Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Journal of Business Ethics 1/2022

06-10-2020 | Original Paper

An Ethical Inquiry of the Effect of Cockpit Automation on the Responsibilities of Airline Pilots: Dissonance or Meaningful Control?

Author: W. David Holford

Published in: Journal of Business Ethics | Issue 1/2022

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

Airline pilots are attributed ultimate responsibility and final authority over their aircraft to ensure the safety and well-being of all its occupants. Yet, with the advent of automation technologies, a dissonance has emerged in that pilots have lost their actual decision-making authority as well as their ability to act in an adequate fashion towards meeting their responsibilities when unexpected circumstances or emergencies occur. Across the literature in human factor studies, we show how automated algorithmic technologies have wrestled control away from airline pilots. The inter-related ethical and pragmatic consequences resulting from such a dissonance are presented. This includes pilots serving as ‘legal sponges’, being caught in ‘moral crumple zones’, as well as real impacts on safety and well-being of passengers and crew. One potential avenue presented in the literature involves a redistribution of responsibility towards all agential entities (pilots and technology) within the cockpit system. We discuss the possible pitfalls to this approach, including the reinforcement of pilot skills erosion as well as technology’s own limitations in adaptively dealing with unexpected circumstances. We justify our position by showing how algorithmic (AI) technology’s representational frames mask or severely limit the pilots’ natural reflex to ‘practically cope’ and gain an ‘optimal grip’ with a given context/situation at hand. Here, we present the concept of relevant or meaningful control, which pilots, when allowed to develop their natural brain-body reflexes, gain across gradual mastery of the aircraft. Finally, we propose a socio-technical design approach in which pilots can re-appropriate full human meaningful control of the aircraft, thus allowing them to meet their attributed responsibilities.
Literature
go back to reference Abbink, D. A., & Mulder, M. (2009). Exploring the dimensions of haptic feedback support in manual control. Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 9(1), 011006-1–011006-9. Abbink, D. A., & Mulder, M. (2009). Exploring the dimensions of haptic feedback support in manual control. Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 9(1), 011006-1–011006-9.
go back to reference Abbink, D. A., Mulder, M., & Boer, E. R. (2012). Haptic shared control: Smoothly shifting control authority? Cognition Technology and Work, 14, 19–28. Abbink, D. A., Mulder, M., & Boer, E. R. (2012). Haptic shared control: Smoothly shifting control authority? Cognition Technology and Work, 14, 19–28.
go back to reference Amalberti, R. (1998). Automation in aviation: A human factors perspective. In J. A. Wise, V. D. Hopkin, & D. J. Garland (Eds.), Handbook of aviation human factors (pp. 173–192). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Amalberti, R. (1998). Automation in aviation: A human factors perspective. In J. A. Wise, V. D. Hopkin, & D. J. Garland (Eds.), Handbook of aviation human factors (pp. 173–192). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
go back to reference Angier, T. (2010). Techné in Aristotle’s ethics: Crafting the moral life. New York: Continuum International. Angier, T. (2010). Techné in Aristotle’s ethics: Crafting the moral life. New York: Continuum International.
go back to reference Aristotle. (1955). The ethics of Aristotle (trans: Thomson, J. A. K.). Harmondsworth: Penguin. Aristotle. (1955). The ethics of Aristotle (trans: Thomson, J. A. K.). Harmondsworth: Penguin.
go back to reference Bainbridge, L. (1983). Ironies of automation. Automatica, 19, 775–779. Bainbridge, L. (1983). Ironies of automation. Automatica, 19, 775–779.
go back to reference Bailey, N., & Scerbo, M. (2008). Automation induced complacency for monitoring highly reliable systems; the role of task complexity, system experience, and operator trust. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 8(4), 321–348. Bailey, N., & Scerbo, M. (2008). Automation induced complacency for monitoring highly reliable systems; the role of task complexity, system experience, and operator trust. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 8(4), 321–348.
go back to reference Beaty, D. (1995). The naked pilot: The human factor in aircraft accidents. London: Airlife. Beaty, D. (1995). The naked pilot: The human factor in aircraft accidents. London: Airlife.
go back to reference Benton, P. A. (1995). Ethics in aviation. Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education and Research, 5(2), 22–25. Benton, P. A. (1995). Ethics in aviation. Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education and Research, 5(2), 22–25.
