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2022 | Book

Advances on Broad-Band Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications

Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Broad-Band Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA-2021)


About this book

This book states that information networks of today are going through a rapid evolution. Different kinds of networks with different characteristics are emerging and they are integrating in heterogeneous networks. For these reasons, there are many interconnection problems which may occur at different levels of the hardware and software design of communicating entities and communication networks. These kinds of networks need to manage an increasing usage demand, provide support for a significant number of services, guarantee their QoS, and optimize the network resources.
The success of all-IP networking and wireless technology has changed the ways of living the people around the world. The progress of electronic integration and wireless communications is going to pave the way to offer people the access to the wireless networks on the fly, based on which all electronic devices will be able to exchange the information with each other in ubiquitous way whenever necessary.
The aim of the book is to provide latest research findings, innovative research results, methods, and development techniques from both theoretical and practical perspectives related to the emerging areas of broad-band and wireless computing.

Table of Contents

A Comparison Study of Chi-square and Uniform Distributions of Mesh Clients by WMN-PSODGA Simulation System for RIWM and LDIWM Router Replacement Methods

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are gaining a lot of attention from researchers due to their advantages such as easy maintenance, low upfront cost, and high robustness. Connectivity and stability directly affect the performance of WMNs. However, WMNs have some problems such as node placement problem, hidden terminal problem and so on. In our previous work, we implemented a simulation system to solve the node placement problem in WMNs considering Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Distributed Genetic Algorithm (DGA), called WMN-PSODGA. In this paper, we compare chi-square and uniform distribution of mesh clients for two router replacement methods: Random Inertia Weight Method (RIWM) and Linearly Decreasing Inertia Weight Method (LDIWM). The simulation results show that for chi-square distribution, the mesh routers can cover all mesh clients, but this distribution has not good load balancing for both router replacement methods. For the uniform distribution, the mesh routers do not cover all mesh clients but RIWM shows good performance in terms of load balancing.

Admir Barolli, Kevin Bylykbashi, Ermioni Qafzezi, Shinji Sakamoto, Leonard Barolli
Performance Evaluation of WMNs by WMN-PSOHC Hybrid Simulation System Considering Different Number of Mesh Routers and Chi-Square Distribution of Mesh Clients

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have many features such as low up-front costs and easy maintenance, and they are becoming an important networking infrastructure. However, WMNs have some problems such as node placement, security, transmission power and so on. To solve these problems, we have implemented a hybrid simulation system based on PSO and HC called WMN-PSOHC. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of WMNs by using WMN-PSOHC considering different number of mesh routers and Chi-square distribution of mesh clients. Simulation results show that 32 mesh routers are enough for covering all mesh clients in the considered scenario.

Shinji Sakamoto, Yi Liu, Leonard Barolli, Shusuke Okamoto
An Energy-Efficient Algorithm to Make Virtual Machines Migrate in a Server Cluster

It is critical to reduce the energy consumption of clusters of servers. Through virtual machines, applications can take advantage of virtual services independent of heterogeneity and locations of servers. Here, we have to select a host server and a virtual machine on the server to perform an application process so that the total energy consumption of servers can be reduced. We first improve the MI (Monotonically Increasing) algorithm previously proposed to simply estimate the energy consumption of servers only by using the number of active processes. Then, we propose an MIM (MI Migration) algorithm to reduce the energy consumption of servers by using the improved MI algorithm. Here, a virtual machine on a host server migrates to a guest server to reduce the total energy consumption of the servers. In the evaluation, we show the execution time and energy consumption of servers in a cluster can be reduced in the MIM algorithm compared with other algorithms.

Dilawaer Duolikun, Tomoya Enokido, Leonard Barolli, Makoto Takizawa
Evaluation of Focused Beam Routing Protocol for Different Applications of Underwater Sensor Networks

Most of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) applications are tolerant to delays and unstable links in the underwater environment, where acoustic waves are used instead of electromagnetic radio waves. In order to increase the delivery probability of the generated data, DTN routing protocols are used to forward data from the monitoring mobile sensors to collecting devices at the water surface. Based on the application, these data can have different frequency and different sizes. One characteristic of Routing Protocols for DTN is flooding of messages to increase the delivery probability. For instance, Epidemic Routing Protocol creates a copy of each message for each new node that does not already have the message in its memory. This increases the probability of delivery, but on the other hand, creates a lot overhead in each node’s buffer, and uses a lot of valuable energy from the forwarding and receiving nodes. In this paper, we evaluate FBR for different communication angles between forwarding node and the sink node (buoy), in UWSN by simulations. We use different application data patterns (sensor/location, control, media), to simulate sensor/location data, control data and multimedia data. Simulation results show that sensor/location data and FBR angle of 30 $$^\circ $$ ∘ has the best performance for our simulation settings.

