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About this book

This book highlights operation principles for Air Traffic Control Automated Systems (ATCAS), new scientific directions in design and application of dispatching training simulators and parameters of ATCAS radio equipment items for aircraft positioning. This book is designed for specialists in air traffic control and navigation at a professional and scientific level. The following topics are also included in this book: personnel actions in emergency, including such unforeseen circumstances as communication failure, airplane wandering off course, unrecognized aircraft appearance in the air traffic service zone, aerial target interception, fuel draining, airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) alarm, emergency stacking and volcanic ash cloud straight ahead.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Management of the Airspace Use Planning in the Russian Federation

Abstract
The management of airspace use planning covers the following items:
  • collecting and processing by the centers of the Unified Air Traffic Management System (Unified ATM System) of information related to airspace use plans, realization of the said plans, as well as of other information related to issuing of permissions and information messages on the airspace use;
  • procedures for strategic, pre-tactical, and tactical (current) planning of the airspace use; coordinating of the airspace use with the aim of its allocation by coordinates, time and altitudes between all airspace users (AUs), as well as provision of the air traffic flow management (ATFM);
  • cooperation between different centers of the Unified ATM System, and with the ATS (flight supervision) units of different AUs, and with air defense units subject to the monitoring of compliance with the Federal Regulations’ requirements.
Bestugin A.R., Eshenko A.A., Filin A.D., Plyasovskikh A.P., Shatrakov A.Y., Shatrakov Y.G.

Chapter 3. Purpose and Comparative Study of the Controllers of ATC Automated System Simulators

Abstract
One of the topical tasks within the air traffic management system is to improve the working efficiency of the controllers of the air traffic control automated system (ATC AS) as the most important integral part of the flight management system [1].
Bestugin A.R., Eshenko A.A., Filin A.D., Plyasovskikh A.P., Shatrakov A.Y., Shatrakov Y.G.

Chapter 4. Technical Requirements to the ATC Automation System Simulators for Controllers

Abstract
The ISS shall provide for the simulation of the main technological processes of the airspace use planning and air traffic control, which are realized at the workstation of the area control center (ACC), aerodrome centers and aerodrome control towers (ACT) of specified aerodromes.
Bestugin A.R., Eshenko A.A., Filin A.D., Plyasovskikh A.P., Shatrakov A.Y., Shatrakov Y.G.

Chapter 5. Architecture and Composition of ATC Automation System Simulators for Controllers

Abstract
The structure of an ISS must strictly correspond with the organizational structure of the simulated ATS region, and in accordance with the Federal Aviation Rules (FARs), the number of ATC sectors and ATC controller workstations in an ATS unit structure is defined based on the provision of the acceptable level of flight safety in an ATS airspace.
Bestugin A.R., Eshenko A.A., Filin A.D., Plyasovskikh A.P., Shatrakov A.Y., Shatrakov Y.G.

Chapter 6. ISS Automated Workstations

Abstract
The (ISS) integrated system simulator includes an automated workstation of the training supervisor (AWS-TS) that enables accomplishment of functional tasks regarding management, monitoring, and subsequent analysis of the training process (Filin and Suleymanov in Upgrade of the ATC system training module “Spectr-M”, 131, 2003, [1]).
Bestugin A.R., Eshenko A.A., Filin A.D., Plyasovskikh A.P., Shatrakov A.Y., Shatrakov Y.G.

Chapter 7. Organization of Simulated “Ground–Air” Radio Communication and Service Loud-Speaking Communication

Abstract
Means of simulated voice communication (MSVC) are intended to simulate two-way radio communication between the AWS-C and AWSs of operating personnel through one of the selected radio channels, as well as for loud-speaking communication (LSC) between any ISS AWSs. To implement the ISS functionality, the MSRC and MSSC must provide the following:
  • communication management using a touch screen displaying the control panel;
  • capability to quickly select the operational mode;
  • establishment of communication in any mode;
  • voice communication in the microtelephone and loud-speaking modes;
  • capability to select several channels for simultaneous listening with separate volume control;
  • visual indication of operational modes and current connections on the touch screen;
  • initiation of simulated bearing when conducting radio communication;
  • two-way simplex radio communication between the ARM-C and the ARM-OP;
  • capability to select any of the simulated radio channels to control;
  • LSC between any workplaces with visual and audible indication of a subscriber’s call.
Bestugin A.R., Eshenko A.A., Filin A.D., Plyasovskikh A.P., Shatrakov A.Y., Shatrakov Y.G.

Chapter 8. Automated Training Aids for the Remote ATC Specialists Proficiency Maintaining System

Abstract
Nowadays, organization of theoretical training for air traffic controllers involves integrated automated training aids more and more widely; these aids operate in conjunction with remote proficiency maintaining systems (RPMS) built on the basis of modern PCs.
Bestugin A.R., Eshenko A.A., Filin A.D., Plyasovskikh A.P., Shatrakov A.Y., Shatrakov Y.G.

Chapter 9. ISS Special Software

Abstract
ISS special software (SSW) can be divided into two main complexes: training subsystem SSW; modeling and evaluation subsystem SSW.
Bestugin A.R., Eshenko A.A., Filin A.D., Plyasovskikh A.P., Shatrakov A.Y., Shatrakov Y.G.

Chapter 10. ATC Radiotechnical Aids

Abstract
In order to perform the ATC procedures, the controller requires data on actual aircraft location within the area of responsibility. The main source of such data is radars. At different movement stages, different radars are used: when at the aerodrome surface—the airfield surveillance radars; when flying within the aerodrome area—aerodrome surveillance radars; and when on route—route surveillance radars. The ATC radars use two coordinates: They determine the aircraft azimuth and slant distance so that after the radar data processing the controller receives horizontal coordinates of the aircraft. For ATC tasks, both primary and secondary radars are used. Primary radars measure the coordinates based on the signals reflected by the aircraft fuselage. They are fully self-contained as they do not require any onboard or other additional equipment. Secondary radars (radars with active response) require cooperation with the onboard transponders, but they provide more data on the object under surveillance. They are used both independently and jointly with secondary radars; in this case, the combination of the primary and secondary radars is called integrated system complex (ISC). The ISC can also include the primary processing equipment, radio communications equipment, automated direction finder (usually, as standby means). Antenna system, primary processing equipment and other equipment can be the joint for the primary and secondary ISC channels.
Bestugin A.R., Eshenko A.A., Filin A.D., Plyasovskikh A.P., Shatrakov A.Y., Shatrakov Y.G.

Chapter 11. Economics at ATC Automation Systems’ Implementation

Abstract
Within the civil aviation transportation system, the end-users of the air transport (passengers or cargo forwarders and consignees) purchase the specific services from the airlines—organizations that operate the aircraft. But in the frame of the aviation transportation, infrastructure significant expenses are also attributed to the airports and air navigation services, which are usually provided by other organizations.
Bestugin A.R., Eshenko A.A., Filin A.D., Plyasovskikh A.P., Shatrakov A.Y., Shatrakov Y.G.
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