go back to reference Billings, C. E., Grayson, R., Hecht, W., & Curry, R. (1980). A study of midair collisions in US terminal airspace. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System: Quarterly Report No. 11 (NASA TM81225). Billings, C. E., Grayson, R., Hecht, W., & Curry, R. (1980). A study of midair collisions in US terminal airspace. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System: Quarterly Report No. 11 (NASA TM81225).
go back to reference Boden, M. A. (2010). Creativity and art: Three roads to surprise. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Boden, M. A. (2010). Creativity and art: Three roads to surprise. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Boden, M. A. (2016). AI: Its nature and future. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Boden, M. A. (2016). AI: Its nature and future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Bourdieu, P. (1994). Practical reason. Cambridge: Polity. Bourdieu, P. (1994). Practical reason. Cambridge: Polity.
go back to reference Bovens, M. (1998). The quest for responsibility. In Accountability and citizenship in complex organisations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bovens, M. (1998). The quest for responsibility. In Accountability and citizenship in complex organisations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Carr, N. (2015). The glass cage—How our computers are changing us. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. Carr, N. (2015). The glass cage—How our computers are changing us. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
go back to reference Casner, S. M., & Schooler, J. (2014). Thoughts in flight: Automation use and pilots’ task-related and task-unrelated thought. Human Factors, 56(3), 433–422. Casner, S. M., & Schooler, J. (2014). Thoughts in flight: Automation use and pilots’ task-related and task-unrelated thought. Human Factors, 56(3), 433–422.
go back to reference Chanter, T. (2001). The problematic normative assumptions of Heidegger’s ontology. In N. Holland & P. Huntington (Eds.), Feminist interpretations of Martin Heidegger. New York: Routledge. Chanter, T. (2001). The problematic normative assumptions of Heidegger’s ontology. In N. Holland & P. Huntington (Eds.), Feminist interpretations of Martin Heidegger. New York: Routledge.
go back to reference Chemero, A. (2009). Radical embodied cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Chemero, A. (2009). Radical embodied cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
go back to reference Chemero, A. (2013). Radical embodied cognitive science. Review of General Psychology, 17(2), 145–150. Chemero, A. (2013). Radical embodied cognitive science. Review of General Psychology, 17(2), 145–150.
go back to reference Clark, A. (2001). Being there: Putting the brain, body, and world together again. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Clark, A. (2001). Being there: Putting the brain, body, and world together again. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
go back to reference Coeckelbergh, M. (2009). Virtual moral agency, virtual moral responsibility. AI and Society, 24(2), 181–189. Coeckelbergh, M. (2009). Virtual moral agency, virtual moral responsibility. AI and Society, 24(2), 181–189.
go back to reference Collins, H. (2010). Tacit and explicit knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Collins, H. (2010). Tacit and explicit knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
go back to reference Cooling, J. E., & Herbers, P. V. (1983). Considerations in autopilot litigation. Journal of Air Law and Commerce, 48, 693–723. Cooling, J. E., & Herbers, P. V. (1983). Considerations in autopilot litigation. Journal of Air Law and Commerce, 48, 693–723.
go back to reference Cummings, M. L. (2006). Automation and accountability in decision support system interface design. The Journal of Technology Studies, 32(1), 23–31. Cummings, M. L. (2006). Automation and accountability in decision support system interface design. The Journal of Technology Studies, 32(1), 23–31.
go back to reference Dalcher, D. (2007). Why the pilot cannot be blamed: A cautionary note about excessive reliance on technology. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 7(3), 350–366. Dalcher, D. (2007). Why the pilot cannot be blamed: A cautionary note about excessive reliance on technology. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 7(3), 350–366.
go back to reference Dao, A.-Q., et al. (2009). The impact of automation assisted aircraft separation on situation awareness. In M. J. Smith & G. Salvendy (Eds.), Human interface, Part II, HCII 2009, LNCS 5618 (pp. 738–747). Berlin: Springer. Dao, A.-Q., et al. (2009). The impact of automation assisted aircraft separation on situation awareness. In M. J. Smith & G. Salvendy (Eds.), Human interface, Part II, HCII 2009, LNCS 5618 (pp. 738–747). Berlin: Springer.
go back to reference Dehais, F. et al. (2015). ‘Automation Surprise’ in aviation: Real-time solutions. In CHI 2015, April 18–23, Seoul, Republic of Korea (pp. 2525–2534). Dehais, F. et al. (2015). ‘Automation Surprise’ in aviation: Real-time solutions. In CHI 2015, April 18–23, Seoul, Republic of Korea (pp. 2525–2534).