Elis Kulla, Keita Matsuo, Leonard Barolli
Performance Evaluation of V2X Communication for Road State Information Platform Based on 5G and HighSpeed LAN

In this paper, in order to realize highspeed data transmission while keeping low delivery delay time in V2X communication, both 5G, and highspeed WLAN, such as IEEE802.11ac/ax with 5.6 GHx in addition to long distance network such as LPWA are introduced to organize a cognitive wireless network. Those networks are actually attached to automobile to perform V2X communication for wide area road state information platform. A prototype system is built and evaluate its network performance by comparing the proposed network with the previous network model.

Yoshitaka Shibata, Akira Sakuraba
An Energy-Efficient Process Replication by Differentiating Starting Time of Process Replicas in Virtual Machine Environments

Process replication approaches using a server cluster system are widely used to provide reliable and available distributed application services. However, a server cluster system consumes a large amount of electric energy compared with process non-replication approaches. In this paper, an RATB-DSTPR (Redundant Active Time-Based algorithm with Differentiating Starting Time of Process Replicas) algorithm is newly proposed to reduce the total electric energy consumption of a server cluster by differentiating starting time of process replicas. The evaluation results show the total electric energy consumption of a server cluster and the average response time of each process can be reduced in the RATB-DSTPR algorithm.

Tomoya Enokido, Dilawaer Duolikun, Makoto Takizawa
Traffic Reduction for Information Flow Control in the IoT

In the CBAC (Capability-Based Access Control) model for the IoT (Internet of Things), subjects are issued capability tokens, i.e. a set of access rights on objects in devices, by device owners. Objects are data resource in a device which are used to store sensor data and action data. Through manipulating objects of devices, data are exchanged among subjects and objects. Here, the illegal information flow and the late information flow occur and subjects can get data which the subjects are not allowed to get. In our previous studies, protocols are implemented to interrupt operations implying both illegal and late types of information flows. Here, the request processing time takes longer as the number of capability tokens whose signatures are verified in devices increases. Hence, an MRCTSD (Minimum Required Capability Token Selection for Devices) algorithm to reduce the number of capability tokens used is proposed. However, the more number of capability tokens are sent from subjects, the more complex the capability token selections are. Since the devices support just low processing power and smaller size of memory, it is important to avoid concentrating loads in devices. In this paper, MRCTSS (MRCTS for Subjects) algorithm where subjects selects minimum required capability tokens and sends them to devices is proposed. In the evaluation, it is shown that the size of a UDP datagram in a get access request is made smaller by the MRCTSS algorithm.

Shigenari Nakamura, Tomoya Enokido, Makoto Takizawa
A Simulation System for Mesh Router Placement in WMNs Considering Coverage Construction Method and Simulated Annealing

The Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) enables routers to communicate with each other wirelessly in order to create a stable network over a wide area at a low cost and it has attracted much attention in recent years. There are different methods for optimizing the placement of mesh routers. In our previous work, we proposed a Coverage Construction Method (CCM) and CCM-based Hill Climbing (HC) system for mesh router placement problem considering normal and uniform distributions of mesh clients. In this paper, we propose a CCM-based Simulated Annealing (SA) approach for mesh router placement problem. From the simulation results, we found that the proposed method covers more mesh clients for all instances compared with the CCM.

Aoto Hirata, Tetsuya Oda, Nobuki Saito, Tomoya Yasunaga, Kengo Katayama, Leonard Barolli
On the Latency of Nomadic Lévy Walk Based Message Ferry Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks

Message ferry is a way of communication in Delay-Tolerant Networks (DTNs). Various routing schemes for message ferries have been proposed so far. The efficiency of message delivery using message ferries depends on the routing scheme. Nomadic Lévy Walk that is a variant of Lévy Walk, is an eligible candidate for a message ferry routing scheme. It includes homing behavior in addition to the behavior similar to Lévy walk with strategic moving the home (sink) position. In this paper, we show the simulation result on the latency of message delivery by message ferries with Nomadic Lévy Walk in DTNs. Then we compare with other variant of Lévy walk regarding the latency. We also discuss the difference of the latency between the sink relocation strategies of Nomadic Lévy Walk.

