. For the purpose of nano-modification, nano CaCO3 (NC) was utilized. Concrete mixes were prepared with 1 and 2% content of nano CaCO3 with respect to the weight of the binder. As per the study, when cement was replaced with NC, the strength properties of concrete were significantly improved. Compressive strength results of NC-added mix after a curing period of 28 days show the highest improvement in strength of about 60% in comparison with a controlled mix. Addition of NC reduces the pores and capillaries in the concrete making the concrete more durable. Addition on NC also increases the flowability of the mix making the mix more workable.
Himanshu Sharma, Basit Majeed, Sanjay Sharma

Relevance and Assessment of Fly Ash-Based Sintered Aggregate in the Design of Bricks, Blocks and Concrete

This paper presents the investigation carried out to evaluate the relevance and assessment of bricks, blocks and concrete using sintered aggregate. The main advantages regarding the use of lightweight aggregate concrete in construction are primarily to reduce the self-weight structures besides attaining better thermal insulation performance. Materials can thus be used for producing lightweight solid or hollow concrete blocks as well as bricks for walling purpose. The granular sintered fly ash is found to be best with use of powder fly ash while making bricks and blocks. For making concrete, mixes have been prepared with 20, 30 and 40% replacement of natural aggregate with sintered fly ash aggregate, keeping all in the aggregate grading was unchanged. Concrete with sintered fly ash aggregates up to 40% replacement by volume. The percentage increase of fly ash aggregate decreases the strength of concrete but these are well above the target strength. Research is carried out to evaluate the aggregate samples for evaluations of specific gravity, water absorption, bulk density, particle size, mechanical properties and soundness of aggregate as per relevant Indian standards to assess its suitability in use of sintered aggregate in making bricks and blocks, mixes for concrete with sintered aggregate. To reduce the drying shrinkage in brick, we can use calcinated gypsum instead of cement. The presence of lime in the absence of cement increases the drying shrinkage in brick.
Dhriti. R. Pal, J. P. Behera, B. D. Nayak

Influence of Microstructure of Geopolymer Concrete on Its Mechanical Properties—A Review

Geopolymer concrete (GPC) has been researched during the past few decades as a viable sustainable construction material, which can minimise CO2 emission for its use of industrial by-products. Past research on GPC shows that GPC is best suited for structural application with workable slump and strength as compared to ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPCC). The microstructure of GPC and OPCC has been investigated to understand its influence on engineering properties. It has been observed that GPC contained more amorphous phases, less porosity and more pores in the mesopores range than OPCC. Review of the literature revealed that the production of geopolymer concrete requires great care and correct material compositions. During the activation process in making the geopolymer, high alkalinity also requires safety risk and enhanced energy consumption and generation of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, the production of GPC is also affected by the curing time and curing temperature. Few studies have also been carried out to observe the effect of curing temperature on the polymerisation reaction of GPC.
Amer Hassan, Mohammed Arif, M. Shariq

Effect of Placement of Waste Tyre Fibres on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Clayey Soil

This paper presents the laboratory investigation on compaction and unconfined compression behaviours of clayey soil reinforced with waste tyre fibres. In the present study, waste tyre fibres (WTF) were mixed with the soil at optimum mixing moisture content (OMMC). The fibre-reinforced soil (FRS) was then compacted at a maximum dry density (MDD) into a cylindrical mould in alternate layers of virgin and fibre-reinforced clayey soils. It was found that if the top and bottom layers are kept as virgin soil, then the specimen achieves a better strength as compared to other combinations. The strength of fibre-reinforced soil (FRS) was found to be two times higher than the virgin soil. This study demonstrates that the placement of fibres in alternate layers is useful in increasing the strength properties of soil.
Mohit Mistry, P. Venkateshwarlu, Shruti Shukla, Chandresh Solanki, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Numerical Investigation of Uplift Behaviour of Bell-Shaped Anchor in c-ϕ Soil

This paper depicts a detailed numerical study on bell-shaped anchor inserted in soil (c-ϕ soil) carried out using the finite element (FE) software ‘ABAQUS’. Bell-shaped anchors with varying bell diameters (0.125–0.3125 m) have been analysed to investigate the influence of its different governing parameters such as H/D ratio (depth of embedment/bell diameter of anchor), bell diameter (D) on the uplift capacity of the anchor inserted in soil. A 2D axisymmetric model has been considered for the analysis, where the anchor has been considered as linear elastic material and soil mass as elasto-plastic material. Data obtained from the laboratory experiments performed on CL types of soil have been used in the analysis. Results of the analysis indicate that the ultimate uplift capacity (UUC) of bell-shaped anchor increases proportionately with the bell diameter and also with an increase in the H/D ratio of the anchor. It has also been observed that beyond H/D values of 4, there is a reduction in the rate of increase in ultimate uplift capacity (UUC).
Arya Das, Ashis Kumar Bera

