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2022 | Book

AI Enabled IoT for Electrification and Connected Transportation

Editors: Dr. Naveenkumar Marati, Dr. Akash Kumar Bhoi, Prof. Dr. Victor Hugo C. De Albuquerque, Dr. Akhtar Kalam

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series: Transactions on Computer Systems and Networks

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About this book

This book presents an overview of artificial intelligence (AI) in the automotive section, especially in the modern era of green energy-based electrification of vehicles and smart transportation systems. The book also discusses different Internet of Things aspects involved in the automotive domain with AI. The book presents autonomous driving systems, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), autonomy, AI involvement, and machine learning techniques with challenges in electrification, prognostics, and diagnostics. AI and IoT are two emerging technologies, and their importance in other modern technology electrification on transportation, connected vehicle segment are discussed thoroughly in this book with different topologies. It also presents AI applications in the charging profile prediction, state of charge, state of health, battery lifetime, and battery temperature detection in dynamic conditions. Different algorithms are also given in the book to discuss the nearest point charging station for electric vehicle users. The book also discusses cybersecurity issues and challenges in the real-time environment for AI implementation, IoT in transportation, and autonomous driving. The other aspects of telematics, smart sensors for the implementation of the IoT, and AI are also discussed, especially in guidance and control aspects. The book will be useful for the researchers, practitioners, and industry people working in AI, IoT in the electrification and transportation segment.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Role of AI and IoT Techniques in Autonomous Transport Vehicles
Abstract
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is computer technology with enormous possibilities for smart industrial transformation. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the 4:0 revolution industrial idea that comprises a worldwide knowledge gathering and direct maintenance for storage, transmission, sensing, enhanced services, and technology development. The combination of high-speed, durable, low-latency intercoms and AI and IoT contributing to significant the move toward a full-smart independent (AV) transport electrifier that demonstrates how physical and virtual transport information complement one another. This chapter discusses how the recent AI and IoT techniques may help the quest for autonomous transport vehicles. It was demonstrated that 90% of automobile crises are caused by human mistakes, and 10 times the median driver is safer. Autonomous vehicle safety is important and users need an acceptable level of risk 1000 times lower. AVs have some unbelievable benefits such as (i) enhancing the safety of vehicles, (ii) cutting back on accidents, (iii) reducing fuel usage, (iv) opening up drivers’ time and commercial prospects, (v) AVs must, however, utilize vast knowledge from their wearable sensing.
Anupam Baliyan, Jagjit Singh Dhatterwal, Kuldeep Singh Kaswan, Vishal Jain
IoT Enabled Railway System and Power System
Abstract
The fourth industrial revolution, Industry 4.0, has incited new ways for Enterprise Management System (EMS) and innovations on supply and demand side addressing wide range of use cases. With the continuing acceleration in implementing use cases of Industry 4.0, digitalization of railways and transportation industry have been introduced through IoT framework and its potential advantages for smart operation of railways. Although, challenges in modern rail operation such as operational efficiency, maximized availability and maintenance of the physical assets still have been remained to be addressed in benefits for serving customers and railway operators. In this chapter an integrated ecosystem of cutting-edge digital technologies and advanced data analysis framework are adopted to demonstrate a responsive and agile operating environment for operators in railway system. The emphasis is on building blocks of IoT based solutions within the railway industry including interconnectivity between different layers of IoT platform and railway Operation Control Centre (OCC). Moreover, relevant issues such as interoperability, data integrity and cybersecurity issues are highlighted as prospective challenges to deployment of the IOT-enabled railway systems. Further to that both technical and methodological aspects corresponding to the research studies and validations of the results in the field of IoT systems have been addressed through IoT use cases in Smart Grid. In summary, this chapter envisages the prospect of near future of the railway operation within the context of IoT platform and highlights requirements for further preparations and promotions of the research area relevant to the smart railway operation.
Akhtar Kalam, Pejman Peidaee
An Overview of Sensors in Intelligent Transportation Systems and Electric Vehicles
Abstract
