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About this book

This book presents selected articles from the 15th International Asian Urbanization Conference, held in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, on November 27-30, 2019. Bringing together researchers and professionals in the area of urban planning and development to better understand the growing need for sustainable urban life, it covers topics such as climate change and urban resilience; inclusive and implementable urban governance; smart and green mobility; transformations in land management; livable and smart cities; integrated planning and development; urban slums and affordable housing; sustainable urban finance; and urban renewal and redevelopment.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Climate Change and Urban Resilience

Frontmatter

Climate Change and Cities in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Climate change is not simply an environmental problem but also an impacting development across the globe. It strongly impacts the Mekong Delta region in Vietnam. Like many other deltas in the world, the Mekong Delta has strong water-based characteristics, where the living environment is strongly influenced by water, and thus consequently suffers the worst impacts of climate change and sea-level rise according to different projections. Having important roles in the economic development, food security and natural ecology of Vietnam, this delta has been received plenty of international, national and local attentions to seek ways to insulate it from the impacts of climate change, to strengthen the roles, and to maximize its potentials. The research considers integrated relationships of three components (1) city scale, (2) city morphology and (3) impacts of climate change. This is to understand how different urban morphological classifications and scales/grades rationally affected by climate change, focusing on the flood and salinity impacts resulted by average projected future energy-related CO2 emissions scenario. From those above analytical bases, the research proposes groups of climate change adaptabilities for the Mekong region and classified cities within, from spatial planning strategies, water management and more detailed structural and non-structural solutions.

Thi Hong Hanh Vu, Thanh Hai Truong

Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise Response Solutions for Can Gio District, Ho Chi Minh City: Potential to Adapt Ideas from Selected Developed Countries

As the impacts of climate change become more and more apparent, it is clear that Vietnam is among the countries that are most heavily affected. Ho Chi Minh City is on the list of ten cities in the world, most threatened by the risks associated with high sea-level rise. According to the estimates of the United Nations, by 2100, the sea level will rise by more than 1 m and nearly 20% of Ho Chi Minh City’s area will be flooded. Therefore, finding solutions to respond to climate change in Ho Chi Minh City is very urgent in the current conditions. This research will evaluate climate change phenomenon in Ho Chi Minh City, particularly in Can Gio coastal district. It will then offer solutions to cope with climate change in this area. The proposed solutions include solutions for planning residential clusters and providing architectural design models for housing projects such stilt houses, floating houses, and lightweight concrete houses. Identifying the correct response to climate change-related flooding in Ho Chi Minh City is the key for sustainable development in the future.

Le Minh Ngo, Hai Yen Hoang

Understanding the Implications of Urban Heat Island Effects on Household Energy Consumption and Public Health in Southeast Asian Cities: Evidence from Thailand and Indonesia

The study explores the effects of Urban Heat Island (UHI) on urban residents. Using two case studies in Bangkok, Thailand, and Bandung, Indonesia, the study focuses on the effects of UHI on household energy consumption and health and well-being. A survey questionnaire of 400 respondents from each city was employed. The household energy consumption for each respondent was measured using a proxy variable of average monthly electricity consumption. UHI intensity is measured using cooling degree days (CDD) variable constructed from the temperature difference between urban and sub-urban weather stations. The perceived health effect is measured by heat stress, physical health impacts, mental health impacts, and health and well-being outcomes. The data then are analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. UHI is found to have a positive correlation with the ownership of air conditioning equipment in Bangkok and Bandung and is found to increase the monthly electricity bill. It is also found that UHI has affected the daily lives of urban residents in terms of increasing household energy consumption for cooling and disruption of activities such as working, sleeping, and general health and well-being.

Sigit D. Arifwidodo, Panitat Ratanawichit, Orana Chandrasiri

The Need for Understanding Disaster Risk for Resilient City Development

Rapid urbanization has been a common phenomenon in most developing countries. Asia is no exception. Many major Asian cities are fast-growing but without proper physical planning guidelines. For instance, development is taking place in areas that are prone to risk from natural hazards and could be seen as a serious concern. With a view to reduce damage and encourage resilient development, the Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) has emphasized on understanding disaster risk. This paper has tried to understand the current situation in Asian cities with regard to resilient development. Publicly available data and information published, are used to understand the development patterns of the major cities in Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Thailand. This research finds that Asian cities are at a very early stage in understanding disaster risk and climate change effects ahead of city planning and physical expansion. As a result of unplanned development without considering potential risks, citizens are becoming vulnerable to natural hazards. Therefore, it is important to understand the potential disaster risks and climate change impacts for resilient city development and for effective urban planning. The outcome of the paper will help in formulating policy guidelines for the respective cases.

Mumita Tanjeela, Md. Anisur Rahman

Architectural Solutions with Regards to Climate Change for the Rural Housing of Vinh Long Province, Vietnam

In the Mekong River Delta, Vinh Long Province is currently suffering the consequences of sea-level rise, saline intrusion, landslides, erratic floods, and thunderstorms, due at least in part to the effects of climate change. On the other hand, rural urbanization has negatively influenced the overall image of the rural social structure, of which, the culture, customs, habits, and living conditions of the people and, especially, the morphology housing architecture of the area are all being affected. In this study, the status of rural housing architecture in Vinh Long is systematically evaluated according to the criteria of sustainable architecture. Survey results show that nearly all of the rural house types in Vinh Long are suffering from the effects of climate change. Among the five leading types of rural housing of Vinh Long, only villas have largely escaped the impacts. Traditional housing is a type not significantly affected by climate change. Street houses, however, are dealing with the effects of river erosion and high tides. In particular, pure-agricultural and simple housing are heavily affected by landslides, tidal surges, saline intrusion, and tornadoes. Based on the relationship with the characteristics of indigenous architecture, economic, social and environmental conditions of Vinh Long Province, architectural solutions with regards to climate change have been proposed to improve the quality of life, to minimize the negative impacts on the environment and to meet the needs of future sustainable development.