Improving the Soil Subgrade with Plastic Waste Reinforcement—An Experimental Study

The subgrade soil is an integral part of pavements which provides support to the pavement. The behaviour of road surface depends on the strength of filling material and the subgrade below it. The pavements are vulnerably affected by the change in subgrade soil properties due to water-table fluctuation, overloading, flooding, etc. This study focuses on improving the strength of soil subgrade using plastic waste soil reinforcement technique in pavement construction, looking to the current environmental issue related to the utilisation of waste plastic, as plastic is a non-biodegradable material. In this study, geocell and geogrid were prepared from plastic waste and used as soil reinforcement. The plastic waste geocell and geogrid were placed at different depths from the top of the CBR mould. The CBR test was performed for unsoaked condition of virgin soil and reinforced soil, and the behaviour of load versus penetration was observed. The results show that by placing plastic waste reinforcement at different depths, the strength of the reinforced subgrade soil considerably increased with respect to virgin soil. The confined structure of plastic waste geocell shows significant strength improvement compared to plastic waste geogrid. The result shows that the significant improvement in strength of soil using geogrid and geocell was effective at a particular depth. This study reveals that the use of plastic waste for improving subgrade soil strength is a good option. The plastic waste can be utilised in pavement construction as well as it can be the cost-effective solution.
Alka Shah, Hiral Modha

Numerical Analysis of Behavior of Single Pile in Layered Soil Against Lateral Load

Pile foundations are often subjected to lateral loads along with vertical loads. In this paper, the behavior of a single pile is determined using finite element analysis. The P-Y curve is generated by using finite element modeling which was used for comparison to investigate the behavior of soil. The analysis was performed for free headed pile as allowing for rotating. The analysis has been performed for the single pile in soil layering profile. Drucker–Prager and Mohr–Coulomb models have been used to simulate the medium dense sand and clay, respectively. Layering effect on lateral deflection was plotted for the different case. It has been observed that lateral deflection of single pile in uniform clay layer is greater than that in uniform sand layer.
Shahnwaz Ahmed, Md. Rehan Sadique, Mudassir Ali Khan, Vishwas A. Sawant

Determination of Liquefaction Potential of NCR Region

Evaluation of liquefaction potential of a region is useful in a variety of ways as it gives information on the geological characteristics of the region of interest and proves to be important when it comes to taking preventive measures before and after the occurrence of an earthquake. Study and analysis of liquefaction potential index involve criteria like the geotechnical characteristics, the historical criteria as well as the seismic vulnerability of the region. Region selected falls in both Delhi and Noida; hence, NCR region is taken in title. It was observed that the evaluation of LPI is of paramount importance. The aim of the present report is to evaluate potential of liquefaction of Noida and Greater Noida region by calculating factor of safety against liquefaction using simplified approach and comparison of the results with respect to the methods used; these results will extend its help in micro-zonation of the region. The total boundary of the study area falls within a radius of 20 km approximately. Standard penetration test was vital for the collection of SPT-N values. The field test was carried out at the specified location, and various soil characteristics were recorded for analysis using SPT. The project also consists of the effect of factor of safety due to the change in the peak ground acceleration by increasing or decreasing it as well as the change in the magnitude of the earthquake on the liquefaction potential sites.  It was observed that, the MSF depends upon the resistance of the soil against the seismic activity and peak ground acceleration depends upon the seismic capacity of the earthquake against the soil. In our present study, 0.24g has been used.
Sanjeev Mukherjee, Vardhman Jain, Akshay Gupta, Dev Anand Pandey

Pseudo-dynamic Approach to Quantify the Effect of Vertical Seismic Acceleration on Reinforced Retaining Wall for c-ϕ Soil Backfill

The analysis of reinforced retaining walls in earthquake-prone regions is mostly performed by using the pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic approaches for cohesionless soil backfill. For c-ϕ soil backfill, most of the researchers had used the pseudo-static approach to analyse the reinforced retaining walls situated in seismic regions those are still limited for the case of a pseudo-dynamic approach. In most of the earlier studies those had used pseudo-dynamic approach, vertical seismic acceleration was also not considered. The current study reflects a pseudo-dynamic approach to analyse the reinforced retaining walls in earthquake condition considering the propagation of primary and shear waves. Vertical seismic coefficients are also taken in the present study. A simplified formulation has been also presented here to obtain the maximum strength of reinforcements, critical angle of failure wedge and safety factor to analyse the reinforced retaining walls in earthquake condition. The effect of vertical seismic coefficients along with the soil cohesion, soil–wall adhesion and horizontal seismic coefficient on the maximum strength of reinforcements and safety factor has been carried out. For cohesionless backfill, numerical predictions are in good contract when compared with the existing studies for validation purpose.
Ashish Gupta, Vishwas A. Sawant

