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About this book

This book features the latest research in the area of immersive technologies, presented at the 5th International Augmented and Virtual Reality Conference, held in Munich, Germany in 2019. Bridging the gap between academia and industry, it presents the state of the art in augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) technologies and their applications in various industries such as marketing, education, healthcare, tourism, events, fashion, entertainment, retail and the gaming industry.

The volume is a collection of research papers by prominent AR and VR scholars from around the globe. Covering the most significant topics in the field of augmented and virtual reality and providing the latest findings, it is of interest to academics and practitioners alike.

Table of Contents


AR and VR in Business, Retail and Marketing


Brand Experience via Mobile AR App Marketing

The current study adapts holiday mobile marketing to consumer AR experiences by adding an additional dynamic: shared social experience. It therefore contributes to the literature related to both holiday mobile marketing and AR marketing. The study tested the efficacy of holiday AR technology marketing by enhancing authentic brand experiences and engagement. The study aims to apply the Experience Economy framework to AR marketing with additional constructs in order to understand consumer brand experience processes (mediation effects) by measuring consumer responses.

Eunyoung (Christine) Sung

Inside Advertising: The Role of Presence in the Processing of Branded VR Content

Virtual reality (VR) has become a new playground for brands and advertisers. However, empirical evidence for the effectiveness of VR branded content is still scarce. The aim of this study is therefore to examine the effectiveness of branded content in virtual space and the role of presence in the processing of brand information when playing a branded VR game. An experiment (N = 81) was conducted (using HTC Vive hardware) and showed that playing branded VR games can improve (implicit) brand memory. Moreover, the study showed that the increase in immersion experienced from playing a branded VR game strengthens players’ brand memory.

Zeph M. C. van Berlo, Eva A. van Reijmersdal, Edith G. Smit, L. Nynke van der Laan

How to Engage Fashion Retail with Virtual Reality: A Consumer Perspective

Highly valued consumer experiences occur when designers understand how emerging technology—such as Virtual Reality—is presented in an emotionally engaging format. For fashion retailers to ensure longevity through new retail models, designers must understand how Virtual Reality can offer an exceptional retail experience. Our research addresses this question by interviewing 22 young professionals on attitudes towards Virtual Reality, motivation to shop through v-Commerce, and the moderating variables that influence virtual environment perceptions. Our results prove consumers expect a vivid shopping environment, with authentic product features instead of than more common simulated environment. We prove hedonically motivated consumers are more open to v-Commerce than utilitarian consumers, and Consumers aged 18–34 regard interactivity, personalisation, and social networking as critical to offering that a cost-efficiency shopping experience. This paper thus establishes the fundamental design rules for v-Commerce platforms, allowing designers to create effective retail environments, sympathetic to the consumer’s cognitive desires.

Liangchao Xue, Christopher J. Parker, Cathryn A. Hart

Enhancing Product Configuration and Sales Processes with Extended Reality

The advent of extended reality (XR) technologies is opening new doors for augmenting customer experience and enhancing sales processes. XR is promising not only for enhancing new product visualizations, and supporting sales processes by fostering discussions, but also for placing an emotional and tangible connect to future product designs. In this paper, state of the art and challenges of XR-based group product configuration for industrial applications are discussed. A solution concept and prototype for virtual and augmented reality is presented, with group configuration features for collaboration. Evaluation concepts and design insights are drawn out.

Anuja Hariharan, Nico Pfaff, Fabian Manz, Fabian Raab, Artur Felic, Thomas Kozsir

“I See Myself, Therefore I Purchase”: Factors Influencing Consumer Attitudes Towards m-Commerce AR Apps

Mobile commerce (m-commerce) is starting to represent a significant share of e-commerce. The use of Augmented Reality (AR) by brands to convey information about their products—within the store and mainly as mobile apps—makes it possible for researchers and managers to understand consumer reactions. Although attitudes towards AR have been studied, the overall effect of distinct aspects such as the influence of others, the imagery, projection and perceived presence, has not been tackled as far as we know. Therefore, we conducted a study on 218 undergraduate students, using a pre-test post-test experimental design to address the following questions: (1) Do AR media characteristics affect consumer attitudes towards the medium in a mobile shopping context? Also, (2) Do the opinion and physical presence of people influence the attitude towards an m-commerce AR app? It found that AR characteristics such as projection and imagery positively influence attitudes towards m-commerce AR apps, whereas social variables did not have any influence.

