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About this book

This book constitutes revised selected papers from the two International Workshops on Artificial Intelligence Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems, AICOL IV and AICOL V, held in 2013. The first took place as part of the 26th IVR Congress in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, during July 21-27, 2013; the second was held in Bologna as a joint special workshop of JURIX 2013 on December 11, 2013. The 19 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in this book. They are organized in topical sections named: social intelligence and legal conceptual models; legal theory, normative systems and software agents; semantic Web technologies, legal ontologies and argumentation; and crowdsourcing and online dispute resolution (ODR).

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Introduction

Law, Social Intelligence, nMAS and the Semantic Web: An Overview

Abstract
This introduction presents the principles and fundamentals of the AICOL scientific initiative and in particular the main contributions of the current volume, underlining the interdisciplinary approach and the variety of adopted methodologies.
Pompeu Casanovas, Ugo Pagallo, Monica Palmirani, Giovanni Sartor

Social Intelligence and Legal Conceptual Models

The Legal Roots of Social Intelligence and the Challenges of the Information Revolution

Abstract
The paper traces current research on social intelligence back to the everlasting debate on the sources of law and the formalization of social, as opposed to individual, intelligence as the binding force of social customs. After the crisis of the Westphalian model, the legal role of social intelligence can be appreciated nowadays in accordance with new forms of customary and transnational law, much as social norms that a myriad of communities have developed online. Since rearrangements of the legal sources are intertwined with distributions of power, however, what is especially at stake today concerns the sovereign claim to regulate extraterritorial conduct, much as imposing norms on individuals that have no say in the decisions affecting them, through the mechanisms of design, code, and architecture. Current tussles on the future of the internet and its governance show that it would be deadly wrong to take today’s legal role of social intelligence for granted.
Ugo Pagallo

Methods for Law and ICT: An Approach for the Development of Smart Cities

Abstract
The paper summarizes the methods followed over thirty years (1984-2014) in the study of the subject “Law and information and communication technology (ICT)”. From the beginning the emphasis was placed on that the most appropriate approach is to put into action an interdisciplinary activity aimed at solving specific-real problems. The same methodology was used to develop juridical proposals able to integrate the use of the innovation brought by ICTs, as “electronic commerce or government”, in daily life. The paper concludes showing that the methodology is appropriate to participate in the creation and development of technological innovations such as the construction of services for “Smart Cities”.
Fernando Galindo

Opening Public Deliberations: Transparency, Privacy, Anonymisation

Abstract
The open data movement is demanding publication of data withheld by public institutions. Wide access to government data improves transparency and also fosters economic growth. Still, careless publication of personal data can easily lead to privacy violations. Due to these concerns, the Italian law states that even public deliberations must be anonymised for long term publication. In the context of the Trentino Open Data Project (Italy), we first analyse privacy legislation and anonymisation techniques. Then, we propose a semantic open source stack based on entity and word sense disambiguation techniques for publishing anonymised deliberations edited with Norme in Rete software.
Eleonora Bassi, David Leoni, Stefano Leucci, Juan Pane, Lorenzino Vaccari

Online Dispute Resolution and Models of Relational Law and Justice: A Table of Ethical Principles

Abstract
Regulatory systems constitute a set of coordinated complex behavior (individual and collective) which can be grasped through rules, values and principles that constitute the social framework of the law. Relational law, relational justice and the design of regulatory models can be linked to emergent agreement technologies and new versions of Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) and Negotiation Support Systems (NSS). We define the notions of public space and information principles, extending the concept of ‘second order validity’ to the fields of ODR and NSS.
Pompeu Casanovas, John Zeleznikow

Drafting a Composite Indicator of Validity for Regulatory Models and Legal Systems

Abstract
The aim of this paper is to lay the groundwork for the creation of a composite indicator of the validity of regulatory systems. The composite nature of the indicator implies a) that its construction is embedded in the long-standing theoretical debate and framework of legal validity; b) that it formally contains other sub-indicators whose occurrence is essential to the determination of validity. The paper suggests, in other words, that validity is a second-degree property, i.e., one that occurs only once the justice, efficiency, effectiveness, and enforceability of the system have been checked.
Andrea Ciambra, Pompeu Casanovas

Legal Theory, Normative Systems and Software Agents

Measuring the Complexity of the Legal Order over Time

Abstract
One of the main problems in a legal order is how to manage the complexity of its changes over time. These modifications produce a very intricate network of citations in the legal order, so experts and citizens alike have serious difficulties accessing the normative content. Without countermeasures (e.g., simplification policy, codification, consolidation), the evolution of the legal order over time increases the uncertainty of the normative system and of the knowledge-acquisition process. This paper provides a theoretical model based on a set of indexes for measuring the complexity of each modificatory act using explicit modifications provisions. The global measurement provides an understanding of the complexity of the legal order over time. Secondly, we produce a diagram system for visualizing these indexes of the legal order per year and per document. The model was tested on an annotated corpus the Piedmont region has recently released that contains all its legislation as open data using the XML NormeInRete standard.
Monica Palmirani, Luca Cervone