Effect of Slope Angle and Edge Distance on Laterally Loaded Flexible Pile Embedded in Sandy Ground

There are many circumstances in which piles have to be provided on slopes. The present study involves laboratory model tests to explore single pile response for varies gradients of soil slopes. The experimental study was carried out on level ground and two different slopes (1V:1.5H) and (1V:2H). A relative density of 25% was achieved after pile installation. Pile length-to-diameter ratio is 30. The study examines the effect of edge distance, s, from the crest of slope on lateral pile capacity by varying (s/D = 0.0, 6.0 and 12.0). For different edge distance to pile diameter ratio (s/D) values, lateral pile capacity, maximum bending moment and lateral displacement are determined. It is established that lateral load capacity reduced significantly changing ground surface profile from horizontal to slope. Significant increase in lateral load capacity was observed with increase in pile distance from crest of slope. The maximum bending moments increase significantly with a decrease in distance of pile from the slope crest, when compared with horizontal ground.
Bhishm Singh Khati, Vishwas A. Sawant

The Development of a New Low Carbon Binder for Construction as an Alternative to Cement

The demand on cement in the construction industry has increased significantly due to the growth of industrial sectors. However, as the cement industry contributes to the emissions of 6–8% of CO2 into the atmosphere, it becomes essential to develop alternative materials to reduce the usage of cement. This research aims at developing a new low carbon binder completely from waste materials to be used in construction industry. The performance of four different alkali-activated binary blended mortars made from ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and high-calcium fly ash (HCFA) was assessed using compressive strength test. The results indicated that the mixture made from (60% GGBS: 40% HCFA) and activated by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with concentration of 4M and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) solutions together with a Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 2 showed a comparable behaviour to the cement with a compressive strength of 39.8 MPa after 28 days of air curing. The findings in this study announced on the development of promising binder that can be used in different construction sectors as an alternative to cement and help in reducing the negative environmental impacts of cement industry.
Ali Abdulhussein Shubbar, Monower Sadique, Hayder Kamil Shanbara, Khalid Hashim

Developing a Premium Cementitious Filler Incorporating High Content of Sewage Sludge Fly Ash

Cold bituminous emulsion mixture (CBEM) is a sustainable replacement to the conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) due to environmental and safety issues associated with the use of the latter. However, CBEM experiences some drawbacks including long-term curing, low strength in the early days and high air voids content; thus, it needs from 2 to 24 months to reach its ultimate strength. Accordingly, the applications for CBEMs have been limited to low- /medium-trafficked roads, footways and reinstatements. This study aimed at developing a new cementitious material incorporating a high volume of sewage sludge fly ash (SSFA) with low ordinary portland cement (OPC) content and carbide lime waste (CLW), to replace the traditional limestone filler in CBEM. A significant improvement has been shown in the performance of the developed CBEM in terms of indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM) and microstructure analysis compared to the conventional CBEM incorporating limestone filler. Furthermore, the developed mixture has being comparable to the mixtures including OPC and the conventional HMA. A considerable alteration in the microstructure components over the curing ages has been developed, which is confirmed by the creation of cementitious hydration products using scanning electron microscopy.
Manar Herez, Hassan Al-Nageim, Clare Harris, Linda Seton

Characterising the Performance of a Non-Portland Binder Using Analytical Techniques

The development and production of new materials require advanced analytical characterisation to explain the relation between the physicochemical structure of the material and its properties. Highly integrated microelectronic structure analysis of surfaces with laser beams and x-ray fluorescence-aided devices is found to be helpful for providing important information, including the interrelationships between physical, chemical, mechanical and durability characteristics of the new developed products. In most instances, no single technique provides all the needed information, and hence, simultaneous application of several techniques becomes necessary. This study was aimed for analysis, characterisation and evaluation of a new novel non-Portland cementitious binder in anhydrous and hydrated states using XRD, FT-IR and TG/DTA.
Monower Sadique, Hassan Al-Nageim

Predicting the Dynamic Properties of Plain Concrete Under the Impact Load

Materials subject to high strain exhibit an enhancement in its mechanical properties. High strain is caused by loads ranging from gas explosion and aircraft impact to hypervelocity impact. The dynamic increase factor (DIF) is a method used to take account of the strain rate. DIF is defined as the ratio of dynamic strength to static strength. Methods to determine the dynamic properties of a material are achieved via either conducting dynamic compressive and tensile testing or utilising formulae from the literature. CEB-FIP model code [3] presents the most comprehensive formulae for predicting the strain rate enhancement of concrete. Quasi-static flexural and compression tests of plain concrete were conducted using standard test machines on concrete cubes and prisms, respectively. CEB-FIP compression and tensile DIF models were then used to calculate the strength for the compression and tensile strain rates between 10−2 and 100, which are most relevant to common dynamic load cases in civil engineering structures.
Islem Megdiche, William Atherton, Clare Harris, Glynn Rothwell