With the advent of machine learning, data analytics, cloud and edge computing, and rapid increase in the computational capabilities and progress in wireless communication, the traditional transport systems is fast transforming into an Smart or Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). An efficient transport system is one of the cornerstones of smart cities and leads to the attainment of sustainable development goals. Along with the integration of electric vehicles and autonomous vehicles, the vision for an ITS is to provide a safe and comfortable travel which makes the optimum use of available resources along with reducing the carbon footprint. To achieve this vision, sensors play an important role. Thousands of in-vehicle and out-of-vehicle sensors are collecting vast amount of data and exchanging it through cloud computing to make the transportation system efficient. This also brings forth various challenges like the sensor fusion, data privacy, and the performance of sensors over a period of time under external conditions. This chapter provides an overview of various categories of sensors used in transportation system and electric vehicles. It also presents various impending challenges in sensor deployment.
Jyotirmoy Dutta, Ribu Mathew
Smart Parking System and Its Applications
Abstract
The need of parking space came into the world because of growth in urbanization and car ownership. According to the statistics of World Bank, the mobility of people moving to city will increase to 60% of current population. The challenge here is, need to accommodate the infrastructure, transportation of network, and demand in raising the comfortable parking. Also, there was 35% of considerable loss in productive time in searching the parking spot. The statistics of USA announce that this waste time cost for fuel driver is $345. The demands of parking demands for autonomous vehicles need to be analyzed. As many of the automatic vehicles are based on electric, it tolerates the rules of parking-based system. These need to include the electric-based charging stations in the parking system.
Shola Usharani, A. Karmel
Smart Door Locking System
Abstract
A well-made traditional front door lock will be enough when it comes to securing the front entrance. Its inner mechanisms have been developed for nearly two centuries and are tried and true. However, considering this: A “smart door lock” can offer totally new dimensions to the ease, utility, and security of a lock thanks to technological advancements. Some of the benefits of having smart door lock are as follows: considering the following scenario: As a person approaches the front entrance with arms full of shopping, the door lock identifies his/her smartphone and unlocks instantly. When a person is not at home, he might want to give access to relatives, friends, guests, or service providers, so he can simply text them a code. When a person is away from home and wants to know who opens the door or be notified when someone does, a smart door lock can do all of these advanced features. A mix of wireless technologies such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi is used to control smart lock using Smart Lock Application from a place wherever Internet access is available. In this chapter, various smart lock systems using Bluetooth, Android, and Arduino are analyzed.
S. Rajarajeswari, N. Hema
Privacy and Authentication Schemes in VANETS Using Blockchain: A Review and a Framework to Mitigate Security and Privacy Issues
Abstract
Technology advances through time. Telecommunications and wireless technology are pioneers among the emerging technologies. Vehicular Ad hoc Network is the most progressive and foreseen research field under wireless communications as they are able to provide a large variety of ubiquitous services. They are a growing technology which provides a vast range of safety applications for the vehicle passengers. With an increase in such services, there will be an increase in the vulnerabilities which could be compromise the VANET communication. Successfully defending against such VANET’s attacks is continuously under research and growth. Blockchain offers decentralized, distributed, collective maintenance to counter malicious attacks. In view of the aforesaid issues, in this paper a dedicated discussion of various research works related to privacy and authentication schemes in VANETS using Blockchain has been made. At last, a framework based on consensus algorithm have been proposed for secured dissemination of messages.
Farooque Azam, Sunil Kumar, Neeraj Priyadarshi
Photovoltaic Array Fed Indirect Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive for EV Transportation System Using Brain Emotional Learning-Based Intelligent Controller
Abstract
This article deals with single-stage indirect vector control of induction motor for PV-fed EV transportation system using brain emotional learning-based intelligent control (BELBIC). A solar photovoltaic (PV) array, a three-phase voltage source inverter, and a motor with EV chassis system are all part of the proposed system. The BELBIC operates effectively for motor drive systems with changes in various operating conditions. The use of a power feed forward term improves the system’s dynamic response. This accomplishes the goal of effective and efficient EV transportation system. The system is simulated in the MATLAB/Simulink platform and is validated on a real time using OPAL-RT.
Biranchi Narayan Kar, Paulson Samuel, Bandi Mallikarjuna Reddy
Electrical Vehicles (EVs)—An Application of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) System
Abstract
Recent days, electric vehicles (EVs) happen to be adaptable transportation for achieving pollution-free environment. Although the EV usage is often these days, a breakthrough technology is essential to overcome the battery-associated drawbacks. The inherited battery drawbacks include weight, cost, size, low power, and energy densities. For addressing battery connected limitations, a concept of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology is realized. This chapter deliberates the configuration of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology at the system level. Governing international standards of WPT-powered EVs are summarized. The detailed classification of WPT system is investigated and compared. Possible modes of wireless charging for EVs are reviewed and discussed here. The state-of-the-art research development of WPT is presented in detail. Also, several novel coil architectures and circuit configurations utilizing for achieving improved system’s efficiency are discussed in this chapter. Further, a rising potentials and challenges in the application of the WPT system for EVs are highlighted.