go back to reference Dekker, S. (2006). The field guide to understanding human error. Burlington: Ashgate. Dekker, S. (2006). The field guide to understanding human error. Burlington: Ashgate.
go back to reference Dekker, S. (2010). Pilots, controllers and mechanics on trial: Cases, concerns and countermeasures. International Journal of Applied Aviation Studies, 10(1), 31–49. Dekker, S. (2010). Pilots, controllers and mechanics on trial: Cases, concerns and countermeasures. International Journal of Applied Aviation Studies, 10(1), 31–49.
go back to reference Dekker, S. (2011). The criminalization of human error in aviation and healthcare: A review. Safety Science, 49, 121–127. Dekker, S. (2011). The criminalization of human error in aviation and healthcare: A review. Safety Science, 49, 121–127.
go back to reference Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT/CAES. Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT/CAES.
go back to reference Doherty, G., & Massink, M. (1999). Continuous interaction and human control. In J. Alty (Ed), Proceedings of the XVIII European annual conference on human decision making and manual control (pp. 80–96). Doherty, G., & Massink, M. (1999). Continuous interaction and human control. In J. Alty (Ed), Proceedings of the XVIII European annual conference on human decision making and manual control (pp. 80–96).
go back to reference Dreyfus, H. L. (1972). What computers can’t do. New York, NY: MIT Press. Dreyfus, H. L. (1972). What computers can’t do. New York, NY: MIT Press.
go back to reference Dreyfus, H. L. (1991). Being-in-the-world: A commentary on Heidegger’s being and time. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Dreyfus, H. L. (1991). Being-in-the-world: A commentary on Heidegger’s being and time. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
go back to reference Dreyfus, H. L. (1992). What computers still can’t do: A critique of artificial reason. London: MIT Press. Dreyfus, H. L. (1992). What computers still can’t do: A critique of artificial reason. London: MIT Press.
go back to reference Dreyfus, H. L. (2002). Refocusing the question: can there be skillful coping without propositional representations or brain representations? Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 1, 413–425. Dreyfus, H. L. (2002). Refocusing the question: can there be skillful coping without propositional representations or brain representations? Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 1, 413–425.
go back to reference Dreyfus, H. L. (2007). Why Heideggerian AI failed and how fixing it would require making it more Heidegerrian. Artificial Intelligence, 171(18), 1137–1160. Dreyfus, H. L. (2007). Why Heideggerian AI failed and how fixing it would require making it more Heidegerrian. Artificial Intelligence, 171(18), 1137–1160.
go back to reference Dreyfus, H. L. (2014). Skillful coping: Essays on the phenomenology of everyday perception and action. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dreyfus, H. L. (2014). Skillful coping: Essays on the phenomenology of everyday perception and action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Dreyfus, H. L., & Dreyfus, S. E. (1980). A five-stage model of the mental activities involved in directed skill acquisition. ORC-80-2, AD-A084551. Berkeley, CA: US Air Force Operations Research Center, University of California. Dreyfus, H. L., & Dreyfus, S. E. (1980). A five-stage model of the mental activities involved in directed skill acquisition. ORC-80-2, AD-A084551. Berkeley, CA: US Air Force Operations Research Center, University of California.
go back to reference Dreyfus, H. L., & Dreyfus, S. E. (1986). Mind over machine. New York: The Free Press. Dreyfus, H. L., & Dreyfus, S. E. (1986). Mind over machine. New York: The Free Press.
go back to reference Dreyfus, H. L., & Dreyfus, S. E. (2005). Peripheral vision expertise in real world contexts. Organization Studies, 26(5), 779–792. Dreyfus, H. L., & Dreyfus, S. E. (2005). Peripheral vision expertise in real world contexts. Organization Studies, 26(5), 779–792.
go back to reference Dreyfus, H. L., & Kreisler, H. (2005). Meaning, relevance and the limits of technology—Conversation with H.L. Dreyfus. Conversations with History. Institute of International Studies, UC Berkeley. Dreyfus, H. L., & Kreisler, H. (2005). Meaning, relevance and the limits of technology—Conversation with H.L. Dreyfus. Conversations with History. Institute of International Studies, UC Berkeley.