Le Thi Hong Na, Dang Hai Dang, Nguyen Dang Hoang Nhat Truong

Application of Artificial Intelligence to Assist in Mapping for Flood-Prone Areas in the Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta

Flooding is one of the natural disasters that poses a serious threat to people who live near watersheds and coastal areas. Floods may affect various sectors of socioeconomic life of a society, such as sectors of the economy, agriculture, and education. This led to the need for an accurate method for predicting flood-prone areas so the public and the government can prevent and minimize the negative impacts and able to assist the recovery process in the sectors affected by the floods more optimal. In the Industrial Revolution 4.0 era, science and technology develop very quickly, one example is the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) where the system adopts the way of human thinking, such as planning, learning, reasoning, and self-correction which is then manifested in a mathematical form so it can be applied for solving real problems. Therefore, this study used the AI ​​system in the process of prediction and mapping of disaster-prone areas. The data used in this study are rainfall, land altitude, watersheds, river depth, and distance of the settlement to the seashore or river. These data were then processed using the method of deep learning for prediction function and Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) for mapping function which is a technique in AI systems. The final results of this study were obtained three criteria for disaster vulnerability, namely low, medium, and high, which can be used to predict the mapping of flood-prone areas until the coming years in the Bantul Regency area.

Aditya Wisnugraha Sugiyarto, Achmad Ramadhanna’il Rasjava

Urban Vegetable Gardening Brings Greening to Slum Environment and Helps Mitigate Climate Change Effects

Urban Health Resource Centre’s (UHRC) social facilitators encourage families to grow vegetables in small spaces in slum houses. Seeds were provided. Facilitators motivate families to tend plants as they grow. During 2018–2019, 495 families grew beans, bottle gourds, round gourds, sponge gourds, tomatoes, brinjals, small green peppers, and pumpkins in small spaces, broken buckets. A total of 495 families shared with 1485 neighbor families, thereby benefitting 9,900 population. Costs saved over the 3 years total to INR 8,251,932. Slum families can be motivated and overcome space constraints of small slum houses to nurture household vegetable gardens. Despite each home garden being small, these have the potential to mitigate carbon emissions a key climate change challenge affecting the world. Vegetable plants release oxygen, sequester carbon in the soil, and reduce atmospheric carbon. Vegetable gardens contribute to the cooling effect in urban spaces. Growing vegetables despite small spaces and sharing with neighbors promote a sense of psychological well-being, accomplishment, and enhances social cooperation all crucial to the well-being of vulnerable city populations. Home-based vegetable gardens save costs for the family. Methods used in this program research to grow vegetables in small slum houses and other lessons learned of perseveringly motivating slum families have the potential of their replication or adaptation in cities of India and other LMICs.

Siddharth Agarwal, Shabnam Verma, Neeraj Verma, Kailash Vishvakarma, Kanupriya Kothiwal

Inclusive, Implementable Urban Governance, and Sustainable Urban Finance

Frontmatter

Collaborative Approach for Resource Mobilization Transformation in Vietnam

This article discusses the barriers in transforming the resource mobilization for urban infrastructure development in Vietnam. Depleting Official Development Aids (ODA) and shrinking public budgets since 2016 urged authorities to look for alternative financial resources. Troubles in the Build and Transfer (BT) model and difficulties of land use rights sales helped decision makers to supplement the traditional approach; however, there are essential barriers that should be lifted to support the better collaboration. The author used institutional and background data analyses to unveil how key barriers hampered motivation of local authorities to seek for co-financing mechanism. The findings advocated further renovation on urban autonomy besides improving capacity and appropriate tools to foster better collaboration among key stakeholders.

Hieu Nguyen Ngoc, Dao Tran Quang

Governance Characteristics of Dhaka City for Ensuring Implementation of Land Use Planning

Governance has become a fashionable term in recent decades, and the concepts of governance and urban governance are defined in a variety of ways. Governance of basic urban services has become a much-debated issue in the last one decade because of their inadequate status for the Dhaka city. Governance of urban basic utilities in Dhaka city is a collective business—around fifty organizations are involved in the provisioning of numerous services/utilities. Based on aforementioned analysis, it might be mentioned that Bangladesh has been facing a number of challenges in the path of democratic or good governance. These issues comprise a lack of accountability and transparency, a lack of government effectiveness and regularity quality, a lack of rule of law, inefficient leadership, ineffective political institutions, rampant corruption, and widespread poverty. The present practice of fragmented governance has ameliorated the surfacing of some critical service problems, namely non-coordination in service management, wastage of resources, inefficient delivery, and public inconveniences. Land use planning as a decision-making tool creates an enabling environment for sustainable development of land resources which meets people’s needs and demands that can be ensured by effective governance system.

Musfera Jahan

Urban Planning in Vietnam: Why Gender Matters

This paper provides some initial thoughts on urban planning through a gender perspective. Historically and globally, women have been ignored or neglected in the planning domain, which can be seen throughout the development of human civilization where women were literally absent in this field, not until the 1960s when the “second wave” of feminism questioned and challenged the notion of its homogeneity. This issue is clear when it comes to Vietnam’s urban planning, which has long been portrayed as a male-orientated profession. Urban planning appears to be separated from gender studies, and indeed there is lack of literature on the connection of the two. It seems that the majority of urban planning educators, experts, and architect planners have taken for granted the notion of gender neutrality in urban planning, and they have been unaware of how gender difference can shape and influence the establishment of urban form and how cities function. This paper, therefore, will take a preliminary effort to offer an indicative account on this matter, showing the context of gender unequal distribution in Vietnam’s urban planning, and how deep gender inequality is in this industry. It then provides an analysis on the root causes of gender inequalities. The justification for gender study in urban planning will be discussed as well as possible scopes for further investigations will also be raised.