Mafalda Teles Roxo, Pedro Quelhas Brito

Consumers’ Emotional Response to the Use of Augmented Reality (AR): An Exploratory Study

Most of the empirical studies on augmented reality (AR) in marketing have focused primarily on the cognitive perspective. Considering only a handful of research on AR in consumer behaviour include emotion variables, this paper aims at exploring consumers’ acceptance toward AR application by identifying emotions associated with the use of AR application. A multi-method design is selected for the study in order to gain rich insights. From the focus group interviews, consumers’ emotions associated with AR application are explored. Emotions, attitude, desire and intention related themes are identified. Based on these themes and participants’ socio-psychological characteristics obtained using a structured format during the focus group, a set of propositions related to consumers’ acceptance towards AR application are presented. A conceptual framework for empirical validation is proposed for a subsequent study.

Pei-Shan Soon, Sanjaya Singh Gaur, Jessica Sze-Yin Ho

Exploring How Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality Technologies Impact Business Model Innovation in Technology Companies in Germany

Newly-emerging, digitally-based technological innovations, such as augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR), are new drivers for business model innovation. This study aims to develop a better understanding of the impact of AR/VR technologies on business model innovation in technology companies. The objective of the study is “to explore the impact of augmented reality and virtual reality technologies on business model innovation in technology companies in Germany”. This paper investigates the body of knowledge regarding contemporary business model innovation and presents a conceptual framework to guide the research. The philosophical underpinnings of the study are discussed, and the chosen research methodology is justified. A holistic multiple-case study design targets German business-to-business technology companies employing AR/VR technologies to innovate their business models. The paper concludes with a discussion of initial learnings garnered from the implementation of a pre-pilot case study test run, and a full pilot case study.

Richard Hagl, Aidan Duane

Implementation of Augmented Reality in Manufacturing: A Case Study Exercise

Many companies are facing challenges implementing AR in various disciplines, including manufacturing. Against this background, there is a high demand to learn about major obstacles that come up during the implementation of AR in manufacturing, and to discuss strategies how to overcome those barriers. This current case study exercise resulted from an AREA-funded research project in collaboration with the xreality lab at the Bundeswehr University Munich. It presents a realistic situation of a fictitious yachting company that is confronted with multiple obstacles that come up with the implementation of AR in manufacturing. Trainers and educators can apply this case study. Participants of the case study should understand the challenges of implementing AR and discuss ideas of how to deal with these situations in real-life. Multiple approaches can be used to find answers to the proposed questions, such as (1) group discussions, (2) research in academic and industry publications (such as blog), and/or (3) interviews or discussions with experts.

Katrin E. Brunner, Christine Perey, Philipp A. Rauschnabel, Mark Sage

Augmented Reality in Training Processes with VISCOPIC

It is an ongoing challenge for companies in all industries to train their employees. Augmented Reality (AR) is a promising approach to make such trainings more effective and more efficient. In this chapter, we provide insights into how AR can improve corporate trainings. Therefore, we present insights into the implementation of AR training tools at Deutsche Bahn (the largest German railway company) and the Audi Quality Management Centre (automotive). Both companies applied the VISCOPIC Pins solution on a Microsoft HoloLens Device.

Thomas Knauer-Arnold

Virtual Reality Becoming Part of Our Lives—Assessing Consumers’ Perceived Applicability of Virtual Reality Supported Tasks and a Critical Reflection on the Development

With virtual reality technology rapidly advancing, virtual reality glasses can be used for a growing number of tasks and thus become increasingly integrated in consumers’ lives. The present study reanalyzes an existing dataset from a quantitative study with 611 German consumers to assesses their perceived applicability of virtual reality glasses in various tasks. Further, this study identifies situations and explores the relationship of virtual reality tasks with attitudes and purchase intention of virtual reality glasses. Finally, the present paper offers a critical reflection on the increasing adoption of technology in our everyday lives from an ethical and sociological perspective and offers impulses for future research.