Time, Trust and Normative Change. On Certain Sources of Complexity in Judicial Decision-Making

Abstract
The aim of this paper is to outline a structure of legal knowledge that is involved in resolution of complex legal cases comprising intertemporal issues and constitutional problems. Although the topics of dynamics of legal systems are already well-elaborated in the AI and Law literature, the problem of constitutional admissibility of certain types of changes to the legal systems remains an underexplored issue. The model developed in this paper is designed to fill in this gap. The meta-information concerning admissibility of certain changes to legal systems (with regard to relevant constitutional principles) should become a standard element of any well-developed database of statutory legal knowledge.
Michał Araszkiewicz

The Construction of Models and Roles in Normative Systems

Abstract
Roles are widely addressed in multi-agents systems with social norms but roles in legal systems are quite different. The relation between legal norms and roles have specific features that when comes to applications create a distance with the expectations from law practitioners. This paper analyse roles in legal systems with legal norms and present the extension of [1] about representing norms as social objects consenting the representation of the assignment of roles and the chain between principles, norms and roles.
Alessio Antonini, Cecilia Blengino, Guido Boella, Leendert van der Torre

Integrating Legal-URN and Eunomos: Towards a Comprehensive Compliance Management Solution

Abstract
Business process compliance with regulations has been a topic of many research areas in Computer Science such as Requirements Engineering (RE), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Logic and Natural Language Processing (NLP). This work aims to provide a systematic way of establishing and managing compliance to assist decision-making and reporting. Despite many notable advances, few systems deal adequately with legal interpretation and modeling norms in an expressive way that is well-integrated with business modeling practices. In this paper, we bring together two leading systems, Legal-URN and Eunomos, for a comprehensive compliance management solution.
Guido Boella, Silvano Colombo Tosatto, Sepideh Ghanavati, Joris Hulstijn, Llio Humphreys, Robert Muthuri, André Rifaut, Leendert van der Torre

Criminal Liability of Autonomous Agents: From the Unthinkable to the Plausible

Abstract
The evolution of information technologies have brought us to a point where we are confronted with the existence of agents - computational entities - which are able to act autonomously with little or no human intervention. And their behavior can damage individual or collective interests that are protected by criminal law. Based on the analysis of different models of criminal responsibility of legal persons - which constituted an interesting advance in the criminal law in relation to what was hitherto traditionally accepted -, we will appraise whether the necessary legal elements to have direct criminal liability of artificial entities are present.
Pedro Miguel Freitas, Francisco Andrade, Paulo Novais

Semantic Web Technologies, Legal Ontologies and Argumentation

Extraction of Legal Definitions and Their Explanations with Accessible Citations

Abstract
The aim of this paper is to produce a Japanese legal terminology consisting of legal terms and their explanations that includes accessible citations. Although we have succeeded in finding over 14,000 terms with high precision, 23.1 percent of the correct explanations included citations that were inaccessible due to context-dependent format. We propose a method for revising explanatory sentences that takes into account XML-tag annotation for context-independent format for all citations. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by our experimental results.
Makoto Nakamura, Yasuhiro Ogawa, Katsuhiko Toyama

Representing Judicial Argumentation in the Semantic Web

Abstract
This paper presents part of a Semantic Web framework for precedent modelling. The research applies theoretical models of legal knowledge representation and rule interchange for applications in the legal domain to a set of real legal documents. The aim is to represent the legal concepts and the argumentation patterns contained in a judgement, as expressed by the judicial text. The bases of the framework are a set of metadata associated with judicial concepts and an ontology library, providing a solid ground for an argumentation system based on defeasible rules. The present paper shortly presents the metadata and ontology layers, focusing on the rules and argumentation layers. In the example provided (an application of the Carneades Argumentation System) the framework reconstructs the legal interpretations performed by the judge in a specific judicial decision, presenting its reasoning path, and suggesting possible different interpretations in the light of relevant code- and case-law.
Marcello Ceci

On the Road to Regulatory Ontologies

Interpreting Regulations with SBVR
Abstract
Regulatory compliance has proved to be difficult and time consuming across business domains. In Financial Services, the wide and complex spectrum of regulations calls for machine assistance in making sense of, and in consuming, the regulatory text. Semantic technologies, and Ontologies in particular, bring new solutions to the challenges in consuming financial services regulations that traditional technologies fell short in addressing. Current state-of-the-art related work is silent on the role of Legal/ Regulatory Subject-Matter-Experts in building these ontologies. This paper presents an on-going study on creating regulatory ontologies. It describes a Subject-Matter-Expert-centric approach to collaborative development of regulatory ontologies using structured natural language, Semantics of Business Vocabulary and business Rules (SBVR) in particular.
Elie Abi-Lahoud, Leona O’Brien, Tom Butler

