Skip to main content
Top
Published in: Group Decision and Negotiation 2/2019

09-01-2019

Are You Angry (Happy, Sad) or Aren’t You? Emotion Detection Difficulty in Email Negotiation

Authors: Christoph Laubert, Jennifer Parlamis

Published in: Group Decision and Negotiation | Issue 2/2019

Log in

Activate our intelligent search to find suitable subject content or patents.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

This research investigates consistency of emotion detection in email negotiations. Conveying and detecting emotions in negotiation is important because emotions can function strategically. Therefore, this research systematically explores in four separate studies how consistently individuals detect discrete emotions in text-based (email) negotiations. Study 1 compared the ratings from two coders using a high quantity of thought units (n = 1317) and a negative bargaining zone negotiation scenario. In studies 2 and 3, three different negotiation scenarios were explored, first on a thought unit level and then on a message unit level using a hierarchical emotion coding scheme. In all three studies, coders’ perceptions were also compared with the text analysis program LIWC. Study 4 compared coding from seven of the actual negotiators with that of an independent coder and a computerized text program. All four studies found low emotion recognition consistency across 14 different coders with only one negotiation scenario in study 3 showing a moderate level of consistency. Comparisons of computerized coding with human coders did not show improved agreement. High amounts of contrary coding by independent coders were also found. Our research makes an important contribution to the literature by challenging the common assumption that emotions can be reliably detected in email negotiation. Factors that might influence more consistent emotion recognition and conveyance as well as implications for practice and future research are discussed.

Dont have a licence yet? Then find out more about our products and how to get one now:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Footnotes
1
Interestingly, research about decoding of discrete emotions with face or voice stimuli has been conducted (e.g., see Hawk et al. 2009).
 
2
We used Cohen’s kappa as done by other researchers in a negotiation context (Brett et al. 2007; Koeszegi et al. 2011; Pesendorfer and Koeszegi 2006). We also calculated Krippendorff’s alpha and found similar results. The evaluation of Cohen’s kappa is not fixed defined. For the rest of the paper, we will use Landis & Koch (1977) benchmark scale, because it is widely applied (Gwet 2014) and is the most detailed one with its six value ranges.
 
3
We trained new research assistant coders for each new study as a way to begin to account for the possible explanation that low consistency could be due to idiosyncratic mismatch of coders. While still recognizing the limitations of the small sample of coders, we attempt to marginally address this limitation with new coders for each study and then in our final study increasing our coders to eight total.
 