go back to reference Dubnick, M. (2003). Accountability and ethics: Reconsidering the relationships. International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, 6(3), 405–441. Dubnick, M. (2003). Accountability and ethics: Reconsidering the relationships. International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, 6(3), 405–441.
go back to reference Elish, M. C. (2019). Moral crumple zones: Cautionary tales in human–robot interaction. Engaging Science, Technology, and Society, 5, 40–60. Elish, M. C. (2019). Moral crumple zones: Cautionary tales in human–robot interaction. Engaging Science, Technology, and Society, 5, 40–60.
go back to reference Esfeld, M. (2000). Aristotle’s direct realism in “De Anima”. The Review of Metaphysics, 54(2), 321–336. Esfeld, M. (2000). Aristotle’s direct realism in “De Anima”. The Review of Metaphysics, 54(2), 321–336.
go back to reference Flyvbjerg, B. (2001). Making social science matter: Why social enquiry fails and how it can succeed again. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Flyvbjerg, B. (2001). Making social science matter: Why social enquiry fails and how it can succeed again. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Foushee, H. C. (1982). The role of communications, socio-psychological and personality factors in the maintenance of crew coordination. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 53(11), 1062–1066. Foushee, H. C. (1982). The role of communications, socio-psychological and personality factors in the maintenance of crew coordination. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 53(11), 1062–1066.
go back to reference Fischer, J. M., & Ravizza, M. S. J. (1998). Responsibility and control. A theory of moral responsibility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fischer, J. M., & Ravizza, M. S. J. (1998). Responsibility and control. A theory of moral responsibility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Jeannot, E., Kelly, C., & Thompson, D. (2003). The development of situation awareness measures in ATM systems. European Air Traffic Management Programme HRS/HSP-005-REP-01. Jeannot, E., Kelly, C., & Thompson, D. (2003). The development of situation awareness measures in ATM systems. European Air Traffic Management Programme HRS/HSP-005-REP-01.
go back to reference Flemisch, F., et al. (2012). Towards a dynamic balance between humans and automation: Authority, ability, responsibility and control in shared and cooperative control situations. Cognition, Technology and Work, 14, 3–18. Flemisch, F., et al. (2012). Towards a dynamic balance between humans and automation: Authority, ability, responsibility and control in shared and cooperative control situations. Cognition, Technology and Work, 14, 3–18.
go back to reference Freeman, W. J. (1991). The physiology of perception. Scientific American, 264, 78–85. Freeman, W. J. (1991). The physiology of perception. Scientific American, 264, 78–85.
go back to reference Gaffary, Y., & Lécuyer, A. (2018). The use of haptic and tactile information in the car to improve driving safety: A review of current technologies. Frontiers in ICT, 5(5), 1–11. Gaffary, Y., & Lécuyer, A. (2018). The use of haptic and tactile information in the car to improve driving safety: A review of current technologies. Frontiers in ICT, 5(5), 1–11.
go back to reference Gallagher, S. (2009). The philosophical antecedents of situated cognition. In P. Robbins & M. Aydede (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of situated cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gallagher, S. (2009). The philosophical antecedents of situated cognition. In P. Robbins & M. Aydede (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of situated cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Gawron, V. (2019). Automation in aviation accident analyses. Center for Advanced Aviation System Development: MITRE Technical Report MTR190013. The MITRE Corporation. Gawron, V. (2019). Automation in aviation accident analyses. Center for Advanced Aviation System Development: MITRE Technical Report MTR190013. The MITRE Corporation.
go back to reference German, E. S., & Rhodes, D. H. (2016). Human-model interactivity: What can be learned from the experience of pilots with the glass cockpit? In Conference on systems engineering research. German, E. S., & Rhodes, D. H. (2016). Human-model interactivity: What can be learned from the experience of pilots with the glass cockpit? In Conference on systems engineering research.
go back to reference Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Reading, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Reading, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
go back to reference Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press. Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.
go back to reference Gigerenzer, G., Hoffrage, U., & Kleinbölting, H. (1991). Probabilistic mental models: A Brunswickian theory of confidence. Psychological Review, 98, 506–528. Gigerenzer, G., Hoffrage, U., & Kleinbölting, H. (1991). Probabilistic mental models: A Brunswickian theory of confidence. Psychological Review, 98, 506–528.