Koichiro Sugihara, Naohiro Hayashibara
A Machine Learning Based Network Intrusion Detection System with Applying Different Algorithm in Multiple Stages

In recent years, a wide variety of network services are provided by the rapid development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Along with this, cyberattacks which interfere with these services occur frequently and the damage is increasing. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen countermeasures against cyberattacks and to minimize damage by responding quickly and with high accuracy. Therefore, in order to enhance security measures in network environments, a lot of research has been conducted to improve the performance of intrusion detection systems by applying machine learning to them. However, there are many false positives, and machine learning is not yet able to classify and detect them completely. In this study, we aimed to reduce the number of false positives by applying different machine learning algorithms in multiple stages to the intrusion detection system.

Seiichi Sasa, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Akio Koyama
In-vehicle Network IDS Using Message Time Interval Infrastructure

Automobiles have evolved from the concept of transportation into connected cars that are connected to a variety of devices. This increased the external contact point to access the car and allowed the attacker to have various access to the car. Despite this environment, the CAN used in the car’s internal network to date is very vulnerable. This is because the limited environment and characteristics of the car prevented security factors such as encryption and authentication from being applied. It is essential to apply security elements to the vehicle either, a successful exploitation by an attacker on a CAN network can affect a genuine veritable failure as well as mechanical issues. Therefore, in this paper, we test detection performance by exploiting CAN characteristics by performing attacks on a framework that can propose and test message time interval-based IDS suitable for limited automotive environments.

Chanmin Kim, Insu Oh, Yeji Koh, Myungsu Kim, Kangbin Yim
A Fuzzy-Based System for Assessment of Quality of Service Communication Links in SDN-VANETs

In this paper, we propose a fuzzy-based system to assess Quality of Service (QoS) of communication links set up among adjacent vehicles in Software Defined Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (SDN-VANETs). Our proposed system, called Fuzzy System for Assessment of Quality of Service (FSAQoS), determines if a communication link is reliable and satisfies certain needs in terms of data exchange. FSAQoS is implemented in vehicles equipped with SDN modules and in SDN controllers. When a vehicle needs additional resources, it will request to use available resources of neighboring vehicles. However, for a successful data exchange, the communication link between a pair of vehicles should be reliable and provide a low latency for data exchange. In addition, the fuzzy system takes into consideration the beacon messages distributed in the network, which inform vehicles for their neighbor’s condition and their location. The output of FSAQoS decides the QoS of a certain data link. We evaluate FSAQoS by computer simulations. QoS is decided as high when data exchange is reliable and it is provided in low latency, while beacon messages are transmitted in moderate frequency throughout the network.

Ermioni Qafzezi, Kevin Bylykbashi, Phudit Ampririt, Makoto Ikeda, Keita Matsuo, Leonard Barolli
Malware Classification Based on Graph Neural Network Using Control Flow Graph

The classification of malware families is based on the similarity within the malware family, including the similarity of program structure and content. Since the control flow graph belongs to non-Euclidean structured data, it is difficult to directly use the feature extracted from its data and structure for classifying before. However, with the proposal of graph neural network, non-Euclidean graph’s classification become possible. We propose a malware family classification system based on control flow graph and Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency. In this system, both the control flow graph branch structure and the instruction sequence in basic blocks are treated as input, and the graph feature representation of the malware family is generated through the graph neural network. The experimental results on the Microsoft Malware Classification Challenge dataset show that retaining the feature data of the graph structure can effectively improve the effect of family classification. And the effect can also be improved through the instruction features based on TF-IDF.

Rongze Xia, Baojiang Cui
Hand Gesture Input Interface of IntelligentBox Using Leap Motion Controller and Its Application Example

In this paper, the authors introduce hand gesture input interface of IntelligentBox and show its application example. IntelligentBox is a component-based constructive 3D graphics software development system. One of its application fields is VR (Virtual Reality). VR applications should support various types of VR peripherals, e.g., HMD (Head Mounted Display), data-gloves and so on. IntelligetBox supports most of them with its dedicated software components. As a hand gesture input interface, IntelligentBox supports data gloves. However, Leap Motion Controller is more portable than data-gloves because data-gloves request the user to wear them on his/her hands although Leap Motion controller does not so. Therefore, the authors added new functionality to support Leap Motion Controller for the hand gesture input interface of InelligentBox. In this paper, the authors show an animation system using Leap Motion Controller as one of the applications developed using IntelligentBox.