Merugu Kavitha, D. Mohan Reddy, N. S. Kalyan Chakravarthy
Twelve Pulse-Based Battery Charger with PV Power Integration
Abstract
In this paper, the isolated diode rectifier-based battery charger is proposed for the electric vehicle. The proposed battery charger operates at line frequency. The diode rectifier-based battery charger is cost-effective solution for electric vehicles (EV). The diode rectifier-based battery charger introduces the harmonics in the supply. The harmonics does not contributes to useful power and need to be eliminated. The active power filter is well-established technique, and it is integrated with photo-voltaic modules for harmonics elimination, and photo-voltaic power generated from cell injected into the utility grid. The reference current estimated with instantaneous reactive power theory. The IRPT-based scheme is combined with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique for estimation of maximum power from modules of the photo-voltaic array. The adopted method simultaneously eliminates the harmonics and inject active power from the PV-modules without requirement of the separate inverter. The computer simulation study is carried out to establish efficacy of control scheme and topology for simultaneous compensation of harmonics and photo-voltaic also known as active power fed to the grid from PV-modules.
D. Suresh, V. Kumar, Mote Mahesh
Design and Development of Brushless DC Motor Drive for Electrical Vehicle Application
Abstract
Nowadays, the usage of conventional vehicles’ importance is decreased due to increase in fuel cost and very high levels of air pollution, and also decreased the greatest negatives to human beings in petroleum resources: to produce safe, clean, and high-efficiency transportation implemented. Future driving technology will include electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell-driven vehicles. This paper presents an overview of electric vehicle technology and implemented Speed Control of a Brushless DC motor for Electrical Vehicle applications. The performance of the BLDC motor is investigated under steady, dynamic state speed, and torque conditions. In the above two conditions, the actual value reached the reference value. The test results are verified in MATLAB/SIMULINK.
V. Kumar, Kalagotla Chenchireddy, Khammampati R Sreejyothi, G. Sujatha
Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS)-Based DC–DC Converter for Battery Input Application
Abstract
This paper presents a phase shift H-bridge DC–DC converter for electrical vehicle battery charger application. There are many conventional DC–DC converter topologies. Those are buck converter, boost converter, buck-boost, and Cuk converter. The main drawbacks of this converter are single input and single output, and these converters are not suitable for converting high DC supply to low DC supply. This paper presented a phase shift H-bridge DC–DC converter, and this converter is mainly used in step-down high DC voltage to low DC voltage, and it also provides isolation between input and output. The major applications are server power supply, telecom rectifier, battery charging system, and renewable energy system. The presented topology operated in mainly two modes of operation one is discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) and the second one is continuous conduction mode (CCM). When the battery is charged fully the mode circuit is operated in DCM mode. When the charging across the SOC is very low the circuit will operate in CCM. The simulation results are verified in CCM mode. The closed-loop PI controller is used for controlling battery voltage, current, and SOC.
Khammampati R Sreejyothi, V. Kumar, Kalagotla Chenchireddy, P. Tejaswi
Three-Leg Voltage Source Converter-Based D-STATCOM for Power Quality Improvement in Electrical Vehicle Charging Station
Abstract
The usage of a huge amount of automobiles in the world may cause serious problems for the climate and human existence. Lately, the innovative and improvement activities associated with transportation have emphasized the growth of the high good organization, hygienic, and safe transportation. Electric vehicles had normally planned to restore conventional vehicles soon. This Paper presents grid to vehicle (G2V) technology for the battery charging station. This paper presents two topologies three-phase diode-bridge rectifier and bidirectional DC-DC converters. The diode-bridge rectifier circuit converter converts three-phase AC supply to DC supply and is controlled by synchronous reference frame, and DC/DC converter uses for battery charging and also controlled by PI controller. The most important intention of this paper is to vary the performance characteristics of the battery in charging and discharging mode. This proposed technology is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK model. The battery charging and discharging results are verified.
Kalagotla Chenchireddy, V. Jegathesan
Metadata
Title
AI Enabled IoT for Electrification and Connected Transportation
Editors
Dr. Naveenkumar Marati
Dr. Akash Kumar Bhoi
Prof. Dr. Victor Hugo C. De Albuquerque
Dr. Akhtar Kalam
Copyright Year
2022
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-19-2184-1
Print ISBN
978-981-19-2183-4
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2184-1