Marc Herz, Vanessa Rahe

AR and VR for City Planning, Smart Cities and Autonomous Vehicles


Mixed Reality Media-Enabled Public Participation in Urban Planning

A Literature Review

Public participation in urban planning processes is affected by what is known as the “paradox of participation”: in early planning phases, when there is still sufficient room for decision-making, only a few citizens participate, while in late phases, when decisions can usually only be revised at great expense, a high level of public participation can be observed. The resulting delayed and more costly planning processes could be partially prevented by shifting public participation activities from late to early phases of planning processes. The reasons for the low level of participation of citizens in early planning phases are seen as the lack of clarity and the absence of concern due to a high level of abstraction. In this article, we examine the approach of using Mixed Reality (MR) media to remedy the paradox of participation in planning processes. Methodically, the context of MR media in urban planning is developed initially. Then the results of a literature study on MR media in urban planning are presented. Finally, the advantages of the use of MR media in urban planning contexts are summarized. In summary, MR media appear to be a promising approach for resolving the paradox of participation. However, future work should systematically structure MR media in urban planning according to characteristics supported, such as application contexts, planning objectives and modes of collaboration.

Mario Wolf, Heinrich Söbke, Florian Wehking

Digital Topographies. Using AR to Represent Archival Material in Urban Space

In this paper we discuss how Augmented Reality as a form of spatial computing can contribute to the concept of a “mediated city”, and tackle possible problems that we understand as conflicts between different modes of spatial perception. In reference to Spatial Sociology we assume that space includes a physical dimension as well as a social dimension and discuss a multidimensional framework to analyze AR applications. We argue that spatial computing provides a digital topography that creates new ways of understanding and orientation as well as multidimensional problems. As an example we present an immersive city tour we realized in Hamm, North Rhine-Westphalia in 2018 in collaboration with the city’s archive and the Ministry of Culture in NRW.

Sebastian Pranz, Simon Nestler, Klaus Neuburg

Designing Tomorrow’s Human-Machine Interfaces in Autonomous Vehicles: An Exploratory Study in Virtual Reality

Technical advances in the automotive industry strive in the direction of full automation. However, besides advantages like improving traffic and fuel efficiency, people do not always trust Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) to make critical decisions. With the ultimate goal of reducing anxiety of passengers of AVs, this explorative study (i) proposes possible design concepts and variants for Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI) for passengers inside the AV using a requirements catalogue, (ii) evaluates the HMI concepts and variants thanks to an experience simulation in Virtual Reality (VR), and (iii) derives the most suitable HMI concept and refines it based on observations of participants’ behaviours during the experience simulation in VR, as well as questionnaires and interviews. The results show that the HMI concepts help passengers to reduce anxiety in the AV. Overall, VR turned out to be a suitable tool for this exploratory study. Further work will focus on testing HMI concepts in a variety of more complex scenarios to ensure user acceptance.

Sebastian Stadler, Henriette Cornet, Danqing Huang, Fritz Frenkler

Using Augmented Reality Technology to Construct a Venue Navigation and Spatial Behavior Analysis System

Augmented reality (AR) technology has received much attention in recent years. Following Apple’s launch of ARKit and Google’s ARCore in 2017, AR has become more integrated into daily living via the smart phone. This paper focuses on guided tour services which utilize AR technology and presents an AR-based build for a spatial behavior analysis system. The system primarily services viewers, content providers, and researchers. The system’s functionalities include (1) allowing content providers to customize the guide’s target positioning and information, (2) offering an AR-guided tour mode for viewers, (3) recording and visualizations of the spatial behavior data of the viewer which is subsequently (4) uploaded to a cloud server for further research and analysis. The benefits of the system to future academic research include indoor direction indication methods, best route query, indoor foot traffic data analysis, optimization of directing viewers from one area to the next and others, all of which offers ways forward towards improving or even changing the visual presentation experience.

Chun-I Lee, Fu-Ren Xiao, Yi-Wen Hsu

Endless City Driver: Procedural Generation of Realistic Populated Virtual 3D City Environment

Building realistic living cities with people inside is useful for many applications like movies, computer games, and virtual reality (VR). However, algorithms that produce (i.e., procedurally generate) endless realistic cities are still scarce when simulating big cities. In this paper, we report on research that explores the design of a city generator algorithm that solves the problem of procedurally generating a realistic 3D endless city from “glueing together” a limited number of city tiles. Additionally, a new kind of pedestrian system is introduced that solves typical performance problems of a baseline pedestrian system. The inner workings of the city generator algorithm are described in detail, and solutions to problems encountered are discussed. We found that the city generator algorithm works in practice using a driving simulator. The research provides new insights into how it is possible to generate realistic endless cities, including simulated pedestrians.