Literature
go back to reference Allred KG, Mallozzi JS, Matsui F, Raia CP (1997) The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance. Organ Behav Hum Dec Process 70(3):175–187CrossRef Allred KG, Mallozzi JS, Matsui F, Raia CP (1997) The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance. Organ Behav Hum Dec Process 70(3):175–187CrossRef
go back to reference Barry B, Oliver RL (1996) Affect in dyadic negotiation: a model and propositions. Organ Behav Hum Dec Process 67(2):127–143CrossRef Barry B, Oliver RL (1996) Affect in dyadic negotiation: a model and propositions. Organ Behav Hum Dec Process 67(2):127–143CrossRef
go back to reference Barry B, Fulmer IS, Van Kleef GA (2004) I laughed, I cried, I settled: the role of emotion in negotiation. The handbook of negotiation and culture, pp 71–94 Barry B, Fulmer IS, Van Kleef GA (2004) I laughed, I cried, I settled: the role of emotion in negotiation. The handbook of negotiation and culture, pp 71–94
go back to reference Bazerman MH, Curhan JR, Moore DA, Valley KL (2000) Negotiation. Annu Rev Psychol 51(1):279–314CrossRef Bazerman MH, Curhan JR, Moore DA, Valley KL (2000) Negotiation. Annu Rev Psychol 51(1):279–314CrossRef
go back to reference Benoit K, Conway D, Laver M, Mikhaylov S (2012). Crowd-sourced data coding for the social sciences: massive non-expert human coding of political texts. In: Presentation at the 3rd annual new directions in analyzing text as data conference, Harvard University Benoit K, Conway D, Laver M, Mikhaylov S (2012). Crowd-sourced data coding for the social sciences: massive non-expert human coding of political texts. In: Presentation at the 3rd annual new directions in analyzing text as data conference, Harvard University
go back to reference Brett JM, Olekalns M, Friedman R, Goates N, Anderson C, Lisco CC (2007) Sticks and stones: language, face, and online dispute resolution. Acad Manage J 50(1):85–99CrossRef Brett JM, Olekalns M, Friedman R, Goates N, Anderson C, Lisco CC (2007) Sticks and stones: language, face, and online dispute resolution. Acad Manage J 50(1):85–99CrossRef
go back to reference Byron K (2007) Male and female managers’ ability to read emotions: relationships with supervisor’s performance ratings and subordinates’ satisfaction ratings. J Occup Organ Psychol 80(4):713–733CrossRef Byron K (2007) Male and female managers’ ability to read emotions: relationships with supervisor’s performance ratings and subordinates’ satisfaction ratings. J Occup Organ Psychol 80(4):713–733CrossRef
go back to reference Byron K (2008) Carrying too heavy a load? The communication and miscommunication of emotion by email. Acad Manage Rev 33(2):309CrossRef Byron K (2008) Carrying too heavy a load? The communication and miscommunication of emotion by email. Acad Manage Rev 33(2):309CrossRef
go back to reference Byron K, Baldridge DC (2005) Toward a model of nonverbal cues and emotion in email. In: Academy of management proceedings, vol 2005, No. 1, pp B1–B6. Academy of Management Byron K, Baldridge DC (2005) Toward a model of nonverbal cues and emotion in email. In: Academy of management proceedings, vol 2005, No. 1, pp B1–B6. Academy of Management
go back to reference Calvo RA, Mac Kim S (2013) Emotions in text: dimensional and categorical models. Comput Intell 29(3):527–543CrossRef Calvo RA, Mac Kim S (2013) Emotions in text: dimensional and categorical models. Comput Intell 29(3):527–543CrossRef
go back to reference Cheshin A, Rafaeli A, Bos N (2011) Anger and happiness in virtual teams: emotional influences of text and behavior on others’ affect in the absence of non-verbal cues. Organ Behav Hum Dec Process 116(1):2–16CrossRef Cheshin A, Rafaeli A, Bos N (2011) Anger and happiness in virtual teams: emotional influences of text and behavior on others’ affect in the absence of non-verbal cues. Organ Behav Hum Dec Process 116(1):2–16CrossRef
go back to reference Derks D, Fischer AH, Bos AE (2008) The role of emotion in computer-mediated communication: a review. Comput Hum Behav 24(3):766–785CrossRef Derks D, Fischer AH, Bos AE (2008) The role of emotion in computer-mediated communication: a review. Comput Hum Behav 24(3):766–785CrossRef