Phuoc Dinh Le, Huyen Minh Do

Slum Children-Youth Groups Demonstrate Zest, Collective Confidence and Tenacity to Improve Access to Education and Self-development Opportunities

Slum children/youth are excluded from the benefits of India’s urbanizing economy. Unequal access to education, self-expression hinder actualizing their potential. This programme research is undertaken in Indore, India to better understand the methods through which slum children (a) overcome gender inequality; (b) overcome hesitation, develop confidence and skills and (c) access government scholarships. Information was collected through Focus Group Discussions with slum children and youth, individual interviews and participant observation during activities. The Urban Health Resource Center (UHRC) organizes slum children’s groups in Indore. One boy, one girl leaders per group contribute to a more gender-equitable society. They collectively identify needs for stimulation; ways to enhance confidence, strengthen as groups, contribute to evolution of programme and motivate children in neighbouring slums. Extra-curricular activities by UHRC provide platforms for self-expression (such as street plays), develop teamwork and leadership skills and build self-confidence, zest and tenacity to overcome odds. Children and UHRC’s social facilitators urge ward councillors to endorse hand-written applications for income certificates, obtain certificates from District Magistrate’s office; submit to schools to access Government scholarship. Child/youth development is fostered through avenues for self-expression, excelling incrementally and cultivating positive self-image. Communication and leadership skills emerge. Children/youth groups’ petitions/requests to Municipal Corporation have improved slum lanes, drains. Interruption of children’s school education has reduced. Social interactions help children/youth to overcome hesitation, focus on aspirations and acquire ability to influence circumstances. Increasing number of youth completes schooling, complements family income; demonstrates gender sensitivity; undertakes socially productive community actions, e.g. improving hygiene and living environment, reduce school-dropout.

Siddharth Agarwal, Shabnam Verma, Kanupriya Kothiwal, Neeraj Verma, Kailash Vishvakarma

On the Use of Data Envelopment Analysis to Improve Performance Efficiency of Governmental Management in Big Cities

In this work, a specific performance measurement method known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is discussed for application in governmental management and improves the efficiency. DEA is a great model that is applied in many operating environments of the modern economy. According to Business Performance Improvement Resource (BPIR) definition, performance refers to current outputs and outcomes obtained from operating processes that permit evaluation and comparison of information. Performance can be expressed in non-financial and financial terms. Measurement refers to numerical information that quantifies input, output, and performance dimensions of processes, products, services, and the overall organization. In business, performance measurement helps managers improve their decision making and organization performance because it provides essential and quality feedback that the operations may be guided accordingly by allowing managers to achieve the best solution. It is a great way to understand, manage, and improve the overall functioning of the organization, especially to improve business success. If the measurement result is wrong or inaccurate, the users of data will be misled and can make a bad decision. First time introduced in 1970, DEA was quickly recognized as an excellent methodology for performance measurement. Being a “data oriented” approach for evaluating the performance of a set of peer entities called Decision Making Units (DMUs) which convert multiple inputs into multiple outputs, it is ideal for measuring the relative efficiencies of units with similar services or product and gives a big advantage of being able to deal with multidimensional nature of input/output variables.

Hai Dung Dinh, Khoi Minh Le

Smart and Green Mobility

Frontmatter

A Transportation Optimization Model for Solving the Single Delivery Truck Routing Problem with the Alldifferent Constraint in MS Excel

Smart city consists of smart transportation which helps to minimize the use of resources. In this paper, we focus on how to design a mathematical framework with its objective function and constraints in Solver in MS Excel to solve the Single Delivery Truck Routing Problem. The routing optimization problem is particularly useful and finds applicability in various industrial areas, including solid waste management, warehouse order picking, manufacturing, and logistical planning. Let us consider a distribution center, i.e., a factory, at one location that has to send a truck daily with refills to retail centers located in a set of N-1 neighboring locations. The distances or travel times between pairs of neighboring locations are given as an N × N matrix. The distribution center wishes to route the truck from the origin to all other retail centers and back to the origin such that the distance or time traveled is minimized. For example, a so-called greedy algorithm will always find the local move for the next best connection possible route and provides a solution of X_Greedy that is optimal at that move. Can we find a route that is better, i.e., shorter than X_Greedy? Different types of mathematical algorithms, among which heuristics such as genetic algorithm or particle swarm optimization can be used to address the problem. This paper offers another approach in solving the proposed problem with the MS Excel Solver. The numerical example given in this research work is intuitive and can be easily modified to deal with further complex planning problems.

Hai Dung Dinh

An Elicitation Study on Potential Users’ Salient Beliefs of Using Future City Light Rail Transit

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has been widely used to explore behavioral intention in many disciplines including future travel mode choice. LRT construction in Medan city is due to commence in 2020. We are interested in exploring its potential users’ salient beliefs that will drive psychological factors, which eventually generate future intention to use LRT for daily trip. An elicitation study is recommended to first identify the salient beliefs that potential users hold toward the future LRT. Using semi-structured interviews consisting of 9 open-ended questions, we interviewed and obtained data from 150 respondents. In general, the result shows that the potential users dominantly hold positive belief, for example, the ability to improve travel time efficiency and help with congestion. Whereas difficult access to station and possibly stuck in crowding are believed to be negative drive.

Simon Dertha Tarigan, Reynaldo Siahaan, Oloheta Gulo

A Study of Intended Unsafe Pedestrian Crossing Behaviors at Signalized Intersections in Vietnam

This paper presents a model for pedestrians’ intended unsafe crossing behaviors at signalized intersections based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The model has been proposed with three factors, including attitude toward unsafe crossing behavior, subject norm, and perceived behavior control that impact on pedestrians’ unsafe crossing behavioral intention. Taking Vietnam as an example, through the reliability and validity test of 508 participants, the Structural Equation Model (SEM) of pedestrians’ unsafe behavioral intention is constructed to predict the unsafe crossing behavioral intention of pedestrians. Simultaneously, the relationship between influencing factors is obtained. The results show that perceived behavior control is the key determinant of pedestrian crossing intention, followed by attitude toward unsafe crossing behavior, and subject norms. This also shows that the proposed model can effectively explain and predict the unsafe behavioral intention of pedestrians in Vietnam’s situation.

Xuan Can Vuong, Rui-Fang Mou, Trong Thuat Vu, Thi An Nguyen

The Impact of E-Mobility on Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Vietnam

This paper aims to develop possible scenarios of electric bus introduction and their impact on the Vietnam Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation. Give the foreseen increased number of bus until the year 2030, three different scenarios in terms of penetration of electric vehicles have been considered, namely 10, 20, and 40% of new vehicle sales. A detailed bottom-up energy model of the Vietnamese bus fleet has been developed. The vehicle fleet is analyzed in terms of energy consumption and carbon emissions. The analyzed scenarios suggest that the introduction of electric vehicles would always lead to primary energy savings. In particular, the increase of the penetration corresponds to a decrease in primary energy consumption and carbon emissions.