go back to reference Glasziou, P., Moynihan, R., Richards, T., & Godlee, F. (2013). Too much medicine; too little care. BMJ, 347, f4247. Glasziou, P., Moynihan, R., Richards, T., & Godlee, F. (2013). Too much medicine; too little care. BMJ, 347, f4247.
go back to reference Greenhalgh, T., Howick, J., & Maskrey, N. (2014). Evidence based medicine: A movement in crisis? BMJ, 348, g3725. Greenhalgh, T., Howick, J., & Maskrey, N. (2014). Evidence based medicine: A movement in crisis? BMJ, 348, g3725.
go back to reference Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and time. New York: Harper and Row. Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and time. New York: Harper and Row.
go back to reference Heidegger, M. (1997). Plato’s sophist (trans: Rojcewicz, R., and Schuwer, A.). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Heidegger, M. (1997). Plato’s sophist (trans: Rojcewicz, R., and Schuwer, A.). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
go back to reference Hicks, N. M., Bumbaco, A. E., & Douglas, E. P. (2014). Critical thinking, reflective practice, and adaptive expertise in engineering. In: Conference proceedings—121st ASEE annual conference and exposition, Indianapolis, IN. Hicks, N. M., Bumbaco, A. E., & Douglas, E. P. (2014). Critical thinking, reflective practice, and adaptive expertise in engineering. In: Conference proceedings—121st ASEE annual conference and exposition, Indianapolis, IN.
go back to reference Holden, R. J. (2009). People or systems? To blame is human. The fix is to engineer. Professional Safety, 54(12), 34–41. Holden, R. J. (2009). People or systems? To blame is human. The fix is to engineer. Professional Safety, 54(12), 34–41.
go back to reference Hubbard, T., & Bor, R. (2012). Aviation mental health: Psychological implications for air transportation. Hampshire: Ashgate. Hubbard, T., & Bor, R. (2012). Aviation mental health: Psychological implications for air transportation. Hampshire: Ashgate.
go back to reference IATA. (2020). Command Training, Guidance Material and Best Practices, Edition 1. International Air Transport Association. ISBN 978-92-9229-976-7. IATA. (2020). Command Training, Guidance Material and Best Practices, Edition 1. International Air Transport Association. ISBN 978-92-9229-976-7.
go back to reference Kallinikos, J., Leonardi, P. M., & Nardi, B. A. (2012). The challenge of materiality: Origins, scope, and prospects. In P. Leonardi, B. Nardi, & J. Kalliniko (Eds.), Materiality and organizing: Social interaction in a technological world (pp. 1–22). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kallinikos, J., Leonardi, P. M., & Nardi, B. A. (2012). The challenge of materiality: Origins, scope, and prospects. In P. Leonardi, B. Nardi, & J. Kalliniko (Eds.), Materiality and organizing: Social interaction in a technological world (pp. 1–22). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Matthias, A. (2004). The responsibility gap: Ascribing responsibility for the actions of learning automata. Ethics and Information Technology, 6, 175–183. Matthias, A. (2004). The responsibility gap: Ascribing responsibility for the actions of learning automata. Ethics and Information Technology, 6, 175–183.
go back to reference McBride, S. E., Rogers, W. E., & Fisk, A. D. (2014). Understanding human management of automation errors. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Sciences, 15(6), 545–577. McBride, S. E., Rogers, W. E., & Fisk, A. D. (2014). Understanding human management of automation errors. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Sciences, 15(6), 545–577.
go back to reference McKenna, M. (2008). Putting the lie on the control condition for moral responsibility. Philosophical Studies, 139(1), 29–37. McKenna, M. (2008). Putting the lie on the control condition for moral responsibility. Philosophical Studies, 139(1), 29–37.
go back to reference Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). Phenomenology of perception (trans: Smith, C.). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). Phenomenology of perception (trans: Smith, C.). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
go back to reference Meshkati, N., & Khashe, Y. (2015). Operators’ improvisation in complex technological systems: Successfully tackling ambiguity, enhancing resiliency and the last resort to averting disaster. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 23(2), 90–96. Meshkati, N., & Khashe, Y. (2015). Operators’ improvisation in complex technological systems: Successfully tackling ambiguity, enhancing resiliency and the last resort to averting disaster. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 23(2), 90–96.
go back to reference Michaelides-Mateou, S., & Mateou, A. (2010). Flying in the face of criminalization. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Co. Michaelides-Mateou, S., & Mateou, A. (2010). Flying in the face of criminalization. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Co.