go back to reference Druckman D, Olekalns M (2008) Emotions in negotiation. Group Decis Negot 17(1):1–11CrossRef Druckman D, Olekalns M (2008) Emotions in negotiation. Group Decis Negot 17(1):1–11CrossRef
go back to reference Ebner N (2011) Negotiating Via Email. In: Benoliel M (ed) Negotiation excellence: successful deal making. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, pp 397–415CrossRef Ebner N (2011) Negotiating Via Email. In: Benoliel M (ed) Negotiation excellence: successful deal making. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, pp 397–415CrossRef
go back to reference Elfenbein HA, Ambady N (2002) On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 128(2):203CrossRef Elfenbein HA, Ambady N (2002) On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 128(2):203CrossRef
go back to reference Elfenbein HA, Der Foo M, White J, Tan HH, Aik VC (2007) Reading your counterpart: the benefit of emotion recognition accuracy for effectiveness in negotiation. J Nonverbal Behav 31(4):205–223CrossRef Elfenbein HA, Der Foo M, White J, Tan HH, Aik VC (2007) Reading your counterpart: the benefit of emotion recognition accuracy for effectiveness in negotiation. J Nonverbal Behav 31(4):205–223CrossRef
go back to reference Filzmoser M, Hippmann P, Vetschera R (2016) analyzing the multiple dimensions of negotiation processes. Group Decis Negot 25(6):1169–1188CrossRef Filzmoser M, Hippmann P, Vetschera R (2016) analyzing the multiple dimensions of negotiation processes. Group Decis Negot 25(6):1169–1188CrossRef
go back to reference Fleiss JL (1981) Statistical methods for rates and proportions, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York Fleiss JL (1981) Statistical methods for rates and proportions, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York
go back to reference Folger J, Hewes DE, Poole MS (1984) Coding social interaction. In: Dervin B, Voigt M (eds) Progress in communication sciences. ABLEX, Norwood, pp 115–161 Folger J, Hewes DE, Poole MS (1984) Coding social interaction. In: Dervin B, Voigt M (eds) Progress in communication sciences. ABLEX, Norwood, pp 115–161
go back to reference Friedman RA, Currall SC (2003) Conflict escalation: dispute exacerbating elements of e-mail communication. Hum Relat 56(11):1325–1347CrossRef Friedman RA, Currall SC (2003) Conflict escalation: dispute exacerbating elements of e-mail communication. Hum Relat 56(11):1325–1347CrossRef
go back to reference Friedman R, Anderson C, Brett J, Olekalns M, Goates N, Lisco CC (2004) The positive and negative effects of anger on dispute resolution: evidence from electronically mediated disputes. J Appl Psychol 89(2):369–376CrossRef Friedman R, Anderson C, Brett J, Olekalns M, Goates N, Lisco CC (2004) The positive and negative effects of anger on dispute resolution: evidence from electronically mediated disputes. J Appl Psychol 89(2):369–376CrossRef
go back to reference Geiger I, Parlamis J (2014) Is there more to email negotiation than email? The role of email affinity. Computer Hum Behav 32:67–78CrossRef Geiger I, Parlamis J (2014) Is there more to email negotiation than email? The role of email affinity. Computer Hum Behav 32:67–78CrossRef
go back to reference Ghazi D, Inkpen D, Szpakowicz S (2010) Hierarchical versus flat classification of emotions in text. In: Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010, Association for computational linguistics, pp 140–146 Ghazi D, Inkpen D, Szpakowicz S (2010) Hierarchical versus flat classification of emotions in text. In: Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010, Association for computational linguistics, pp 140–146
go back to reference Glikson E, Cheshin A, Kleef GAV (2018) The dark side of a smiley: effects of smiling emoticons on virtual first impressions. Soc Psychol Personal Sci 9(5):614–625CrossRef Glikson E, Cheshin A, Kleef GAV (2018) The dark side of a smiley: effects of smiling emoticons on virtual first impressions. Soc Psychol Personal Sci 9(5):614–625CrossRef
go back to reference Green AM (1997) Kappa statistics for multiple raters using categorical classifications. Proc 22nd Annu SAS User Group Int Conf 2(3): 4 Green AM (1997) Kappa statistics for multiple raters using categorical classifications. Proc 22nd Annu SAS User Group Int Conf 2(3): 4