An Minh Ngoc, Khuat Viet Hung

Policies and Measures to Create Efficient and Low-Carbon Transport in Urban Area: Case Study in Hochiminh City

The transport sector contributes a significant source of greenhouse gasses and other pollutants that result in climate change. Therefore, it is crucial to change in the direction of policies and measures that lead to sustainable development by diminishing the environmental consequences and other negative impacts of transport systems. Any proposed solutions should be comprehensive and encompass the transport framework and the operation of individual modes of transport, fostering low-carbon transport that furthers sustainable development in urban areas in Vietnam. This paper looks at the current state of transport development in Hochiminh City, and propose a way to create efficient and low-carbon transport on it.

Vu Trong Tich, An Minh Ngoc

Motorcycles in a Long-Term Perspective: Case of Ho Chi Minh City

Currently, motorcycles are the dominant mode of transport not only in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) but also in the major cities in Vietnam. How did motorcycle pass from the ego of the bicycle in the 1990s, and can we avoid an automobile boom that is experienced by the industrialized countries? Demography is a powerful explanatory factor for long-term changes in mobility. Indeed, the distance traveled per person per day (both overall and in the dominant mode) follows a bell curve during the life cycle, which peaks when people are at the age of forty. The demographic transition (slowdown in population growth and aging) should lead to a slowdown in overall mobility. The aim of this paper is to understand the impact of demographic factors on long-term travel demand. By using a demographic-based model, the author estimated the motorcycle trend in HCMC, in particular, estimated the share of the motorcycle in the total mode of transport; the total travel distance, and the trip rate by motorcycle.

Thanh Tu Nguyen

Transformations in Land Management

Frontmatter

GIS and Fuzzy Logic Approach for Providing Land Value Information: A Case Study in Hanoi City

Land value plays a vital role in the success of land distribution processes. Land valuation is a process of assessing and synthesizing elements of land related to land prices, which help the government to plan tax and real estate market policies. However, current land prices are issued by the People’s Committees of Hanoi city, mainly based on location and route factors, and not on a combination of factors affecting land values. Therefore, in this study, nine factors impacting land values were generalized into three groups including (1) public services factors, (2) environmental factors, and (3) socio-cultural factors. Thereafter, a case study using geography information system and Fuzzy logic was implemented with a view to building thematic raster classes and finding the land value. The results show the distributions of land value zones in the study area, which reflect reality. Based on these findings, managers can make policy plans for land use to ensure sustainable development. Each land value is assigned to a definite plot of land and will be available to the public via e-government.

Quang Cuong Doan

A Study on the Ecological Balance Capacity of Hanoi Green Corridor

The “Hanoi Capital Construction Master Plan to 2030 and Vision to 2050” has been approved and implemented by the Vietnamese government since 2011 with the goal of channeling city development to become a sustainable capital in Asia. To achieve that goal, the green corridor has been established with four crucial roles, including: (1) to control the urban sprawl (2) to preserve the landscape and natural value (3) to be a logistics area for the central city (4) to consolidate the environment balance. However, different from the city green corridor in other countries, Hanoi green corridor embraces various high-density residential areas and new development projects, which has resulted in land use transformation. Therefore, the paper has two objectives, including (1) evaluating the ecological balance capacity of Hanoi green corridor for the whole city and (2) assessing the change of the afore-mentioned capacity since establishment due to city transition. The research methodology is to use the plant biomass calculation tool, combining with high-resolution satellite images in different years. The research result will quantify the ability to balance CO2 in the air of Hanoi green corridor and its change, providing a scientific basis for adjustment of land use planning toward a sustainable city development.

Quynh Chi Le, Dinh Viet Hoang, Van Tuyen Nguyen, Quoc Thai Tran

Livable and Smart Cities

Frontmatter

Digital Addressing of Historical City Morphology: The Case of Lalitpur City in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

Lalitpur Metropolitan City (LMC) covers 36 km2 area, 68,353 households, and 276,479 total populations constituted as a metropolitan in 2016, by the Government of Nepal. The core area of the city covers approximately 8 km2 and comprised of 70% households, built in around 3rd century B.C. Digital metric addressing system is being implemented for the historical city morphology of Lalitpur City. In this process, a detailed base-map of 1:2500 scale had been prepared from the high resolution stereo satellite imageries (0.32 m resolution) for the whole municipal area and 1:500 scale for the core city area with the large-scale photographs acquired by unmanned aviation vehicle (UAV). The differential global positioning system (DGPS) and traverse leveling survey had been administered to attain positional accuracy to construct accurate base-map through the photogrammetric procedures. Base-map depicts detailed surface features including the contour of one-meter interval, land use, and road network, building footprint, major social and cultural landscapes. From the detailed field survey, every building unit with the main doorway (entrance gate) was marked in the base-map. Distance from the road junction to the building doorway was computed and assigned each building/house number corresponding to the distance value in meter. Those numbers were designed in a system that never repeats or duplicates to another house number. The whole process of exercise of digital metric addressing of historical city morphology provides an intensive practical lesson on recently developed space-place hybrid data integration, real ground-based large-scale mapping, and diverse city landscape applications. The shared experience may be referenced for the morphological studies in similar other historical Asian cities.

Krishna Prasad Poudel, Suresh Shrestha

Migration: An Element of Smart Livable Cities

Movement of people from a defined geographical or administrative area to another with an intention to settle down there permanently is called migration. Migration is one of the important elements of smart livable cities because of its citizen-centric behavior. All highly modernized ICTs, institutional, social, economic and physical elements are waste without smart people. In smart or smart livable city migrants as well as smart local citizens play an important role in enhancing the ICTs, inventing new tools and ideas to do better work performance. Migrants are quite open-minded to work according to the plan and create a favorable work environment for themselves and others. Smart livable city being a center of availability of resource opportunities pulls a large number of skilled migrants. Therefore, migrants being a source of creative force provide numerous opportunities to cope with the problems and tackle the obstacles of smart cities in smarter ways. This study aims at understanding the concept, meaning and different dimensions of smart livable city; highlighting the plans, policies and programs of the government in making the cities smart and livable; and demonstrating the role of migration in achieving and maintaining the status of smart livable cities. This paper is mainly conceptual in nature and based on the review of migration and smart city-related literature relevant to the present studies. The study is supported by the chart of different dimensions and components relating to migration and smart livable city.