Takumi Takeshita, Kosuke Kaneko, Yoshihiro Okada
Toward Automated Audit of Client-Side Vulnerability Against Cross-Site Scripting

There are many types of web attacks on the Internet. While cross-site scripting (XSS) is one of the most popular among attackers, it is also one of the most underrated attack vectors. The typical use of XSS attacks is to steal cookies and expose sensitive information. An XSS attack occurs when the attacker tricks a legitimate web application to accept a malicious request. In this context, XSS is a server-side vulnerability. Hence, many previous studies had focused on evaluating server-side vulnerability against XSS attacks. Some studies have focused on evaluating client-side vulnerability against XSS attacks. The latest version of web browsers, plugins, and operating systems is a basic countermeasure against XSS attacks. However, keeping the latest updates on all computers requires time and effort. Furthermore, this does not reveal the actual impact of vulnerability. In this paper, we propose an automated audit method of client-side vulnerability against XSS. Our method is based on Browser Exploitation Framework (BeEF), which is designed to provide effective client-side attack vectors and to exploit any potential vulnerabilities in the web browser. Our method automates the penetration testing process using the RESTful API. The experimental result shows that our method provides a remote testing option for client computers and evaluates the actual impact of XSS vulnerability.

Mamoru Mimura, Takumi Yamasaki
Single Sign-On Using Contactless Smart Cards and Fingerprint Authentication

As more services are moving onto the Internet, a user needs to maintain several online accounts, ideally each with separate username and password. Remembering a whole set of passwords for each and every web service is definitely a challenging task. There are several single Sign-on services currently available which require to be secured with a master password. The master password can be strong and still be vulnerable to theft. We propose a system which involves contactless smartcards, to store the passwords and fingerprint authorization to authenticate a user for safety and security. This system provides security and convenience at one place.

Sriram Bobba, Vamsi Paruchuri
Blockchain-Based Identity Management for Personal Data: A Survey

This research was conducted to analyse the domain of blockchain-based identity management for personal data. The study primarily adopted the research methodology of a systematic literature review, in which relevant and contemporary scientific literature related to the topic were identified and included, and irrelevant papers or those with repetitive information, were excluded. An analysis of the literature indicates that the common public perception of blockchain is positive overall. However, there is a substantial difference between public perception and reality in relation to the maturity of the technology. Proponents of blockchain often overlook and minimise the possibility of the damage that blockchain adoption could cause. This study found that main problem is not blockchain itself, but the surrounding infrastructure which has to be transformed at the same pace and direction. Furthermore, concerning identity management, it was found that the technology provides considerable improvement over database-based systems of identity and user authentication, however, it still contains systemic avenues of centralisation, through which a denial-of-service attack could increase.

Mekhled Alharbi, Farookh Khadeer Hussain
Effects of Buffer Management Considering Time Continuity on Disaster Information on DTN Based Information Sharing System

It is obviously that fast delivering of an accurate disaster information can prevent damage from spreading on a large scale disaster. Generally, on a large scale disasters, the situation of damage changes according to the time progress. Considering the phenomenon that disaster information to be delivered will change according to time passing, then, it is preferred to deliver it in short delay. In this paper, we discuss the effects of buffer management considering time continuity of disaster information on DTN (Delay Tolerant Networking) destined for inoperativeness of communication over public infrastructure. In particular, by performance evaluations, we clarify that the buffer management considering lapsed time of after generation of disaster information by area, improves freshness and size of delivery area of disaster information than typical buffer management by FIFO (First In First Out).

Tetsuya Shigeyasu, Shogo Utahara
Fusion Techniques for Strong Data Protection

In this paper, new data protection techniques based on fusion technology will be proposed. This method is designed to protect data with personalized protection protocols. Personalization is dedicated to precisely defined participants of the entire data protection protocols, without the possibility of changing or deleting them. The use of fusion technology in data protection protocols significantly strengthens the existing solutions in the field of cryptographic solutions and at the same time allows the implementation of analytical and decision-making tasks.