go back to reference Griessmair M, Koeszegi ST (2009) Exploring the cognitive-emotional fugue in electronic negotiations. Group Decis Negot 18(3):213–234CrossRef Griessmair M, Koeszegi ST (2009) Exploring the cognitive-emotional fugue in electronic negotiations. Group Decis Negot 18(3):213–234CrossRef
go back to reference Griessmair M, Hippmann P, Gettinger J (2015) Emotions in e-negotiations. In: Emotion in group decision and negotiation, Springer Netherlands, pp 101–135 Griessmair M, Hippmann P, Gettinger J (2015) Emotions in e-negotiations. In: Emotion in group decision and negotiation, Springer Netherlands, pp 101–135
go back to reference Gupta N, Gilbert M, Di Fabbrizio G (2013) emotion detection in email customer care. Comput Intell 29(3):527–543CrossRef Gupta N, Gilbert M, Di Fabbrizio G (2013) emotion detection in email customer care. Comput Intell 29(3):527–543CrossRef
go back to reference Gwet KL (2014) Handbook of inter-rater reliability: the definitive guide to measuring the extent of agreement among raters. Advanced Analytics, LLC, Arlington Gwet KL (2014) Handbook of inter-rater reliability: the definitive guide to measuring the extent of agreement among raters. Advanced Analytics, LLC, Arlington
go back to reference Hancock JT, Gee K, Ciaccio K, Lin JMH (2008) I’m sad you’re sad: emotional contagion in CMC. In: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work, pp 295–298 Hancock JT, Gee K, Ciaccio K, Lin JMH (2008) I’m sad you’re sad: emotional contagion in CMC. In: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work, pp 295–298
go back to reference Harinck F, Van Kleef GA (2012) Be hard on the interests and soft on the values: conflict issue moderates the effects of anger in negotiations. Br J Soc Psychol 51(4):741–752CrossRef Harinck F, Van Kleef GA (2012) Be hard on the interests and soft on the values: conflict issue moderates the effects of anger in negotiations. Br J Soc Psychol 51(4):741–752CrossRef
go back to reference Hatta T, Ken-ichi O (2008) Effects of visual cue and spatial distance on exitability in electronic negotiation. Comput Hum Behav 24(4):1542–1551CrossRef Hatta T, Ken-ichi O (2008) Effects of visual cue and spatial distance on exitability in electronic negotiation. Comput Hum Behav 24(4):1542–1551CrossRef
go back to reference Hawk ST, Van Kleef GA, Fischer AH, Van der Schalk J (2009) “Worth a thousand words”: absolute and relative decoding of nonlinguistic affect vocalizations. Emot 9(3):293CrossRef Hawk ST, Van Kleef GA, Fischer AH, Van der Schalk J (2009) “Worth a thousand words”: absolute and relative decoding of nonlinguistic affect vocalizations. Emot 9(3):293CrossRef
go back to reference Hine MJ, Murphy SA, Weber M, Kersten G (2009) The role of emotion and language in dyadic e-negotiations. Group Decis Negot 18(3):193–211CrossRef Hine MJ, Murphy SA, Weber M, Kersten G (2009) The role of emotion and language in dyadic e-negotiations. Group Decis Negot 18(3):193–211CrossRef
go back to reference Kahn JH, Tobin RM, Massey AE, Anderson JA (2007) Measuring emotional expression with the linguistic inquiry and word count. Am J Psychol 120(2):263–286 Kahn JH, Tobin RM, Massey AE, Anderson JA (2007) Measuring emotional expression with the linguistic inquiry and word count. Am J Psychol 120(2):263–286
go back to reference Kelly L, Keaten JA (2007) Development of the affect for communication channels scale. J Commun 57(2):349–365CrossRef Kelly L, Keaten JA (2007) Development of the affect for communication channels scale. J Commun 57(2):349–365CrossRef
go back to reference Keltner D, Haidt J (1999) Social functions of emotions at four levels of analysis. Cognit Emot 13(5):505–521CrossRef Keltner D, Haidt J (1999) Social functions of emotions at four levels of analysis. Cognit Emot 13(5):505–521CrossRef
go back to reference Keltner D, Kring AM (1998) Emotion, social function, and psychopathology. Rev Gen Psychol 2(3):320CrossRef Keltner D, Kring AM (1998) Emotion, social function, and psychopathology. Rev Gen Psychol 2(3):320CrossRef
go back to reference Koeszegi ST, Pesendorfer E-M, Vetschera R (2011) Data-driven phase analysis of e-negotiations: an exemplary study of synchronous and asynchronous negotiations. Group Decis Negot 20(4):385–410CrossRef Koeszegi ST, Pesendorfer E-M, Vetschera R (2011) Data-driven phase analysis of e-negotiations: an exemplary study of synchronous and asynchronous negotiations. Group Decis Negot 20(4):385–410CrossRef