Werner Gaisbauer, Jonas Prohaska, Ulrich Schweinitzer, Helmut Hlavacs

Using 5G Mobile to Enable the Growing Slate of VR and AR Applications

With the arrival of the fifth generation (5G) radio access, there are numerous opportunities and challenges for the new worlds of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR). This abstract examines the promises of 5G networks, the future needs of VR and AR, and how 5G will integrate with VR and AR, including the impact of edge computing on VR and AR and the benefits that edge computing will offer in an intelligent 5G mobile environment. The possible challenges on devices and power consumption are also discussed. We take AR navigation as a mobility-based example to explain how 5G will enable AR and compare the different AR experiences.

Yufeng Zhuang, Tong Qu, Jolly Wong, Wanggen Wan, M. Claudia tom Dieck, Timothy Jung

AR and VR for Health and Wellbeing


Impact of Virtual Embodiment on the Perception of Virtual Heights

In Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, virtual reality is used to simulate threatening environments and stimuli, allowing patients to be exposed to their fear. Presence, the ‘sense of being there’, is widely assumed to be crucial for fear responses. It can be enhanced by full-body ownership and agency—the illusory perception that an artificial body is one’s own and that a person is himself the cause for the movements of that body. This study investigated the effects of a virtual full-body representation on the perception of virtual heights. Results revealed that coherent stimuli successfully enabled a virtual embodiment, while subjects with acrophobic tendencies showed fear responses to virtual heights. However, effects were neither found on fear, nor on presence nor on self-confidence nor on physiological responses. These findings suggest that virtual embodiment has no significant influence on the efficacy of a VRET for fear of heights.

Eduard Wolf, Thomas Schüler, Karsten Morisse

AR and VR in Theatre Productions and Journalism


Humanising AR in Design: Introducing Digital and Physical People to an Augmented Reality Design Visualisation Process for Theatre

What is the effect on the theatrical production design process when a design team uses holographic AR visualisations to view the scenery before it has been commissioned to be built? Bringing digital images into the physical world may provide new opportunities to test ideas and create new ones. This question is being tested on a professional production team as they develop the new work; Rejoicing at Her Wondrous Vulva, The Young Lady Applauded Herself at the Ovalhouse Theatre in Oval, London.

James Simpson

The Use of VR in Journalism: Current Research and Future Opportunities

Virtual reality (VR) is more and more used in journalism since 2015 and research is trying to keep the pace. This paper gives an overview of the existing academic research on the topic. First, key concepts are defined, as some terms, such as immersion and presence, are used in various fields with slightly different meaning. Second, the existing research on the use of VR is presented. Research on production mainly analyses challenges of the new technology and ethical issues, while studies on audience are rather empirical, looking at the users’ reactions to the new medium, compared to the classical TV and print. Finally, the state-of-the art is discussed and some research gaps are pointed out, followed by recommendations for further research.

Irina Tribusean

AR and VR in Production and Manufacturing


Open Source Augmented Reality Applications for Small Manufacturing Businesses

This paper evaluates the possibility of implementation of a low cost augmented reality application for machine maintenance in small manufacturing businesses. Here, an open source cross platform software development kit ARToolkit was chosen, since it offers a real time marker based tracking function. As hardware, the smart glasses R7 (ODG) and a handheld device (Samsung Galaxy S3) were considered. The application was tested on a typical milling machine used in a small size tool manufacturing company. For this purpose, its maintenance procedure was extracted from a paper-based documentation and the information provided by the workers. The AR assisted procedure was implemented using markers and an intern data server providing instructions via Wi-Fi. A maintenance demonstration was successfully performed both with a smartphone and a smart glass in the laboratory and machine hall environments.

Marina Kühn-Kauffeldt, Jörg Böttcher

Customer Integration Through Virtual Reality Implementation: A SWOT Analysis in the Area of Production Systems

During the last few years, the use of virtual reality (VR) technologies has become firmly established in large enterprises. In this article, the authors question the potential of implementing VR technologies to improve business to business (B2B) customer integration in the area of production systems. Many companies focus on increasing their customer orientation, and VR applications can provide greater integration into the service creation process. For clarification of the topic, a use case from plant engineering and mechanical engineering is presented. Technical opportunities and the risks of VR implementation for successful customer integration in the given use case are discussed. In addition, the resulting strengths and weaknesses for customer relationship management are shown. The article concludes with an outlook on future research needs.

