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About this book

Gawdat Bahgat examines alternative energy (renewable and nuclear) in the Middle East. These largely under-utilized resources represent tremendous economic and environmental opportunities.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
For most of the modern era fossil fuels — oil, natural gas, and coal — have provided the lion’s share of global energy supplies. Their relative shares have fundamentally changed, but they have continued to dominate the energy mix in almost every country in the world. This trend is likely to prevail in the foreseeable future. However, other fuels, particularly nuclear power and renewable energy, such as that derived from wind and solar have attracted substantial attention and investments and are projected to provide an incremental share of supplies in the coming years and decades. According to a recent report by ExxonMobil oil, gas and coal will make up about 80 per cent of total energy consumption in 2040. Nuclear power will grow on average at about 2.2 per cent a year, a substantial increase, but lower than projections prior to the 2011 Fukushima disaster in Japan. Finally, wind, solar, and other renewable resources will see strong growth and account for about 4 per cent of global demand by 2040.1
Gawdat Bahgat

2. Morocco

Abstract
The kingdom of Morocco is different from its North African neighbours in many ways. Algeria, Libya, and Egypt hold substantial oil and gas deposits and for a long time have been its major producers and exporters. Morocco, on the other hand, has very limited indigenous reserves. The kingdom is heavily dependent on foreign supplies to meet its growing energy demands. The country’s high rates of population growth and urbanization, as well as economic expansion, mean rising energy consumption and wider gap between supply and demand. This heavy dependency on imported fossil fuels adds more burden on the country’s trade and financial deficit.
Gawdat Bahgat

3. Egypt

Abstract
With more than 90 million people, Egypt is the most populous country in the Middle East and the Arab world. The country’s millennium-long history and its cultural dominance have given the Egyptians a strong justification to claim regional leadership. These claims aside, certainly, political and socio-economic developments in Cairo are always echoed in neighbouring countries and impact them positively or negatively. Energy is not an exception.
Gawdat Bahgat

4. Israel

Abstract
In the late 2000s substantial natural gas discoveries had been made in the Eastern Mediterranean. These gas fields have the potential to change the dynamics of the regional energy markets. These hydrocarbon deposits might promote cooperation between Israel and its neighbours or, more likely further polarize and deepen the conflict. What is certain, however, is that these discoveries will fundamentally alter the Israeli energy sector.
Gawdat Bahgat

5. Saudi Arabia

Abstract
All societies require energy services to meet basic human needs (e.g., lighting, heat, mobility, communication) and to serve productive processes (agricultural, industrial, and service sectors). Thus, energy is the lifeblood of human existence and modern civilization. For human development to be sustainable, ‘delivery of energy services needs to be secure and have low environmental impacts’.1 For the last few centuries most of the world’s energy supply has come from burning fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil), with the latest providing the single largest contribution in the last several decades. This global energy mix is not likely to change in the foreseeable future. According to a recent report by the ExxonMobil fossil fuels will make up about 80 per cent of total energy consumption in 2040.2
Gawdat Bahgat

6. The United Arab Emirates

Abstract
Energy security has often been associated with the non-interruption of oil supplies. This association fails to capture the growing significance of other sources of energy and the fact that energy security is a major concern for both consumers and producers. A recent study by the International Energy Agency (IEA) highlights four dimensions of the concept: availability (geological), accessibility (geopolitical), affordability (economic), and acceptability (environmental and social).1
Gawdat Bahgat

7. Iran

Abstract
In recent years very few issues have attracted international attention as the controversy over Iran’s nuclear program. Iranian officials regularly remind both friends and foes of Article IV of the Treaty of the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which states, ‘Nothing in this Treaty shall be interpreted as affecting the inalienable rights of all the parties to the Treaty to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination’.1 The United States and some other countries accuse Iran of seeking to build nuclear weapons. Diplomatic pressure and some of the severest economic sanctions have been imposed on Tehran combined with threats of military attacks. Iranian officials have categorically and consistently denied these accusations.
Gawdat Bahgat

8. Conclusion

Abstract
Energy plays a crucial role in modern societies. It has a vital input to all sectors (e.g. residential, transportation, and manufacture) and is essential to generate electricity. In other words, all societies require energy services to meet basic human needs such as lighting, heating, and mobility. Thus, energy is not just a regular commodity, rather it is a strategic one and is the lifeblood of today’s civilization.
Gawdat Bahgat

Backmatter

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