Urszula Ogiela, Makoto Takizawa, Lidia Ogiela
Predictive Intelligence Approaches for Security Technologies

AI techniques are increasingly being used in security systems. Among them, Predictive Intelligence based approaches can also be used to define new types of security features and cryptographic protocols using perceptual or user-oriented features of authorized persons. This work will describe such the possibilities of using Predictive Intelligence technology in the development of modern data security protocols.

Urszula Ogiela, Marek R. Ogiela
Project Management Mechanism Based on Burndown Chart to Reduce the Risk of Software Project Failure

The failure rate of software projects has always been high. One of the key factors is the inability to detect and effectively solve the progress delay problem in time. Progress delay problems will continuous to propagate and extand in software development process to increase software project failure risk greatly. Burn down chart is a simple and useful progress monitor tool in agile software development. In this paper, we propose the project management mechanism based on burndown chart (PMM/BDC) for detecting the situations of progress delay. And use quantified measurement model to identify the problem of progress delays in iterative and incremental development. Project Management Mechanism based on burn down chart can identify the problems of progress delay timely. And the quantified measurement model can recommend improvement manner of project management defects. PMM/BDC combined with quantified measurement model can effectively reduce the risk of software project failure.

Sen-Tarng Lai, Heru Susanto, Fang-Yie Leu
The Implementation of Dynamical Shortest Path and Resource Management for Network Slicing in 5G Networks

With the fast development of network technology, nowadays mobile communication is popularly employed all over the world. Mobile network services, e.g., Multimedia programs and Internet surfing, have so far enriched our everyday lives and color our surroundings. 5G networks provide more faster, more stable, shorter latency, and more diverse network services. To achieve these, network slicing was born for providing such an environment. It is a technique which divides a network into segments. Each provides services of different specifications as its transmission platform. Different transmission specifications ensure their own quality of services. In this study, we implement a network mechanism to monitor resource usage, and facilitate the deployment of individual requirements, aiming at implementing the architecture of network slicing for a 5G network.

Pei-Hua Yu, Heru Susanto, Li-Xuan Liu, Shang-Jie Wu, Fang-Yie Leu
Compare Encoder-Decoder, Encoder-Only, and Decoder-Only Architectures for Text Generation on Low-Resource Datasets

Natural language generation (NLG) tasks have received significant research attention in recent years. For tackling various NLG tasks, the Transformer [27] is now consensus to be employed as a fundamental building block. In the literature, there are three main Transformer variants for NLG: full Transformer, Encoder-Only (only using the encoder part of the Transformer), and Decoder-Only (only using the decoder part). A natural question to ask is: which architecture is the best choice. According to previous studies, when the amount of training dataset is sufficient, using the full Transformer is the priority choice for NLG tasks. However, for the insufficient training dataset setting, we find this is not the case. In this paper, we report experiment results of applying the three architectures to four different tasks under low-resource settings. In contrast to the conclusion by previous study, we find that there are no consistent results indicating which architecture is the best under low-resource dataset settings. Further, based on the experiment results, we comment on the architecture selection under the low-resource dataset consideration.

Pei-Xuan Cai, Yao-Chung Fan, Fang-Yie Leu
Efficient Execution of Malleable Applications in Desktop Grids Using Credit Damping

A desktop grid federation has enabled the organizations to solve large-scale game tree search applications via resource sharing. Since such applications can generate/prune tasks dynamically, the simple credit-based resource broker can easily lead to resource thrashing, causing a high computing overhead. We develop a credit damping component that is added between the broker and the credit database. By applying certain equalization function on the credit data, the broker avoids rapid interact to credit updates, therefore prevents thrashing and then enhances the system performance.

Lung-Bin Chen, Fang-Yie Leu
An Adaptive Anti-packet Recovery Method for Vehicular DTN: Performance Evaluation Considering Shuttle Buses and Roadside Units Scenario

Timers and anti-packet recovery methods are important to provide communication in high latency and disconnected network environments. In this paper, we present the performance evaluation of the proposed Adaptive Anti-packet Recovery (AAR) method considering shuttle buses and Road-Side Units (RSUs) scenario. We use an urban road model for Vehicular Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN). From the simulation results, we observed that the proposed AAR method can decrease the latency regardless of the number of regular vehicles. In addition, the performance was improved by using buses and RSUs.