Elisa Landmann, Jana Stolz-Römmermann, Tobias Günther

AR and VR in Education


Digital Literacies in Virtual Reality Learning Contexts

Recent virtual reality (VR) applications are on the cutting edge of learning technologies designed to trigger self-directed and holistic learning experiences. However, learning via and within VR does not start from scratch; it depends on our understanding of preceding learning technologies. This paper explores key tenets in the concept of digital literacies and discusses their applicability to VR-enhanced learning environments. More specifically, it focuses on meaning-making practices in 360-degree media that incorporate and expand upon skills and competencies associated with hypertextual reading and writing. Based on two prototype cases designed and implemented by students with no technical background knowledge, the paper identifies generic steps for the creation of 360-degree media learning environments. The student projects serve as a showcase for how VR development is moving beyond the specialized and exclusive domain of software engineers and becoming an increasingly textual practice that integrates and enhances skills and competencies associated with preceding writing technologies.

Volker Eisenlauer

Towards a Taxonomy of Virtual Reality Usage in Education: A Systematic Review

Virtual reality market is undergoing a rapid extension and continually evolves with technological advancements. Today it is populated with solutions which are complex in terms of interaction and graphics. One such example is applications for educational purposes, a distinct class of VR solutions, development of which implies consideration of multiple disciplines. However, there is still no standard general-purposes classification of those solutions. Different interested parties develop separate and mosaic categorizations based on their field, audience and purposes. This paper reviews reported classification schemes of using virtual reality for learning and summarizes them towards a taxonomy. It tries to implement a multidisciplinary approach, without focusing on one particular aspect, but rather integrating prospects from such fields as human-computer interaction, pedagogy, psychology, and technology. The paper provides a brief overview of existing veins of VR research on education and training as well as proposes relevant research directions.

Alina Makhkamova, Jan-Philipp Exner, Tobias Greff, Dirk Werth

Teaching VR in Higher Education with Collaborative Projects

This paper presents a didactical concept to introduce students from various disciplines to digital technology and specifically to Virtual Reality technology. The concept is embedded into a constructivist learning environment to increase active involvement, self-directed learning and eventually motivation of students. Furthermore, it is based on a homogenous introductory framework in order to allow for a common knowledge baseline for the subsequent discovery learning within diverse contexts. Two applications are presented: a university teaching module in tourism management as well as in business administration. First qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the concept show positive results not only with regard to knowledge acquisition but also in terms of social, emotional and active involvement of students.

Lars Brehm, Marion Rauscher, Andreas Humpe

AR and VR in Tourism, Museums and Events


The Impact of Mixed Reality on Visitors’ Experience in Museum. ‘The Ara As It Was’ Project in Rome

Although new realities are receiving increasing attention in tourism, the effect of them on cultural heritage has still not been fully answered and research on this topic is still in its infancy. This paper aims to contribute to advances in research on visitors’ experience analysis in museums, applying the Trunfio and Campana (Curr Issues Tourism 1–6, 2019) model for mixed reality in museums. The empirical analysis concerns ‘The Ara As It Was’, a mixed reality project installed in the iconic and historical Ara Pacis Museum in Rome (Italy). The findings, discussion and conclusion open new avenues of research and suggest managerial implications to improve museum competitiveness.

Mariapina Trunfio, Salvatore Campana, Adele Magnelli

A Classification of Virtual Reality Technology: Suitability of Different VR Devices and Methods for Research in Tourism and Events

The purpose of this study is to review previous literature on Virtual Reality in tourism and events and suggest suitable VR devices for diverse research purposes and methods of each study. This paper provides a classification of VR devices based on physical connectivity, tracking system, and user behaviour. Then, a systematic overview of recent VR research in tourism and event and recommendations of suitable VR devices for each study were provided. Twenty one academic articles were reviewed by two VR engineers and one tourism/event expert. The current analysis can be used as a guideline for researchers to identify the right VR technology to collect and measure more relevant data, which in turn will increase the validity of research in general. This paper offers managerial implications for industry practitioners as well.

Shinyong (Shawn) Jung, Jiyong Jeong

AR and VR in Research


Meta-Analysis of Global Activities in Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR)

Motivated by Mark Billinghurst’s work about where AR (Augmented Reality) research is taking place, we investigated where VR (Virtual Reality) and AR (Augmented Reality) research is happening around the world based on scholarly articles published in the IEEE VR (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Virtual Reality) and ISMAR (International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality) proceedings. We analysed a total of 414 papers published in the last six years from 2012 to 2017 at the ISMAR and IEEE VR. The study shows that the USA leads both VR and AR research followed by Germany and France. The number of published VR papers seems increasing, on the other hand, the number of published AR papers seems slightly decreasing.

