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The present doctoral dissertation contributes to the analysis of glass panels subjected to blast load, concentrating on monolithic and laminated glass prior to glass fracture. A straightforward graphical solution for monolithic glass is presented to identify maximum deformation and maximum principal stress for small and large deformations for static and idealized blast load without software. On the basis of experimental tests, load duration factors kmod for impact and blast load design for annealed glass, heat strengthened glass and fully tempered glass are proposed. In addition, design strength values for impact and blast design based on the European and German standards are suggested. As a result, blast pressure capacity charts for monolithic fully tempered glass plates subjected to idealized blast load are presented. Moreover, design temperatures of interlayer in blast design situation based on empirical data in accordance with Eurocode are determined for vertical double glazed and triple glazed units for Germany, showing that laminated glass should not be regarded with monolithic glass approach in general.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Explosions and their effects on military structures (bunkers, depots) have been part of military research for many decades. Resulting design criteria for these structures, whether publicly available at all, comprise only highly limited applicability in civil window and façade design from architectural point of view. During Cold War a research contribution to a certain extent was publicly available on the subject of the resistance of structures to atomic blast, e.g. Newmark (1953), Norris et al. (1959) and Iverson (1968).
Matthias Förch

Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Explosions

Abstract
„An explosion is a sudden physical or chemical change of the state of mass, accompanied by a release of energy and by motion“ (Henrych, 1979, p.81). As can be expected, the intensity of an explosion is rising with increasing energy release, meaning that potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy (Pokrowski, 1985, p.17). Physical explosions (e.g. nuclear explosions, volcanic eruptions or bursts of pressure vessels) and chemical explosions, where a chemical reaction of a material under heat development takes place, are distinguished (Zukas, 1998, pp.26-27).
Matthias Förch

Chapter 3. Blast Effects on Buildings

Abstract
The explosion process described in Chapter 2 assumes spherical blast wave propagation in the surrounding medium air. In reality, terrorist bomb attacks are usually committed with hand-carried satchel bombs or vehicle bombs, exploding directly or nearby ground surface. The ground surface prevents the blast wave from a spherical propagation, so it is reflected and forced to propagate hemispherical.
Matthias Förch

Chapter 4. Analysis of SDOF Systems Subjected to Idealized Blast Load

Abstract
This chapter is intended to explain basic dynamic principles of single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems with respect to idealized blast load. Subsequent chapters, especially Chapter 5, where SDOF principles are transferred to monolithic plates, are based on the rigorous solution presented in Chapter 4.2.6, that is summarized in Figure 4.9.
Matthias Förch

Chapter 5. Analysis of Monolithic Glass Plates Subjected to Idealized Blast Load

Abstract
State of the art regarding the dynamic analysis of monolithic plates in general is, that FEM based software is utilized to obtain results for such or similar dynamic investigations. However, a major problem of this kind of method is that transient calculations are time consuming, presuming that appropriate software and knowledge about dynamic problems are available at all. There are design charts or formulas for static analysis of rectangular monolithic glass plates under constant distributed load available in Moore (1980, fig.4,7), Sedlacek et al.
Matthias Förch

Chapter 6. Glass Strength for Impact and Blast Load

Abstract
Strain rate dependency of glass strength is well known in structural glass design (Mould and Southwick, 1959; Marsh, 1964; Brown, 1972; Menčík, 1992, p.83; Lawn, 1993, p.277) and implemented in standards like DIN 18008-1 (2010), DIN 18008-4 (2013), E DIN EN 16612 (2013) and ASTM E1300-16 (2016). Glass strength tests under soft impact load are presented for different glass build-ups in Schneider (2001, p.183) and monolithic glass in Kuntsche (2015, p.236). König (2012) focusses on experimental tension tests of annealed glass specimens under different strain rates with surface condition as delivered.
Matthias Förch

Chapter 7. Blast Pressure Capacity of Glass Plates

Abstract
This chapter completes the information required to determine the blast pressure capacity for glass plates.
Matthias Förch

Chapter 8. Laminated Glass Subjected to Blast Load

Abstract
Objective of this chapter is the investigation of laminated glass subjected to blast load prior to glass fracture.
Matthias Förch

Chapter 9. Summary and Conclusions

Abstract
Analysis of glass plates subjected to blast load requires transient solutions, comprising geometrical nonlinear approach in most cases. In general, FEM software is used to analyze such dynamic challenges. This kind of application is time consuming, presuming that appropriate software and knowledge is available at all.
Matthias Förch

Backmatter

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