Braj Raj Kumar Sinha, Priyanka Thakur

Management of Public Space Towards Livable City: The Case of Hanoi, and Lessons from Singapore

This paper aims to focus on smart management of urban public space toward livable city. Along with the waves of digital and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) revolutions, smart City model has become a global “hot” trend and is expected to contribute to the livable city. The role of public space is universal, yet its functions and characteristics vary according to the particularities of the area and the community there. Public space sustains the productivity of the city and its social cohesion and inclusion, quality of life and local identity, and ultimately supports urban prosperity. Therefore, they should be planned and managed well and smartly for all kinds of users. Like many fast-developing capital cities, Hanoi has been facing increasing challenges caused by market-based hyper-urbanization, which oftentimes neglects to provide adequate social space for residents. Spontaneous and uncontrolled rapid urbanization results in chaotic urban patterns. This research goes around a central question of how to manage public space in various ways including efficient space usage toward livable city. The research seeks international lessons that show way forward, and lessons learned from Singapore were chosen to introduce. The research adopts qualitative research methodology. The flow of the paper starts off with a review of the discourse on public space and its management and explores the importance of public space in the city and how it can contribute to livable city. Then it introduces urban development in Hanoi with a focus on the Historical metropolitan area as defined in the Primer Minister’s Decision 1259/QĐ-TTg, and its current situation regarding public space planning and management. Coming to the demonstration case study, this paper explores experiences and lessons from Singapore, which demonstrate ways to management of urban public space. At last, the paper provides some discussions and concludes that inclusive stakeholder participation with local community involvement under a strategic partnership among public, private and academia can be a key to the success of public space planning and management toward livable city.

Nguyen Lien Huong

Smart Cities: Progress and Challenge in Establishing Liveable Cities

Cities are now trying to become smart ones. Various information and communication technology-based applications to support the achievement of a smart city have been implemented. However, its achievement seems to have not been linked to liveable cities. This paper is aimed at describing the progress of the development of smart city, particularly the one to support liveable city. Besides, it is also intended to identify challenges faced in the development of smart cities, especially the ones to support liveable city. This paper is made and based on the analysis of secondary data in the form of smart city masterplan, particularly the one on the strategies, programs, and applications. The location of the study area is Blora Regency, Central Java, one of the cities belonging to the 100-Indonesian Smart City Movement. The data are also obtained by having an in-depth interview about the implementation of the programs and the applications to support the liveable city through the dimensions of smart living and smart environment. The result shows that the progress of the development of smart city is shown through several programs and applications that are planned to support liveable city. In this regard, most programs have been implemented. Some of the applications have been implemented. Challenges in the form of the roles of stakeholders and public awareness to achieve liveable city, human resources in charge of providing services and applications as well as the community’s ability to use them.

Rini Rachmawati

Studying Urban Expansion and Landscape Surrounding Monuments for Conservation the World Cultural Heritage in Hue City—View from GIS and Remote Sensing

The socio-economic development and the growth of urban population are direct causes putting pressure for air quality, noise, and quality of life. The cultural heritage in the world is under the influence of urbanization and tourism activities due to the growing of hotels, restaurants, and associated services. This has a direct impact on the landscape of Heritage with many cultural values. Hue City is recognized as a world cultural heritage since 1993 by UNESCO. This is the only heritage urban in Vietnam composed of three elements: (i) heritage site, (ii) urban, and (iii) landscape (including Green Space), and not out of the impact of urbanization and tourism development. This paper focuses on quantifying the impact of urbanization and tourism development to the changing landscape of heritage sites in Hue by using all the data of remote sensing, statistical and spatial analysis tools in GIS. The results showed a positive relationship between the increase in population, developing tourism infrastructure with the expansion of urban land and thus causes deterioration of Green Space—landscape space of the world cultural heritage. From that we can see the trends of spatial changing can affect the quality of life and the tourism industry in the future of Hue City.

Thi Dieu Dinh, Van Manh Pham

Challenges in Developing and Implementing Smart City in Palangka Raya

The implementation of smart city in Palangka Raya is interesting to be studied because Palangka Raya has both urban and rural landscape. The most extensive of land use is forest with percentage around 72%. There are many opportunities and challenges to implement the concept of smart city in Palangka Raya. Despite this uniqueness, the city government strives to implement the smart city concept in planning the city of Palangka Raya especially to face the challenges of urban development. The city government has a mission focused on Smart Environment, Smart Society, and Smart Economy as the concrete manifestation in supporting the realization of smart city. The purpose of this research is to describe the implementation of smart city and the challenges in implementing and developing smart city in Palangka Raya. This research uses a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach by using in-depth interviews, observation, and literature to collect data. Implementing smart city has become one of the development priorities in the city of Palangka Raya. However, the implementation has not been optimal since it is only focused on developing Internet networks in public spaces. The local government is also trying to develop applications and websites for public services. Various challenges are faced by the local government to develop smart city concept in Palangka Raya, especially to provide infrastructure which is constrained by the geographical conditions, limited budget, and the low quality of human resources.

Fikri Rafif Suprayitna, Latifah Asri Munawaroh, Mustafa Al Azmi, Aidha Imtinan Besari, Rini Rachmawati

Online Real Time (ORT) Waste Management Through “Si Detektif Sampah” Application in Implementing Smart City in Palangka Raya City

Waste management is the main concern in handling environmental problems in urban areas. This management includes transportation and processing of domestically generated waste. Palangka Raya City as the capital of Central Kalimantan Province is increasingly finding it difficult to manage waste with the safety of misuse of trucks which causes an increase in landfill that cannot be transported and processed properly. Palangka Raya City Government through the Office of Public Housing and Settlement Area then developed “Si Detektif Sampah” (an Information, Detection, and Education System) application that displays route visualization for the most effective route transport transportation and route planning that uses online real-time fleet control. This application is GPS based which could be accessed anytime and anywhere and thus monitors waste transportation to be carried out sustainably. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative through in-depth interviews. The results of the study show that this application could cut the misuse of trucks to reduce landfill waste while implementing technology-based smart city in Palangka Raya City.