go back to reference Miller, C., & Parasuraman, R. (2007). Designing for flexible interaction between humans and automation: Delegation interfaces for supervisory control. Human Factors, 49, 57–75. Miller, C., & Parasuraman, R. (2007). Designing for flexible interaction between humans and automation: Delegation interfaces for supervisory control. Human Factors, 49, 57–75.
go back to reference Mosier, K. L., & Skitka, L. J. (1996). Human decision makers and automated decision aids: Made for each other? In R. Parasuraman & M. Mouloua (Eds.), Automation and human performance: Theory and applications (pp. 201–220). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Mosier, K. L., & Skitka, L. J. (1996). Human decision makers and automated decision aids: Made for each other? In R. Parasuraman & M. Mouloua (Eds.), Automation and human performance: Theory and applications (pp. 201–220). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
go back to reference Mosier, K. L., Skitka, L. J., Heers, S., & Burdick, M. D. (1998). Automation bias: Decision making and performance in high-tech cockpits. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 8(1), 47–63. Mosier, K. L., Skitka, L. J., Heers, S., & Burdick, M. D. (1998). Automation bias: Decision making and performance in high-tech cockpits. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 8(1), 47–63.
go back to reference North, D. M. (2002). Oil and water, cats and dogs. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 156(5), 70–70. North, D. M. (2002). Oil and water, cats and dogs. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 156(5), 70–70.
go back to reference Oliver, N., Calvard, T., & Potocnik, K. (2017). Cognition, technology and organizational limits: Lessons from the Air France 447 disaster. Organization Science, 28(4), 597–780. Oliver, N., Calvard, T., & Potocnik, K. (2017). Cognition, technology and organizational limits: Lessons from the Air France 447 disaster. Organization Science, 28(4), 597–780.
go back to reference Parasuraman, R., & Riley, V. (1997). Humans and automation: Use, misuse, disuse, abuse. Human Factors, 39(2), 230–253. Parasuraman, R., & Riley, V. (1997). Humans and automation: Use, misuse, disuse, abuse. Human Factors, 39(2), 230–253.
go back to reference Parasuraman, R., Sheridan, T. B., & Wickens, C. D. (2000). A model for types and levels of human interaction with automation. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 30(3), 286–297. Parasuraman, R., Sheridan, T. B., & Wickens, C. D. (2000). A model for types and levels of human interaction with automation. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 30(3), 286–297.
go back to reference Parasuraman, R., & Manzey, D. H. (2010). Complacency and bias in human use of automation: An attentional integration. Human Factors, 52(3), 381–410. Parasuraman, R., & Manzey, D. H. (2010). Complacency and bias in human use of automation: An attentional integration. Human Factors, 52(3), 381–410.
go back to reference Reuter, M. (1999). Merleau-Ponty’s notion of pre-reflective intentionality. Synthese, 118(1), 69–88. Reuter, M. (1999). Merleau-Ponty’s notion of pre-reflective intentionality. Synthese, 118(1), 69–88.
go back to reference Roe, E., & Schulman, P. R. (2008). High reliability management: Operating on the edge. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. Roe, E., & Schulman, P. R. (2008). High reliability management: Operating on the edge. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
go back to reference Sackett, D. L., Rosenberg, W. M., Gray, J. A., Haynes, R. B., & Richardson, W. S. (1996). Evidence based medicine: What it is and what it isn’t. BMJ, 312, 71–72. Sackett, D. L., Rosenberg, W. M., Gray, J. A., Haynes, R. B., & Richardson, W. S. (1996). Evidence based medicine: What it is and what it isn’t. BMJ, 312, 71–72.
go back to reference Santonio de Sio, F., & van den Hoven, J. (2018). Meaningful human control over autonomous systems: A philosophical account. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 5(15), 1–14. Santonio de Sio, F., & van den Hoven, J. (2018). Meaningful human control over autonomous systems: A philosophical account. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 5(15), 1–14.