go back to reference Kopelman S, Rosette AS, Thompson L (2006) The three faces of Eve: strategic displays of positive, negative, and neutral emotions in negotiations. Organ Behav Hum Dec Process 99(1):81–101CrossRef Kopelman S, Rosette AS, Thompson L (2006) The three faces of Eve: strategic displays of positive, negative, and neutral emotions in negotiations. Organ Behav Hum Dec Process 99(1):81–101CrossRef
go back to reference Krippendorff K (1980) Content analysis. Sage, Beverly Hills Krippendorff K (1980) Content analysis. Sage, Beverly Hills
go back to reference Kruger J, Epley N, Parker J, Ng ZW (2005) Egocentrism over e-mail: can we communicate as well as we think? J Personal Soc Psychol 89(6):925CrossRef Kruger J, Epley N, Parker J, Ng ZW (2005) Egocentrism over e-mail: can we communicate as well as we think? J Personal Soc Psychol 89(6):925CrossRef
go back to reference Landis JR, Koch GG (1977) The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biom 33(1):159–174CrossRef Landis JR, Koch GG (1977) The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biom 33(1):159–174CrossRef
go back to reference Lelieveld GJ, Van Dijk E, Van Beest I, Van Kleef GA (2013) Does communicating disappointment in negotiations help or hurt? Solving an apparent inconsistency in the social-functional approach to emotions. J Personal Soc Psychol 105(4):605–620CrossRef Lelieveld GJ, Van Dijk E, Van Beest I, Van Kleef GA (2013) Does communicating disappointment in negotiations help or hurt? Solving an apparent inconsistency in the social-functional approach to emotions. J Personal Soc Psychol 105(4):605–620CrossRef
go back to reference Lewicki RJ, Barry B, Saunders DM (2011) Essentials of negotiation. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Boston, MA Lewicki RJ, Barry B, Saunders DM (2011) Essentials of negotiation. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Boston, MA
go back to reference Li W, Xu H (2014) Text-based emotion classification using emotion cause extraction. Expert Syst Appl 41(4):1742–1749CrossRef Li W, Xu H (2014) Text-based emotion classification using emotion cause extraction. Expert Syst Appl 41(4):1742–1749CrossRef
go back to reference Manwaring M (2003) Lattitude.com, Harvard Law School, Program of Negotiation, Cambridge Manwaring M (2003) Lattitude.com, Harvard Law School, Program of Negotiation, Cambridge
go back to reference Mehl MR, Pennebaker JW (2003) The sounds of social life: a psychometric analysis of students’ daily social environments and natural conversations. J Personal Soc Psychol 84(4):857CrossRef Mehl MR, Pennebaker JW (2003) The sounds of social life: a psychometric analysis of students’ daily social environments and natural conversations. J Personal Soc Psychol 84(4):857CrossRef
go back to reference Morris MW, Keltner D (2000). How emotions work: the social functions of emotional expression in negotiations. Res Organ Behav, 22:1–50 Morris MW, Keltner D (2000). How emotions work: the social functions of emotional expression in negotiations. Res Organ Behav, 22:1–50
go back to reference Morris MW, Keltner D (2000b) How emotions work: the social functions of emotional expression in negotiations. Res Organ Behav 22:1–50CrossRef Morris MW, Keltner D (2000b) How emotions work: the social functions of emotional expression in negotiations. Res Organ Behav 22:1–50CrossRef
go back to reference Morris M, Nadler J, Kurtzberg T, Thompson L (2002) Schmooze or lose: social friction and lubrication in e-mail negotiations. Group Dyn: Theory Res Pract 6(1):89CrossRef Morris M, Nadler J, Kurtzberg T, Thompson L (2002) Schmooze or lose: social friction and lubrication in e-mail negotiations. Group Dyn: Theory Res Pract 6(1):89CrossRef
go back to reference Notini J (2008) Websurf negotiation. Berkeley Law School, Berkeley Notini J (2008) Websurf negotiation. Berkeley Law School, Berkeley
go back to reference Olekalns M, Druckman D (2014) With feeling: how emotions shape negotiation. Negot J 30(4):455–478CrossRef Olekalns M, Druckman D (2014) With feeling: how emotions shape negotiation. Negot J 30(4):455–478CrossRef