Haddad Al Rasyid Sukawan, Bias Osean Ali, I Made Arya Widhyastana, Rini Rachmawati

Utilization of Human Resources Management Information System (SIMPEG) Application to Support E-Government in the BKPP at Palangka Raya Municipality

Dynamic city development produces opportunities for innovation in managing the government sector. Technological innovation in the governmental sector is implemented in the form of e-government. In the process of e-government, the government of Palangka Raya Municipality through Personnel, Education, and Training Agency (BKPP) creates and implements Human Resources Management Information System (SIMPEG). The purposes of this research are to find out the application of SIMPEG in the local government and to identify the driving factors and inhibitors of its application. This research uses a qualitative descriptive method, where data is obtained from the results of in-depth interviews with employees responsible for implementing SIMPEG on BKPP. The research results show that the application of SIMPEG in the e-government of Palangka Raya Municipality could help in assessing the performance of the State Civil Apparatus (ASN), and also able to present information on each ASN staff in detail.

Puja Dania Almira, Bergita Gusti Lipu, Aditya Widya Pradipta, Rini Rachmawati

Evaluation of Urbanites’ Perception About Livable City Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP): A Case Study of Dhaka City

Urban livability, an implicitly and intensely debated concept, is extensively being used by the urban planners and policymakers for incorporating sustainable, inclusive city for all. But the conception of the term should not be rigidly limited under the boundaries of academics rather the perception of general people is highly necessary to diagnose the prime constraints for ensuring a livable city. Due to rapid and unplanned urbanization, Dhaka city has been experiencing extreme problems creating serious nuisance of urban livability. The objective of this study is to statistically evaluate the conception of dwellers of Dhaka city regarding the urban issues they face on regular basis as an impediment for ensuring livability. An individual resident’s perspective has been studied qualitatively and purposively using Analytical Hierarchy Method (AHP) from 100 students of age group 19–20 years. The factors influencing the livability of urban environment are studied under these parameters—Healthy Physical Environment, Economic Stability, Availability of Fresh Food, Transportation and Mobility, Utilities and Services Functionality, Social Equity and Justice, Accommodation Convenience and Quality Health Care. After analyzing, different factors under each issue were ranked. Major complications have been explored, e.g., noise pollution, corruption, unhealthy food consumption, sexual harassment, waterlogging, unsafe and insecure environment, lack of standard medical service, high house rent, etc. which are creating the nuisance for Dhaka city’s livability and making Dhaka as the second least livable city in the world.

Raisa Sultana, Afrida Asad

Integrated Planning and Development

Frontmatter

Urban Migrant Labor: Public Spaces and Social Integration (Review on Studies in Vietnam)

Urban migration is an indispensable tendency of urbanization. Migrant workers contribute much to the development of cities as well as the welfare of communities and families. Based on analyzing research on four migrant workers including street vendors, industrial workers, domestic helpers, small-service sector workers, the article shows up a picture of living conditions, jobs, and use of public spaces of migrant workers. The approaches and use of public spaces for their earnings for living, relaxing, and widening their social relations play a significant role toward social integration in their new destination. Research shows that unskilled migrant workers are a group suffering much discrimination in social relations and using public services. The differences among culture, lifestyles, and social prejudice as well as shortcomings in urban management policies are huge obstacles in social integration of migrant workers. Moreover, the article initially identifies factors motivating and hindering migrants’ access and use of public spaces.

Pham Quynh Huong, Hoang Vu Linh Chi, Nguyen Tuan Minh, Luong Thuy Duong, Do Thi Ngan, Phan Thi Song Thuong

ReStructuring Urban Space of Hanoi City on the Basis of Urban Mass Transit Development

The appearance of mass rapid transit in megacities like Hanoi is now changing the current urban structure and land-use. According to experiences in many cities in the world, urban structure will transfer from central-core structure with spreading development on the basis of street networks designed for private vehicles to poly-centric structure with central development based on the public transportation framework, around stations in order to efficiently exploit transit services. Development potentials of these areas vary depending on the importance of transportation nodes, quality of connecting infrastructure, and urban facilities, as well as the possibility of utilizing land value and job opportunities there. Classification of stations, transit hubs, and affected areas will help policymakers to orientate the development of land, infrastructure, and urban services conforming current conditions of each area. This paper initially studies about the theory and forecast of restructuring Hanoi’s urban space with the support of public transportation.

Nguyen Thi Thanh Mai, Nguyen Thi Mai Chi

Urban Slums and Affordable Housing

Frontmatter

Informality in the Southern City; An Enquiry into Informal Practices in Housing

As the Southern City continues to expand, much of the housing space created in it is termed informal. However, there is still much to understand about the range of informal housing—both in and outside the slum—in terms of housing tenure, how informality is defined and how access to housing is negotiated. This paper aims to look at the ways in which informal housing is created and understood in the megacities of the Global South. It uncovers some of the actual practices followed to gain access to informal housing, with special reference to Bangalore in India. This access to housing is viewed in terms of its location across the city, the arrangements entered in to access it and the connectedness between housing and economic activity, enabling an understanding of the dynamics that create informal housing arrangements. A bifocal view of informal housing from academic and empirical perspectives is used to shed light on three important nuances in the understanding of informality of housing. The findings from the study shed light on the wide variety of legal and illegal arrangements that fall under the bracket of informal housing. It is hoped that these findings will contribute to a shift in the understanding of informality of housing in the Southern City, which can contribute to a shift in the legal and contractual environment, calling for more flexibility and creativity in the housing arrangements it allows for. Ultimately this paper will enhance the understanding of cities and will highlight the fact that the city is not created by planners and managers only, but by every resident who inhabits it.