go back to reference Sarter, N. B., & Woods, D. D. (1994). Decomposing automation: Autonomy, authority, observability and perceived animacy. In M. Mouloua & R. Parasuraman (Eds.), Human performance in automated systems: current research and trends (pp. 22–27). Hilldale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Sarter, N. B., & Woods, D. D. (1994). Decomposing automation: Autonomy, authority, observability and perceived animacy. In M. Mouloua & R. Parasuraman (Eds.), Human performance in automated systems: current research and trends (pp. 22–27). Hilldale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Sarter, N. B., Woods, D. D., & Billings, C. E. (1997). Automation surprises. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley. Sarter, N. B., Woods, D. D., & Billings, C. E. (1997). Automation surprises. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Sayer, A. (2011). Why things matter to people: Social science, values and ethical life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sayer, A. (2011). Why things matter to people: Social science, values and ethical life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Schultz, T. P. (2018). The problem with pilots: How physicians, engineers and airpower enthusiasts redefined flight. Baltimore, MA: John Hopkins University Press. Schultz, T. P. (2018). The problem with pilots: How physicians, engineers and airpower enthusiasts redefined flight. Baltimore, MA: John Hopkins University Press.
go back to reference Schwartz, D., Fischhoff, B., Krishnamurti, T., & Sowell, F. (2013). The Hawthorne effect and energy awareness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, 110, 15242–15246. Schwartz, D., Fischhoff, B., Krishnamurti, T., & Sowell, F. (2013). The Hawthorne effect and energy awareness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, 110, 15242–15246.
go back to reference Schwartzman, H. B. (1993). Ethnography in organizations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Schwartzman, H. B. (1993). Ethnography in organizations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
go back to reference Skitka, L. J., Mosier, K. L., & Burdick, M. D. (2000). Accountability and automation bias. International Journal of Human–Computer Studies, 2000, 701–717. Skitka, L. J., Mosier, K. L., & Burdick, M. D. (2000). Accountability and automation bias. International Journal of Human–Computer Studies, 2000, 701–717.
go back to reference Stoffregen, T. A. (2003). Affordances as properties of the animal–environment system. Ecological Psychology, 15(2), 115–134. Stoffregen, T. A. (2003). Affordances as properties of the animal–environment system. Ecological Psychology, 15(2), 115–134.
go back to reference Strauch, B. (2017). The automation-by-expertise-by-training interaction: Why automation-related accidents continue to occur in sociotechnical systems. Human Factors, 59(2), 204–228. Strauch, B. (2017). The automation-by-expertise-by-training interaction: Why automation-related accidents continue to occur in sociotechnical systems. Human Factors, 59(2), 204–228.
go back to reference Timmermans, S., & Berg, M. (2003). The gold standard: The challenge of evidence-based medicine and standardization in health care. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Timmermans, S., & Berg, M. (2003). The gold standard: The challenge of evidence-based medicine and standardization in health care. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
go back to reference Ward, P., Gore, J., Hutton, R., Conway, G., & Hoffman, R. (2018). Adaptive skill as the conditio sine qua non of expertise. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 7(1), 35–50. Ward, P., Gore, J., Hutton, R., Conway, G., & Hoffman, R. (2018). Adaptive skill as the conditio sine qua non of expertise. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 7(1), 35–50.
go back to reference Wickens, C. D., Li, H., Santamaria, A., Sebok, A., & Sarter, N. B. (2010). Stages and levels of automation: An integrated meta-analysis. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th annual meeting (pp. 389–393). Wickens, C. D., Li, H., Santamaria, A., Sebok, A., & Sarter, N. B. (2010). Stages and levels of automation: An integrated meta-analysis. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th annual meeting (pp. 389–393).
go back to reference Young, J. (2000). What is dwelling? The homelessness of Modernity and the worlding of the world. In M. Wrathall & J. Mapas (Eds.), Heidegger, authenticity and modernity: Essays in Honor of H.L. Dreyfus (Vol. 1, pp. 187–204). London: MIT Press. Young, J. (2000). What is dwelling? The homelessness of Modernity and the worlding of the world. In M. Wrathall & J. Mapas (Eds.), Heidegger, authenticity and modernity: Essays in Honor of H.L. Dreyfus (Vol. 1, pp. 187–204). London: MIT Press.
Metadata
Title
An Ethical Inquiry of the Effect of Cockpit Automation on the Responsibilities of Airline Pilots: Dissonance or Meaningful Control?
Author
W. David Holford
Publication date
06-10-2020
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
Journal of Business Ethics / Issue 1/2022
Print ISSN: 0167-4544
Electronic ISSN: 1573-0697
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04640-z

Other articles of this Issue 1/2022

Journal of Business Ethics 1/2022 Go to the issue

Premium Partner