Conceptual Modeling of Judicial Procedures in the e-Codex Project

Abstract
Simplification of judicial procedures management and the possibility to file and exchange them between European Member States are essential pre-conditions to increase cross-border relations in a pan-European e-Justice area. In this paper an overview of the e-Delivery platform architecture, developed by the e-CODEX project, as well as the semantic solution conceived to transmit business documents within a scenario characterized by different languages and different legal systems, are described. A proposal for implementating such solution with semantic web technologies is described.
Enrico Francesconi, Ginevra Peruginelli, Ernst Steigenga, Daniela Tiscornia

Organized Crime Structure Modelling for European Law Enforcement Agencies Interoperability through Ontologies

Abstract
Nowadays, organized crime networks share intelligence and knowledge as a fundamental asset for their members, thus making criminal organizations more global in nature and activities. Internet has consequently become the natural environment for these organizations. This evolution has put a bigger pressure in Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) demanding more efforts and resources in the fight against transnational organized crime. LEAs can therefore profit from international cooperation in fighting these organizations. However, differences among legal frameworks, languages and police and judicial culture may create interoperability issues. The CAPER project addressed the prevention of transnational organized crime by trying to provide the needed interoperability among the different European LEAs. In this work, we introduce a supranational Organized Crime Structure (OCS) modelled through an ontology in order to improve European LEAs Interoperability (ELIO). Results suggest that ELIO is able to provide the required interoperability features, overcoming the issues that arise in this scenario.
Jorge González-Conejero, Rebeca Varela Figueroa, Juan Muñoz-Gomez, Emma Teodoro

Crowdsourcing and Online Dispute Resolution (ODR)

Harnessing Content and Context for Enhanced Decision Making

Abstract
In a time in which a significant amount of interpersonal interactions take place online, one must enquire to which extent are these milieus suitable for supporting the complexity of our communication. This is especially important in more sensitive domains, such as the one of Online Dispute Resolution, in which inefficient communication environments may result in misunderstandings, poor decisions or the escalation of the conflict. The conflict manager, in particular, may find his skills severely diminished, namely in what concerns the accurate perception of the state of the parties. In this paper the development of a rich communication framework is detailed that conveys contextual information about their users, harnessed from the transparent analysis of their behaviour while communicating. Using it, the conflict manager may not only better perceive the conflict and how it affects each party but also take better contextualized decisions, closer to the ones taken in face-to-face settings.
Paulo Novais, Davide Carneiro, Francisco Andrade, José Neves

Consumedia. Functionalities, Emotion Detection and Automation of Services in a ODR Platform

Abstract
This paper presents a legal and technological approach to online mediation. It shows the technologies that are usually employed in this field and presents the prototype of Consumedia, an online mediation platform, as well as its functionalities and technological architecture. Moreover, it uncovers the technology implemented as regards the recognition of emotions in the mediation room. Furthermore, it considers that an online mediation platform may automatically provide the parties with all the required documentation of the process. Thus, it unveils the documents that an online mediation platform should automatically provide to the disputants.
Josep Suquet, Pompeu Casanovas, Xavier Binefa, Oriol Martínez, Adrià Ruiz, Jordi Ceballos

Crowdsourcing Tools for Disaster Management: A Review of Platforms and Methods

Abstract
Recent advances on information technologies and communications, coupled with the advent of the social media applications have fuelled a new landscape of emergency and disaster response systems by enabling affected citizens to generate georeferenced real time information on critical events. The identification and analysis of such events is not straightforward and the application of crowdsourcing methods or automatic tools is needed for that purpose. Whereas crowdsourcing makes emphasis on the resources of people to produce, aggregate, or filter original data, automatic tools make use of information retrieval techniques to analyze publicly available information. This paper reviews a set of online tools and platforms implemented in recent years which are currently being applied in the area of emergency management and proposes a taxonomy for its categorization.
Marta Poblet, Esteban García-Cuesta, Pompeu Casanovas

A Method for Defining Human-Machine Micro-task Workflows for Gathering Legal Information

Abstract
With the growing popularity of micro-task crowdsourcing platforms, new workflow-based micro-task crowdsourcing approaches are starting to emerge. Such workflows occur in legal, political and conflict resolution domains as well, presenting new challenges, namely in micro-task specification and human-machine interaction, which result mostly from the flow of unstructured data. Domain ontologies provide the structure and semantics required to describe the data flowing throughout the workflow in a way understandable to both humans and machines. This paper presents a method for the construction of micro-task workflows from legal domain ontologies. The method is currently being employed in the context of the UMCourt project in order to formulate information retrieval and conflict resolution workflows.
Nuno Luz, Nuno Silva, Paulo Novais

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