Ruhamah Thejus

Upgrading Slums in India

Slums, the vulnerable spaces in the urban centers, lack fundamental resources and capabilities and result due to failure of policies, bad governance, corruption, inappropriate regulation, dysfunctional land markets, unresponsive financial systems, a fundamental lack of political will, rural-urban migration, urbanization, poor housing planning, poor infrastructure, social exclusion and economic stagnation, informal economy, poverty, politics, social conflicts, natural disasters, etc. Upgrading slums is a process of improving basic municipal infrastructure services such as access to potable water, sanitation, toilets, waste collection, access roads, paved foot paths, storm drainage, electricity, street lighting, public telephones, regularizing security of land tenure, and affordable housing improvements, as well as improving access to health, education, training, food and nutrition, child care, transportation, and other municipal services. Objective of this paper is to assess an improvement in various aspects relating to upgrading slums. This paper is based on the data collected from the Census of India, 2001 and 2011 and National Sample Survey Sixty-ninth Round conducted during July–December 2012. For the analysis of upgradation of slums, a Composite Z score was calculated by employing important demographic and economic variables. Findings show some improvement in respect of road, water supply, street lights, electricity, latrine facility, sewerage, drainage, garbage disposal, educational facility at primary level, and medical facilities over a period between 2007 and 2012. Spatial analysis shows a sharp regional difference in the level of slum upgradation in India. This paper is supported by the relevant cartographic representations.

Braj Raj Kumar Sinha

Status of Elementary Educational Facilities in Slums Across Different States of India

Education is an important ingredient of human resource development. It contributes to well-being of individuals by improving income and standard of living. Elementary education in India, in general, has shown considerable improvement over the past few decades, but the educational level of slum residents in India is very low, and there is an urgent need to improve the educational achievement of urban slums. The objectives of this paper are to: find out the availability of the government primary school in slums across different states of India, analyze the improvement in the condition of primary level educational facilities during 2007–2012, and demonstrate the sources of improvement in the condition of educational facilities at primary level in slums of India. The results show that 59.40% of slums were within the distance of half kilometer from the government primary schools. Improvement in the educational facilities at primary level during 2007–2012 was reported by 30% of slums, and “no improvement” by 57% of slums. At India Level, less than 1% and in West Bengal 4% of the total slums reported decline in the elementary level educational facilities. Out of the total improvement at the primary level educational facilities in slums in India has been found by the effort of government of India and 17% by the NGOs; however, some variations have also been noted across different states of India.

Prabhakar Nishad, Braj Raj Kumar Sinha

Concept, Status, and Progress of Affordable Housing in Urban India

In urban area, the prices of real estate and land are very high. This forced the economically weaker section of the society to live in a marginal land with pitiable housing condition in combination with congestion and lack of basic amenities. The poor people can only afford cost of house up to five times of their annual income, and Equated Monthly Installment (EMI) or rent should be less than 30% of their monthly income. The high land price and cost of building materials are rising year by year especially in urban areas. So, making affordable housing and providing it to poor becomes a daunting task. The objectives of this paper are to i. throw light on the concept of affordable housing with special reference to India, ii. find out shortage of affordable urban housing among different economic categories, iii. demonstrate variation in the spatial pattern of shortage of affordable urban housing across different states in India, iv. map out progress of “Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban)—Housing for All” across different states in India, and v. point out problem and its possible solution relating to affordable housing for urban poor in India. Findings show that 88% of total shortage of affordable urban housing pertains to Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) and another 11% for Lower-Income Groups (LIG). There is state-wise variation in the shortage of affordable housing in urban India. The present rate of growth of PMAY-U is very less. Therefore, there is need for accelerating the present growth rate to achieve the target of building 18 million houses.

Braj Raj Kumar Sinha, Prabhakar Nishad

Slums, Squatter Settlements and Affordable Housing in the Dhaka Metropolitan Area

Dhaka Metropolitan Area accommodates about ten million people of whom at least four million live in about 3500 slums and squatter settlements of the city. About 80% of these settlements are owned by private owners who rent out their slum houses to the poor. Most of the slum dwellers are renters and pay very high house rent as there is no institutional mechanism to control rent hike. Various studies show that the slum dwellers pay comparatively a higher amount as house rent per unit area than the middle-income people. Even they pay more for the utility services than those are paid by the middle-income households. This is a paradox that the poor spend more than the middle and even the high-income people for housing, while their affordability is low. The paper examines this paradox taking example of poor workers’ housing provision in the slum areas of Dhaka. The poor workers experience severe housing crisis, as their affordability is low. At present they spend about Taka 4,000 to 5,000 for about one hundred square feet of floor space in slum areas, which is equivalent to 20–40% of their total household income. Although they pay so high for housing, cannot afford to own even a small unit due to high land price and lack of credit facilities. The housing market is totally controlled by the private sector, where the government or institutional arrangements for making provisions for housing the poor are conspicuously absent. In such situation, the poor face increasingly tougher challenges to own accommodation and survive in Dhaka Metropolitan Area.

Nurul Islam Nazem, Shahana Sultana

Evaluation of the Residential Satisfaction in Affordable Housing for Low-Income People and Its Social Impact on Urban Planning in Hanoi, Vietnam

Providing appropriate housing for the people is one the responsibilities of the governments. In recent years, the government of Vietnam decided to implement the affordable housing for low-income households with many projects in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city. The aim of this research was to evaluate the satisfaction rate of affordable housing residents in Hanoi, where the population density is extremely high and the average income is low, compared to the housing price. This research used survey methods, data analysis, statistical methods, comparison and expert method. A field survey was implemented for data collection. The main fieldwork was undertaken during June 2019 and August 2019 in Linh Dam, Hanoi. Findings revealed that the overall level of satisfaction of the residential environment, including housing features and services, is moderate. However, this level of satisfaction is not constant; rather, it fluctuates across the variables of housing features, service quality, and environmental policies. This paper also examined the determinants of residential satisfaction and its social impact on urban planning in Hanoi. The overall conclusion is that attempts to improve low-income housing and the surrounding services may result in improving overall satisfaction.