Masaya Azuma, Shota Uchimura, Yoshiki Tada, Makoto Ikeda, Leonard Barolli
Proposal of Vehicular Real-Time Sensing Method for Amount of Snow Accumulation on the Road

The future autonomous driving vehicles strongly require to understand road surface weather condition to realize their robust operation in cold weather districts. There is a technology to obtain the qualitative road condition, the vehicles would also require quantitative elements of road condition such as amount of accumulated snow. This paper introduces a method to measure amount of accumulated snow on the road by moving vehicles. The proposed method measures the distance between the placed height of an onboard laser distance sensor on a vehicle and road surface. While the sensor vehicle is travelling, the system obtains distance of cross section of roads in non-snow accumulated season in order to build criteria distance data. In the snowy season, sensor vehicle also measures the distance, the difference between current distance data and the criteria will be amount of accumulated snow.

Akira Sakuraba, Yoshitaka Shibata, Mamoru Ohara
Numerical Analysis of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Photonic Crystal Waveguide with Stubs for Wavelength Filtering

Propagation of electromagnetic wave in photonic crystal waveguide was numerically analyzed by constrained interpolation profile method. It was found that stubs situated along waveguiding structure perform as filtering circuit element. Proposed structure is applicable for automatic signal routing depending on carrier wavelength in information network system, which does not require signal routing process.

Hiroshi Maeda
Evaluating the Impact of Node Density and Area Shape in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Most of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) applications are tolerant to delays and unstable links in the underwater environment, where acoustic waves are used instead of electromagnetic radio waves. Commercial UWSN applications will primarily focus on limited areas of the sea or in small pools, lakes or ponds for specific purposes. Node scarcity and movement patterns create different environment for data collection in underwater communication. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the area shape and node density in UWSN, by comparing different routing protocols by simulations. From simulation results we can conclude that node density and area shape affect the performance of both epidemic and FBR.

Elis Kulla, Kuya Shintani, Keita Matsuo
Improving Peer Reliability in P2P Networks: Implementation of an Integrated Simulation System Considering Fuzzy Logic and NS-3

In this paper, we propose and evaluate a fuzzy-based reliability system for Peer-to-Peer (P2P) communications in JXTA-Overlay platform. The proposed system is based on Fuzzy Logic (FL) and considers multiple parameters to perform simulations. We also integrated the FL-based system with the network simulator 3 (ns-3), in order to carry out the performance evaluation. In our system, we considered three input parameters: Round Trip Time (RTT), Packet Loss (PL) and Number of Connected Peers (NCP) to decide the Peer Reliability (PR). From the simulations results, we conclude that when NCP is increased, the PR is increased. But, by increasing RTT and PL, the PR is decreased. Using the results of ns3, the proposed system was able to select the best reliable peer for P2P network. We found that when the number of peers is increased, some peers disconnected in the middle of communication and some peers could not connect.

Yi Liu, Shinji Sakamoto, Leonard Barolli
Vulnerability Analysis of a Secure USB Memory: Based on a Commercial Product D

Secure USB products with security technology applied for safe data storage and storage of users have appeared. Secure USB products include user authentication technology, encryption/decryption technology, access control technology, and data deletion technology. Password authentication technology is widely used for user authentication. The objective of this study was to analyze vulnerabilities of password authentication technology based on the secure USB memory “product D” and identify possible vulnerabilities in advance based on analysis results. Results of the analysis revealed a vulnerability of the password authentication technology of “product D” and that user data could be stolen by bypassing the authentication.

Wontae Jung, Kangbin Yim, Kyungroul Lee
SPEC: Frame Filtering for CAN Protocol on ECU

Dozens of Electronic Control Units (ECU) are used on modern vehicles for security and driving assistance. These ECUs use Controller Area Network (CAN) bus communication protocol in data transmission to improve reliability and efficiency. Since CAN message is broadcasted from the transmitter to other nodes in the network, it does not contain source and destination information for validation. Therefore, it is widening attack surface and attackers can easily inject any message to make unexpected behaviors. In this paper, we propose a Self-Protected ECU (SPEC) to detect an intrusion in-vehicle network (IVN). In CAN bus communication, each sends a message to all nodes in the network except itself. Using this information, we can set a simple checking process on ECUs. When ECU gets a CAN message, it can detect whether received message is the message that supposed to send. As a result, our methodology can detect intrusion by ECU itself, and it allow quick intrusion detection with high accuracy.