go back to reference Overbeck JR, Neale MA, Govan CL (2010) I feel, therefore you act: intrapersonal and interpersonal effects of emotion on negotiation as a function of social power. Organ Behav Hum Dec Process 112(2):126–139CrossRef Overbeck JR, Neale MA, Govan CL (2010) I feel, therefore you act: intrapersonal and interpersonal effects of emotion on negotiation as a function of social power. Organ Behav Hum Dec Process 112(2):126–139CrossRef
go back to reference Parlamis JD, Geiger I (2015) Mind the medium: a qualitative analysis of email negotiation. Group Decis Negot 24(2):359–381CrossRef Parlamis JD, Geiger I (2015) Mind the medium: a qualitative analysis of email negotiation. Group Decis Negot 24(2):359–381CrossRef
go back to reference Pennebaker JW, Francis ME, Booth RJ (2001) Linguistic inquiry and word count: LIWC 2001. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahway Pennebaker JW, Francis ME, Booth RJ (2001) Linguistic inquiry and word count: LIWC 2001. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahway
go back to reference Pesendorfer EM, Koeszegi ST (2006) Hot versus cool behavioural styles in electronic negotiations: the impact of communication mode. Group Decis Negot 15(2):141–155CrossRef Pesendorfer EM, Koeszegi ST (2006) Hot versus cool behavioural styles in electronic negotiations: the impact of communication mode. Group Decis Negot 15(2):141–155CrossRef
go back to reference Pesendorfer EM, Graf A, Koeszegi ST (2007) Relationship in electronic negotiations: tracking behavior over time. Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft 77(12):1315–1338CrossRef Pesendorfer EM, Graf A, Koeszegi ST (2007) Relationship in electronic negotiations: tracking behavior over time. Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft 77(12):1315–1338CrossRef
go back to reference Radicati Group (2016). Email statistics report, 2015–2019 Radicati Group (2016). Email statistics report, 2015–2019
go back to reference Rice RE (1990) Computer-mediated communication system network data: theoretical concerns and empirical examples. Int J Man-Mach Stud 32(6):627–647CrossRef Rice RE (1990) Computer-mediated communication system network data: theoretical concerns and empirical examples. Int J Man-Mach Stud 32(6):627–647CrossRef
go back to reference Riordan MA, Trichtinger LA (2017) Overconfidence at the keyboard: confidence and accuracy in interpreting affect in e-mail exchanges. Hum Commun Res 43:1–24CrossRef Riordan MA, Trichtinger LA (2017) Overconfidence at the keyboard: confidence and accuracy in interpreting affect in e-mail exchanges. Hum Commun Res 43:1–24CrossRef
go back to reference Robinson RL, Navea R, Ickes W (2013) Predicting final course performance from students’ written self-introductions: a LIWC analysis. J Lang Soc Psychol 32(4):469–479CrossRef Robinson RL, Navea R, Ickes W (2013) Predicting final course performance from students’ written self-introductions: a LIWC analysis. J Lang Soc Psychol 32(4):469–479CrossRef
go back to reference Salovey P, Mayer JD (1990) Emotional intelligence. Imagin Cognit Personal 9(3):185–211CrossRef Salovey P, Mayer JD (1990) Emotional intelligence. Imagin Cognit Personal 9(3):185–211CrossRef
go back to reference Schröder M (2003) Experimental study of affect bursts. Speech Commun 40(1):99–116CrossRef Schröder M (2003) Experimental study of affect bursts. Speech Commun 40(1):99–116CrossRef
go back to reference Shaver P, Schwartz J, Kirson D, O’connor C (1987) Emotion knowledge: further exploration of a prototype approach. J Personal Soc Psychol 52(6):1061CrossRef Shaver P, Schwartz J, Kirson D, O’connor C (1987) Emotion knowledge: further exploration of a prototype approach. J Personal Soc Psychol 52(6):1061CrossRef
go back to reference Sinaceur M, Kopelman S, Vasiljevic D, Haag C (2015) Weep and get more: when and why sadness expression is effective in negotiations. J Appl Psychol 100(6):1–25CrossRef Sinaceur M, Kopelman S, Vasiljevic D, Haag C (2015) Weep and get more: when and why sadness expression is effective in negotiations. J Appl Psychol 100(6):1–25CrossRef
