Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book

2021 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

An Ethical Code for Commercial VR/AR Applications

Authors: Erick Jose Ramirez, Jocelyn Tan, Miles Elliott, Mohit Gandhi, Lia Petronio

Published in: Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

share
SHARE

Abstract

The commercial VR/AR marketplace is gaining ground and is becoming an ever larger and more significant component of the global economy. While much attention has been paid to the commercial promise of VR/AR, comparatively little attention has been given to the ethical issues that VR/AR technologies introduce. We here examine existing codes of ethics proposed by the ACM and IEEE and apply them to the unique ethical facets that VR/AR introduces. We propose a VR/AR code of ethics for developers and apply this code to several commercial applications.
Footnotes
1
Most commercial developers (Oculus, HTC, etc) have their own internal codes for employees and other codes have been proposed (Madary and Metzinger 2016). We aim to incorporate and synthesize these codes into our own proposal here which builds on what we argue are unique psychological aspects of simulation design that are unique to VR/AR.
 
2
Although different in terms of their “opt-in” vs. “opt-out” structure, both the state of California’s Consumer Privacy Act (CCPS) enacted in 2020 and the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) enacted in 2018 provide consumers with such a right and both serve as good models for ethical data collection.
 
Literature
go back to reference Aardema, F., O’Connor, K., Côté, S., Taillon, A.: Virtual reality induces dissociation and lowers sense of presence in objective reality. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 13(4), 429–35 (2010) CrossRef Aardema, F., O’Connor, K., Côté, S., Taillon, A.: Virtual reality induces dissociation and lowers sense of presence in objective reality. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 13(4), 429–35 (2010) CrossRef
go back to reference Cummings, J., Bailenson, J.: How immersive is enough? A meta-analysis of the effect of immersive technology on user presence. Media Psychol. 19(2), 272–309 (2016) CrossRef Cummings, J., Bailenson, J.: How immersive is enough? A meta-analysis of the effect of immersive technology on user presence. Media Psychol. 19(2), 272–309 (2016) CrossRef
go back to reference Ramirez, E.: Ecological and ethical issues in virtual reality research: a call for increased scrutiny. Philos. Psychol. 32(2), 211–233 (2018a) Ramirez, E.: Ecological and ethical issues in virtual reality research: a call for increased scrutiny. Philos. Psychol. 32(2), 211–233 (2018a)
go back to reference Sunstein, C.: The ethics of nudging. Yale J. Regul. 32(2), 414–450 (2015) Sunstein, C.: The ethics of nudging. Yale J. Regul. 32(2), 414–450 (2015)
Metadata
Title
An Ethical Code for Commercial VR/AR Applications
Authors
Erick Jose Ramirez
Jocelyn Tan
Miles Elliott
Mohit Gandhi
Lia Petronio
Copyright Year
2021
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-76426-5_2

Premium Partner