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Published in: Group Decision and Negotiation 2/2019

09-01-2019

Are You Angry (Happy, Sad) or Aren’t You? Emotion Detection Difficulty in Email Negotiation

Authors: Christoph Laubert, Jennifer Parlamis

Published in: Group Decision and Negotiation | Issue 2/2019

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Abstract

This research investigates consistency of emotion detection in email negotiations. Conveying and detecting emotions in negotiation is important because emotions can function strategically. Therefore, this research systematically explores in four separate studies how consistently individuals detect discrete emotions in text-based (email) negotiations. Study 1 compared the ratings from two coders using a high quantity of thought units (n = 1317) and a negative bargaining zone negotiation scenario. In studies 2 and 3, three different negotiation scenarios were explored, first on a thought unit level and then on a message unit level using a hierarchical emotion coding scheme. In all three studies, coders’ perceptions were also compared with the text analysis program LIWC. Study 4 compared coding from seven of the actual negotiators with that of an independent coder and a computerized text program. All four studies found low emotion recognition consistency across 14 different coders with only one negotiation scenario in study 3 showing a moderate level of consistency. Comparisons of computerized coding with human coders did not show improved agreement. High amounts of contrary coding by independent coders were also found. Our research makes an important contribution to the literature by challenging the common assumption that emotions can be reliably detected in email negotiation. Factors that might influence more consistent emotion recognition and conveyance as well as implications for practice and future research are discussed.

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Appendix
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Footnotes
1
Interestingly, research about decoding of discrete emotions with face or voice stimuli has been conducted (e.g., see Hawk et al. 2009).
 
2
We used Cohen’s kappa as done by other researchers in a negotiation context (Brett et al. 2007; Koeszegi et al. 2011; Pesendorfer and Koeszegi 2006). We also calculated Krippendorff’s alpha and found similar results. The evaluation of Cohen’s kappa is not fixed defined. For the rest of the paper, we will use Landis & Koch (1977) benchmark scale, because it is widely applied (Gwet 2014) and is the most detailed one with its six value ranges.
 
3
We trained new research assistant coders for each new study as a way to begin to account for the possible explanation that low consistency could be due to idiosyncratic mismatch of coders. While still recognizing the limitations of the small sample of coders, we attempt to marginally address this limitation with new coders for each study and then in our final study increasing our coders to eight total.
 
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Metadata
Title
Are You Angry (Happy, Sad) or Aren’t You? Emotion Detection Difficulty in Email Negotiation
Authors
Christoph Laubert
Jennifer Parlamis
Publication date
09-01-2019
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
Group Decision and Negotiation / Issue 2/2019
Print ISSN: 0926-2644
Electronic ISSN: 1572-9907
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10726-018-09611-4

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