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2024 | Book

Automotive Human-Machine Interaction (HMI) Evaluation Method

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About this book

This book focuses on the evaluation methodology for automotive human-machine interaction (HMI), which aim to reduce driving distractions, lower operational loads, optimize user experience design, and enhance user value.

The book is divided into three parts. The first part, consisting of Chapters 1–3, introduces the evolution of automotive HMI and proposes a three-dimensional orthogonal evaluation system for automotive HMI that is comprehensive, systematic, and quantifiable. This evaluation system incorporates all evaluation items into a spatial matrix consisting of three dimensions: interaction tasks, interaction modalities, and evaluation indexes. The second part provides a comprehensive presentation and in-depth discussion of the evaluation indexes. The three rational evaluation indexes are utility, safety, and efficiency, which can be tested by the real-car driving simulator. The four emotional evaluation indexes are cognition, intelligence, value, and aesthetics. In orderto standardize the latter two subjective indexes, this book summarizes common differences in value between Chinese and European users and organizes typical aesthetic orientations in automotive UI based on art history research. The third part introduces the application of this HMI evaluation system in the automotive R&D process, including how to integrate the evaluation into a real product development process to achieve efficient product iteration.

This book is suitable for intelligent cockpit and HMI designers, engineers, and researchers. It is also used as a reference for product managers and students in the field of intelligent connected vehicles.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. HMI: An Important Trend in Automotive Development
Abstract
Human–machine interaction (HMI) is the study of the design, evaluation, implementation, and other related aspects of interactive machine systems intended for direct use by humans.
Jun Ma, Zaiyan Gong
Chapter 2. Overview of Automotive HMI Evaluation
Abstract
Automotive HMI evaluation is an emerging research area mainly based on automotive human factors and usability studies on HMI in non-automotive fields.
Jun Ma, Zaiyan Gong
Chapter 3. Structure of Automotive HMI Evaluation Systems
Abstract
Automotive performance evaluation is of great importance for engineering research and development as well as consumer purchasing choices. Despite automobiles being highly complex systems, almost every performance can be simplified into a few evaluation indexes, which are more convenient to operate and easier to communicate. For example, car power performance can be evaluated via engine horsepower, 0–100 km/h acceleration time, and maximum speed. The fuel economy can be evaluated in terms of its fuel consumption per 100 km. The handling stability can be evaluated via slalom and moose tests, among others.
Jun Ma, Zaiyan Gong
Chapter 4. Formulation of Automotive HMI Evaluation Indexes
Abstract
Evaluation indexes play a crucial role in the three-dimensional orthogonal automotive HMI evaluation system. Accordingly, when evaluation indexes are formulated, the design objectives of automotive HMI systems should be considered. Automotive HMI systems are not simple engineering systems. They have complex design objectives, with rational and emotional aspects, as well as tangible and intangible parts.
Jun Ma, Zaiyan Gong
Chapter 5. Utility
Abstract
Utility refers to the capacity of the automotive HMI system to perform specified interaction tasks effectively, accurately, and reliably. It is one of the three fundamental usability metrics, and is derived from the concept of effectiveness outlined in the ISO-9241 definition of usability.
Jun Ma, Zaiyan Gong
Chapter 6. Safety
Abstract
Safety refers to the ability of the automotive HMI system to suppress driver distraction and enhance driving safety while the driver is performing automotive HMI tasks during driving. Unlike other HMI evaluation indexes, safety is an evaluation index that is unique to automotive HMI. This is because most frequently used tasks in automotive HMI are typically secondary tasks that users need to perform while driving without significantly impacting driving safety. In contrast, for devices such as cell phones or computers, users can usually operate them with full attention without secondary tasks; therefore, there is no need for safety evaluation. Safety plays a special role in automotive HMI system evaluation as it does not evaluate the system itself, but rather the impact of it as a set of secondary tasks on another set of primary driving tasks. The balance between secondary and primary tasks is a major challenge in the design and evaluation of automotive HMI.
Jun Ma, Zaiyan Gong
Chapter 7. Efficiency
Abstract
Efficiency, one of the three basic usability indexes defined in the ISO-9241 international standard, refers to the resources consumed by the user and the HMI system for the completion of a specified interaction task. For users, the resources primarily include the task time, physical movements, and visual attention, whereas, for HMI systems, the resources primarily include the response time.
Jun Ma, Zaiyan Gong
Chapter 8. Cognition
Abstract
Cognition is an index originating from cognitive psychology. Within the context of automotive HMI systems, it refers to the system's facilitation of the users' ability to perceive, comprehend, remember, and apply information correctly and efficiently during use.
Jun Ma, Zaiyan Gong
Chapter 9. Intelligence
Abstract
Intelligence refers to the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and manage effectively with their environment. This definition was proposed by the renowned psychologist David Wechsler in 1944 in his book The Measurement of Adult Intelligence.
Jun Ma, Zaiyan Gong
Chapter 10. Values
Abstract
Different groups of people may have different demands for the same type of product. This phenomenon may not have been as noticeable for automotive products manufactured before the era of intelligence. Any given user would want a vehicle with large space, fast acceleration, low noise, and good ride comfort. The performance of these attributes is positively correlated with the vehicle's price. However, in the era of intelligence, vehicle experiences can lead to even greater differences, further highlighting consumers’ varied demands for automotive products. For instance, some users might prefer larger screens and fewer physical buttons, while others may wish to retain as many physical buttons as possible; some users love cool animations and lighting, while others desire a simple and clear-cut screen interface. These differences are not related to price and are even minimally related to usage scenarios—they are almost purely personal, subjective preferences. For different groups with limited communication, such as users from two different countries, these personal subjective preferences are even more pronounced. In short, Chinese users may like a particular automotive HMI design that German users dislike, and vice versa.
Jun Ma, Zaiyan Gong
Chapter 11. Aesthetics
Abstract
The aesthetics appeal of automotive HMI systems is another important factor that can affect the overall user experience. Compared with other evaluation indexes, the evaluation of aesthetics is usually more intuitive and quick to judge. When consumers go to a showroom to purchase a car, their first impression when entering the cabin includes the attractiveness of the interface on the central information display. This initial impression is crucial for consumers when deciding whether or not to purchase the car. Therefore, automotive brands must ensure the aesthetics of the system interface to win the consumers' favor. In fact, aesthetics has always been a part of the product’s core value, not only in automotive HMI but also in a wide variety of consumer products. Humans possess an innate sense of esthetic appreciation. As posited by Immanuel Kant in his Critique of Judgment published in 1790, the year after the French Revolution, aesthetics is a universal and shared aspect of the human’s spiritual world. The aesthetic evaluation index stems precisely from this notion.
Jun Ma, Zaiyan Gong
Chapter 12. Application of the Evaluation System in the R&D Process
Abstract
In this book, we introduced a three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal evaluation system for the automotive HMI and provided an in-depth analysis of its evaluation indexes. In this section, we offer relevant suggestions on how this evaluation system should be applied in the actual development process of an automotive cockpit.
Jun Ma, Zaiyan Gong
Metadata
Title
Automotive Human-Machine Interaction (HMI) Evaluation Method
Authors
Jun Ma
Zaiyan Gong
Copyright Year
2024
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-9999-51-4
Print ISBN
978-981-9999-50-7
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-9951-4

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