Munkhdelgerekh Batzorig, Insu Oh, Chanmin Kim, Yeji Koh, Kangbin Yim
A Concept of IDS for CAN Protocol Based on Statics Theory

Day after day, modern attacks continue to hit the onboard network due to creating complexity of the group of software and hardware components utilized in vehicles. These new components display challenges within the improvement of compelling and responsive security mechanisms. A few intrusion detection systems (IDS) have been proposed to distinguish and defend vehicle systems from pernicious exercises. Here, in this study we depict statistical-based analysis which applied to intrusion detection method to secure car systems, with a specific accentuation on Control Area Network (CAN). This study underlines a portrayal of vulnerabilities, highlight threat models, easily recognize known attacks that are shown within the CAN.

Md Rezanur Islam, Insu Oh, Munkhdelgerekh Batzorig, Seoyeon Kim, Kangbin Yim
Design and Implementation of a Control Interface for Indoor Position Detection of Moving Omnidirectional Access Point Robot Using Super Sonic Signals

Recently, various communication technologies have been developed in order to satisfy the requirements of many users. Especially, mobile communication technology continues to develop rapidly and Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are attracting attention from many researchers in order to provide cost efficient broadband wireless connectivity. The main issue of WMNs is to improve network connectivity and stability in terms of user coverage. In our previous work, we presented a Moving Omnidirectional Access Point (MOAP) robot and implemented an indoor position detecting system using super sonic signals for MOAP Robot. In order to realize a moving Access Point (AP), the MOAP robot should move omnidirectional in 2 dimensional space. It is important that the MOAP robot moves to an accurate position in order to have a good connectivity. Thus, MOAP robot can provide good communication and stability for WMNs. In this paper, we design and implement a control interface for MOAP robot. The experimental results show that the implemented interface has a good accuracy for MOAP robot control.

Kenshiro Mitsugi, Atushi Toyama, Keita Matsuo, Elis Kulla, Leonard Barolli
An Intelligent Fallen Object Detection System for Safe Driving

Vehicular networks are gaining attention for their applicability in safe driving support systems. There are a variety of route planning and safety applications using vehicular networks such as emergency disaster warning, intersection conflict warning and traffic congestion warning applications. Sharing of information between vehicles on fallen objects on the road is very important for safe driving. In this paper, we propose an intelligent fallen object detection system for improving the safe driving. We focus on boxes, cans, pet bottles and plastics that often fall on the road. From the evaluation results, we observed that our system has a good performance for box, can and plastic objects.

Shota Uchimura, Yoshiki Tada, Makoto Ikeda, Leonard Barolli
A Simulation System for Optimal Positions of MOAP Robots Using Elbow and Silhouette Theories: Simulation Results Considering Minimum Transmission Power of MOAP Robots

Recently, various communication technologies have been developed in order to satisfy the requirements of many users. Especially, mobile communication technology continues to develop rapidly and Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are attracting attention from many researchers in order to provide cost efficient broadband wireless connectivity. The main issue of WMNs is to improve network connectivity and stability in terms of user coverage. In our previous work, we presented Moving Omnidirectional Access Point (MOAP) robot, which should move omnidirectionaly in the real space to provide good communication and stability for WMNs. For this reason, we need to find optimal number of MOAP robots and their positions. In this paper, we present a simulation system to calculate the optimal number of MOAP robots and their positions considering minimum transmission power. The simulation results show that the implemented simulation system was able to decide an appropriate number of MOAP robots and their positions with minimum transmission power for MOAP robots achieving a good communication environment for WMNs.

Keita Matsuo, Kenshiro Mitsugi, Atushi Toyama, Elis Kulla, Leonard Barolli
Proposal of Indoor Navigation System Using Mixed Reality Technology

In recent years, along with the increasing sophistication of mobile terminals, systems have been produced to estimate a user’s position using global positioning system (GPS) technology of smartphones and tablet terminals. Some systems use augmented reality (AR) to present a route to the user destination. However, most such systems only show a direction of travel and signs using AR, lack affinity from the viewpoint of humans, and have some points for which GPS cannot be positioned accurately indoors. Therefore, for this study, we developed a mixed reality (MR) navigation system that can set navigation indoors freely without depending on GPS. The system can also present intuitive routes.

Takahiro Uchiya, Yudai Furuta, Ichi Takumi
Advances on Broad-Band Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications
Prof. Leonard Barolli
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