go back to reference Smith CA, Lazarus RS (1990) Emotion and adaptation. In: Pervin LA (ed) Handbook of personality: theory and research. Guilford Press, New York, pp 609–637 Smith CA, Lazarus RS (1990) Emotion and adaptation. In: Pervin LA (ed) Handbook of personality: theory and research. Guilford Press, New York, pp 609–637
go back to reference Srnka KJ, Koeszegi ST (2007) From words to numbers: how to transform qualitative data into meaningful quantitative results. Schmalenbach Bus Rev 59:29–57CrossRef Srnka KJ, Koeszegi ST (2007) From words to numbers: how to transform qualitative data into meaningful quantitative results. Schmalenbach Bus Rev 59:29–57CrossRef
go back to reference Strapparava C, Mihalcea R (2008) Learning to identify emotions in text. In: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM symposium on applied computing, ACM, New York, pp 1556–1560 Strapparava C, Mihalcea R (2008) Learning to identify emotions in text. In: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM symposium on applied computing, ACM, New York, pp 1556–1560
go back to reference Tausczik YR, Pennebaker JW (2010) The psychological meaning of words: LIWC and computerized text analysis methods. J Lang Soc Psychol 29(1):24–54CrossRef Tausczik YR, Pennebaker JW (2010) The psychological meaning of words: LIWC and computerized text analysis methods. J Lang Soc Psychol 29(1):24–54CrossRef
go back to reference Thompson L, Nadler J (2002) Negotiating via information technology: theory and application. J Soc Issues 58(1):109–124CrossRef Thompson L, Nadler J (2002) Negotiating via information technology: theory and application. J Soc Issues 58(1):109–124CrossRef
go back to reference Tov W, Ng KL, Lin H, Qiu L (2013) Detecting well-being via computerized content analysis of brief diary entries. Psychol Assess 25(4):1069–1078CrossRef Tov W, Ng KL, Lin H, Qiu L (2013) Detecting well-being via computerized content analysis of brief diary entries. Psychol Assess 25(4):1069–1078CrossRef
go back to reference Trevino LK, Lengel RH, Daft RL (1987) Media symbolism, media richness, and media choice in organizations a symbolic interactionist perspective. Commun Res 14(5):553–574CrossRef Trevino LK, Lengel RH, Daft RL (1987) Media symbolism, media richness, and media choice in organizations a symbolic interactionist perspective. Commun Res 14(5):553–574CrossRef
go back to reference Van Kleef GA (2009) How emotions regulate social life: the emotions as social information (EASI) Model. Curr DirPsychol Sci 18(3):184–188CrossRef Van Kleef GA (2009) How emotions regulate social life: the emotions as social information (EASI) Model. Curr DirPsychol Sci 18(3):184–188CrossRef
go back to reference Van Kleef GA, De Dreu CK, Manstead AS (2010) An interpersonal approach to emotion in social decision making: the emotions as social information model. Adv Exp Soc Psychol 42:45–96 Van Kleef GA, De Dreu CK, Manstead AS (2010) An interpersonal approach to emotion in social decision making: the emotions as social information model. Adv Exp Soc Psychol 42:45–96
go back to reference Walther JB (1992) Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction a relational perspective. Commun Res 19(1):52–90CrossRef Walther JB (1992) Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction a relational perspective. Commun Res 19(1):52–90CrossRef
go back to reference Walther JB, D’Addario KP (2001) The impacts of emoticons on message interpretation in computer-mediated communication. Soc Sci Computer Rev 19(3):324–347CrossRef Walther JB, D’Addario KP (2001) The impacts of emoticons on message interpretation in computer-mediated communication. Soc Sci Computer Rev 19(3):324–347CrossRef
go back to reference Walther JB, Parks MR (2002) Cues filtered out, cues filtered in. Handb Interpers Commun 3:529–563 Walther JB, Parks MR (2002) Cues filtered out, cues filtered in. Handb Interpers Commun 3:529–563
Metadata
Title
Are You Angry (Happy, Sad) or Aren’t You? Emotion Detection Difficulty in Email Negotiation
Authors
Christoph Laubert
Jennifer Parlamis
Publication date
09-01-2019
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
Group Decision and Negotiation / Issue 2/2019
Print ISSN: 0926-2644
Electronic ISSN: 1572-9907
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10726-018-09611-4

Other articles of this Issue 2/2019

Group Decision and Negotiation 2/2019 Go to the issue