Johan Pognon, Jacques Chi, Alexandre Salabert, Kangsoo Kim, Si Jung Kim

Dependability Analysis of High-Consequence Augmented Reality Systems

Research on Augmented Reality (AR) has gained traction due to its plethora of benefits and range of applications. In high-consequence environments where the failure of a system can have devastating effects on human life and/or the environment, dependability (that is reliability and availability) are of utmost importance. Therefore, AR systems that form part of or constitute a high-consequence system need to be evaluated for their dependability. Unfortunately, AR research lacks a significant focus on this. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a proven probabilistic risk analysis technique mainly used in engineering to analyse how the individual component failures of a system contribute to a total system failure. This research explores the use of an FTA-based technique for the dependability analysis of high-consequence AR systems. The proposed solution is applied to a real-world case study in the medical field and the results are discussed.

Ernest Edifor, Eleanor E. Cranmer

AR and VR App Design and Content Creation


A Case Introduction of ‘New Content Center’ Incubating System for New Media Contents Startups Managed by Korea Creative Content Agency

Many countries, cities, and individuals all over the world are paying attention to the changes of technological development in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and are putting a lot of efforts into the daily life. In the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the development of media technology is simply beyond the matter of how we can adapt to it. As the era of last industrial revolutions have always been, we must look for a positive change in our daily life and culture with a new frame. The Korean government is also making efforts to mature companies and foster ecological environment at the national level in the change of technological development. Such an effort should go beyond simply state administration, but at least we are receiving a clear message about what issues we should listen to now.

Junchul Lim

Virtual Reality in Lomonosov Moscow State University Interdisciplinary Research Illustrated by Moscow Bely Gorod Area Historical Reconstruction Example

This article is devoted to numerical optimization of three-dimensional user interface for virtual reconstruction of 16–18th centuries historical Moscow Centre landscape. Archaeological data was used to develop and visualize multiperiod reconstruction. We integrated the virtual reality solution based on the head mounted display and the motion tracking system. Interface elements should be placed near interactive objects (historic buildings). We need to optimize interface’s three-dimensional design to be operable by different sized and shaped users. Uncommon and unpredictable shapes of historic buildings used as restrictions for interface elements placement add more complexity to the optimization task. We chose the sum of user’s hand transition time from one interface element to another as an optimization functional. User’s hands sizes, interactive object’s position deviations, restrictions for interface elements’ placement was used as perturbations. The expected result of our project is the complex dynamic historical information platform, aimed to visualize a historical landscape in various time sections.

Leonid Borodkin, Lemak Stepan, Margarita Belousova, Anna Kruchinina, Maxim Mironenko, Viktor Chertopolokhov, Sergey Chernov

Simplifying Electronic Testing Environment with SLAM Based Handheld Augmented Reality System

Current electronic testing measurements during embedded software development lack simultaneous multiple real-time measurements with location-specific information. To address this problem with a focus on electronic subsystem testing in the space industry an Augmented Reality (AR) solution is presented in form of a technology demonstrator. This Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) system based on the Handheld Augmented Reality (HAR) concept provides an affordable zero-time installation augmented reality system that blends simultaneously multiple real-time measurements displayed exactly where they are measured. The system is composed of a handheld device and so-called Smart Probes, or miniature Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) devices attached electronically to the measured specimen. This system may, with further development, become an alternative to a multimeter, an oscilloscope, and a logic analyser.

Carlos Arias, Andoni Arregi, Fabian Schriever, David Martinez Oliveira

How Real Do You See Yourself in VR? The Effect of User-Avatar Resemblance on Virtual Reality Experiences and Behaviour

The aim of this study was to gain better insight into the effects of high and low avatar- owner resemblance on spatial presence, engagement, naturalness and negative effects regarding the user experience in an immersive virtual environment. Participants, between 18 and 32 years old, needed to walk on a 60 m high broken pathway in either a condition in which the shoes in VR matched the shoes they were wearing in reality (high resemblance condition) or not (seeing only generic shoes in a low resemblance condition). The results showed no differences between the conditions, despite that participants within the high avatar- owner resemblance perceived a higher similarity between themselves and their digitally displayed shoes and all liked to customize their shoes in VR. This results indicates that it is not a requirement to develop high avatar-owner resemblance in highly immersive virtual environments in which extreme situations are presented which trigger psychological arousal such as stress.

Marnix S. van Gisbergen, Ilay Sensagir, Joey Relouw
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