New Cementitious Materials for Sustainable Construction

The paper reports the mechanical and physical properties of new hydraulically bound cementitious materials made from environmentally friendly waste fly ash and chemical additives. The new products can be used for cement replacement material and need no burning process as the case with conventional cement manufacturing process. Two fly ashes generated from incineration of domestic and industrial wastes were blended and optimized to generate a new ternary blended cementitious material. The developed blended formulation showed versatility in terms of offering different grade mortar having properties like conventional cement. The early strength was comparable to the control mortar, but after the age of 14 days and in the new products, the crushing strength rate is higher than the crushing strength rate produced using ordinary Portland cement mortar. The influence of water content, alkali activation, synthesis by water dispersing agent has also been analyzed in addition to the new material compressive strength.
Hassan Al-Nageim, Monower Sadique

Influence of Texture on Mechanical Behaviour of Basalts

To understand the influence of texture on the mechanical behaviour of basalt, four variants each of vesicular basalt, four variants of amygdular basalt and two variants of porphyritic basalt were investigated in the laboratory. These basalts were obtained from different site locations of the Betwa River basin in central India. These basalts were investigated for uniaxial compressive strength, indirect tensile strength and shear strength parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction). In addition to the above, wave velocities (compressive and shear), durability and density characteristics were also studied. And, mode of failure of basalts in compression has been discussed. The mineralogical composition of basaltic variants was quantified through an X-ray diffraction method. In comparison, vesicular basalts were inferior in all properties and parameters. And, it was observed that the failure propagated in vesicular and amygdular basalts along the chain of vesicles, whereas in porphyritic basalts, the failure is along the grain boundaries of phenocrysts.
P. S. K. Murthy, Sukhdev Singh, S. L. Gupta

Experimental Investigation to Study the Properties of Concrete Incorporated with GGBS and GBS

In the present study, mix design ingredients viz. water, cement, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS), aggregate (fine and coarse), ground blast-furnace slag (GBS) and chemical admixture were collected, tested and the findings are presented in this paper for Joda and Khondbond Iron Mines Expansion Project, Orrisa for Tata Steel Limited. Tata Steel Group is implementing ground granulated BF slag (GGBS + GBS) in its entire construction project sites after preparing a proper mix design. Compatibility (complex interaction between cement [13] and chemical admixtures [4]) may be issued because of the large variation of fine contents during the trials. Due to incompatibility between cement and chemical admixtures, concrete may face various problems during the concreting works viz. late setting of concrete, fast slump loss/moisture loss, inadequate strength increase, cracking, etc. These problems may affect the properties of fresh and hardened concrete viz. primary strength and durability. Compatibility between GGBS blended cement and chemical superplasticizer (IS: 9103) was confirmed by Marsh cone test. Considering the compressive strength of cement mortar, setting time of concrete, workability, compressive strength and durability (measured in terms of rapid chloride penetration test (RCPT)) and the mix design for M30 grade of concrete were prepared with 40% replacement of cement by GGBS and 25% replacement of sand by GBS. During the course of trials/study, the main objective was to find the effect of fines (GGBS + GBS) content on the properties of concrete. Many research papers have been published pertaining to GGBS utilization/properties but GGBS + GBS concrete is rarely seen after recent advancement in IS 383 pertaining to the uses of aggregate from unconventional sources.
Uday Bhanu Chakraborty, Sanjeev Bajaj, Sandeep Dhanote

Ground Improvement Using Municipal Solid Waste Ash

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is heterogeneous in nature. As lands for disposal are not adequate, solid waste is becoming a major environmental problem. At present, incineration is one of the methods being used in the Ghazipur landfill for the treatment of municipal solid waste. An experimental investigation is performed to understand the effect on the unconfined compression strength of clayey soil mixed with different percentages of municipal solid waste. Usually, clayey soils have low-strength characteristics due to which they are unable to take excessive loads transmitted on them from the foundation structures. The study outlines the influence on the properties of soil and its engineering behaviour when ash is used in different proportions and hence proving it as soil stabilizing material for ground improvement. The tests results demonstrated good improvement in strength of soil and showed that MSW ash can be used for ground improvement. The increase in unconfined compressive strength exceeded 50% as compared to pure soil.
Darin Baruah, Shubham Goel, Chandan Gupta, Anil Kumar Sahu
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