Trinh Thi Kieu Trang, Bui Ngoc Tu

Intergenerational Perspective on Right to the City in Relation to Changing Nature of Social Contracts in the Slums of South Delhi

Slums are an outcome of the dependent urbanisation process in most of the post-colonial countries. The nature of dependence was such that it siphoned off indigenous resources to subsidise the development of the metropolis at the cost of its own population. Deteriorating economic conditions along with growing population pressure compelled the urban settlers to compromise on the quality of environment, comforts, dignity and security that became precarious over time. Drawing from the Lefebvrian concept of ‘Right to the City’, this paper attempts to chart the intergenerational shifting goalposts of expectations of new social contract among slum dwellers regarding their rights to affordable housing, privacy and security of the most vulnerable sections of inhabitants (children, women, senior citizens and differently abled persons) of Kusumpur Pahari, New Delhi. The study area is a spatially compact, yet socioculturally layered slum juxtaposed with affluent neighbourhoods, state-of-the-art shopping malls dotted with ultra-modern housing colonies of foreign diplomats and the bureaucrats in its vicinity. The concept of ‘congestion’ expressed in terms of the availability of exclusive rooms for married couples within the question of ‘housing inadequacy’ is explored through in-depth interviews of the residents of the slum. The first-generation settlers’ struggles to create a ‘socially just city’ find articulation in the aspirations of the formally educated younger generation of slum dwellers who express their desire to be a part of the decision-making process of city building just as they create the ‘oeuvre’ of the city through their quotidian practices of the production of urban space.

Swagata Basu, Gloria Kuzur

Urban Renewal and Redevelopment

Frontmatter

From Welfare to Participation—The Changing Narratives of Slum Rehabilitation and Housing for the Urban Poor in Delhi

Slum evictions and resettlement colonies have been a part of Delhi’s urban history since the late 1950s. As the central space of political power and administration, Delhi’s history of political contestations has shaped its housing practices pertaining to the urban poor. Post-colonial Delhi prior to liberalization of the Indian market saw housing for the urban poor as a ‘welfare benefit’ to be provided to the low-income groups with the help of the civil society. Neoliberal Delhi views the same benefit as an opportunity for a ‘slum-free’ city with ‘world-class’ infrastructure by way of public–private participation. What were the processes which brought about this shift in the narrative and approach of housing and urban redevelopment in Delhi? The advent of the market in housing for the urban poor is a fairly recent phenomenon with its own peculiarities. The present work analyses the neoliberal turn in housing for the urban poor in Delhi through its housing policies, plans and an ethnographic case study of its pilot in situ slum rehabilitation project under public–private participation in Kathputli Colony. It attempts to review the stronghold of the state–market nexus in the development of lower income groups and consequent problems of inclusivity and right to the city.

Ushosee Pal

Information Economy, Employment Vulnerability, and the Emergence of New Urban Marginality in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

The twenty-first century is witnessing huge remarks in the informationalization of the world economy and the restructuration of the capitalist economy as a side effect. The paper aims to explore the new urban marginality due to the rise of information-based economy in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The study is based on the theoretical frameworks of Castells, Sassen, Fainstein, and Friedman and Wolff. The study reveals that most of the poor people living in these neighborhoods are involved in the informal sectors of the economy where they have to work long hours and they receive lower income. It further reveals that the poor are marginalized due to their poverty and illiteracy about technology and thus they are denied the access to the urban services as well. The study argues that due to the intervention of information as well as technology-based economy economic restructuration taken place and changes becoming visible in the economic sphere particularly in the job market which discriminates the urban poor and illiterate mostly.

Rasel Hussain

Breakthrough to Promote the Urban Economy of Vietnam Urban System in the Forthcoming Period

Nowadays, urban areas with a high concentration of economic activities are considered as the main driving forces that have contributed up to 70–80% GDP growth for countries having a high rate of urbanisation. In Viet Nam, this contribution also has witnessed up to 70% of gross domestic product (GDP). Therefore, it is extremely important to set up urbanization policies and strategies to maximize the economic promoting role of urban areas. Recently, Viet Nam’s urban development model mainly focusing on spatial organization but paying less attention to economic space arrangement and management driven by the market has constrained cities’ GDP contribution as well as strong economic growth. By reviewing the situation, characteristic, and process of Viet Nam urbanization recently, the article synthesizes lessons learned about the relationship between the urbanization process and the economic contribution role of the urban areas. The article then comes up with breakthrough suggestions to promote the role of the urban economy for Vietnamese urban system in the forthcoming period.

Quoc Toan Nguyen, Thi Nhu Dao

Research Proposal for Orientation for Urban Opening Planning Area in Ha Dong District, Ha Noi City

In the process of industrialization–modernization of the country, the urban environment in Vietnam is very lacking in open space areas. Hanoi is one of the two cities with the highest urbanization rate in the country. In 2017, Hanoi had an additional 11 million m2 of houses, 100 times higher than the record of 0.11 million m2 of housing construction in Hanoi in 1978 (Nguyen in Vietnam Architect Mag 05, 2018). However, the area of public space in residential areas has been encroached as a place of business, parking, housing construction to serve the purpose of economics (Nguyen in Vietnam Architect Mag 05, 2018). Among the districts of Hanoi, Ha Dong is considered one of the districts with the largest urban construction and development in recent years. Thereby, the research uses the method of forecasting the land use demand of people in Ha Dong District, identifying the open space needed to meet that demand in the next planning period 2020–2030. In addition, the research results present an overview of open space research in the world as well as in Vietnam, assess the current situation of open space and identify open space planning options in Ha Dong District, Hanoi City.

Vu Khac Hung, Tran Van Tuan

Comparative Study of the Patterns and Characteristics Urban Morphology of the Old City, Bengkulu, and Singapore that Has Relation to Historical Background

Urban morphology is an applied science that learns about the history of the spatial patterns of a city and learns about the development of a city. The old town area of Bengkulu was an English-built city from 1719, while Singapore was a British formation city as well, due to the London Treaty agreement occurring between the two regions. This paper aims to be a comparison study between two cities with historical linkages in terms of identifying patterns and characteristics of its city morphology. This research is quantitative descriptive research using two analytical techniques, namely diachronic reading and typo-morphology. The indicators used to acquire patterns and characteristics of the urban morphology are Bengkulu and Singapore, which are aspects of detail consisting of buildings and materials, road and block patterns, land use activities, and open spaces. The second indicator is a city layout aspect consisting of spatial patterns and environmental compositions awakened. Through this research is expected to get similarities and differences in the patterns and characteristics the morphological of both cities. This study will provide an overview and input for the development planning of the more advanced city of Bengkulu.

Fitrianty Wardhani, Samsul Bahri
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