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2023 | Book

Automotive Interaction Design

From Theory to Practice

Authors: Dr. Fang Chen, Dr. Jacques Terken

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Springer Tracts in Mechanical Engineering

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About this book

This book focuses on the design of the in-car human–machine interface (HMI) and the design-relevant psychology. It combines a design perspective with an applied theoretical perspective. The design perspective informs the reader about how to set up a design process that puts users at the centre of the design process. The theoretical perspective provides the reader with an understanding of concepts from perception and cognitive psychology, supporting the decision-making in the design process.

This is an ideal book for automotive engineers and practitioners in the automotive industry who face the challenge of designing information and entertainment systems, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and automated driving systems (ADS), and the associated HMIs.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Interaction Design for Automotive

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Introduction
Abstract
As an introduction to the book, in the first chapter, trends in automotive innovation such as advanced driver assistance systems and automation are considered, and it is argued that such developments create challenges for designers to create systems and associated user interfaces that customers understand and appreciate. It is concluded that a human-centred design approach is needed to satisfy the needs of the customers.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken
Chapter 2. Introduction to Interaction Design
Abstract
In this chapter, the field of interaction design is introduced, and the different disciplines involved in interaction design are considered. Main concepts such as usability and user experience are defined, and design objectives for usability and user experience are considered.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken

Driving Psychology

Frontmatter
Chapter 3. Basic Psychology
Abstract
In this chapter main concepts from cognitive psychology are introduced in relation to driving, to provide a theoretical foundation for automotive interaction design. Insights concerning topics such as human information processing, human perception, attention, memory, learning and decision making are summarised. Going beyond cognitive psychology, we also summarise insights concerning emotions in relation to driving.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken
Chapter 4. Mental Load and Fatigue
Abstract
This chapter discusses two important issues relating to driving. The first concept is mental load. Mental load is a central concept to understand driving performance: if drivers experience high mental load, driving performance may deteriorate and safety may be jeopardised. On the other hand, if drivers experience low mental load, they may become inattentive or drowsy, and again safety may be jeopardised. In this chapter, we consider the concept of mental load, look at the relation between mental load and psychological stress, and look at how mental load can be measured. The second important concept is fatigue. Main insights concerning fatigue are summarised, and its effects on driving. Also, we look at methods for detecting fatigue, how drivers may cope with fatigue and how systems may be developed that support drivers in coping with fatigue.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken
Chapter 5. Situation Awareness, Multi-tasking and Distraction
Abstract
In this chapter, we analyse the different levels of control involved in driving. Furthermore, we discuss the concept of situation awareness. Maintaining good situation awareness is central to safe driving. Finally, while situation awareness is central to the driving task, drivers may engage in other activities (“multi-task”), in particular when mental load is moderate. However, such additional activities may cause distraction and therewith impede situation awareness.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken
Chapter 6. User Experience
Abstract
Safety is a central goal for automotive design, which legitimises the focus on the cognitive processes involved in driving and the failures that may occur. However, drivers are not just information processing organisms; instead, they also experience emotions while driving. This insight is captured by the notion of user experience and creating positive user experiences has become a major goal for automotive design, adjacent to safety. In this chapter, we discuss the notion of user experience and summarise user experience theory. Finally, we look at recent trends that go beyond the user experience.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken
Chapter 7. Driving Behaviour and Changing Behaviour
Abstract
Automotive industry and policy makers have taken all kinds of measures to reduce the number of (fatal) accidents and make driving safer. However, drivers are a central factor in establishing safety. While safety measures are important in making driving safer, if drivers do not comply, efforts by industry and policy makers may not be effective. In this chapter, we look at driving behaviour, in particular at driving styles. We discuss the phenomenon of behavioural adaptation and look at efforts to apply technology to make drivers change their behaviour.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken

Interaction Design/UI Design

Frontmatter
Chapter 8. Interaction Design Theory
Abstract
Design is not just a matter of relying upon your own intuition. Instead, there is a wealth of theories and practical insights to guide design professionals. In this chapter, main theoretical frameworks in the area of interaction design are summarised: activity theory, distributed cognition, ecological interface design, hierarchical design theory and stages of action theory. Furthermore, automotive HMI design may be guided by user interface design principles and guidelines.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken
Chapter 9. User Interface Design
Abstract
In this chapter, practical knowledge for interaction design is summarised. Interaction technologies such as gesture interaction, speech perception, and multimodal interaction, and interaction styles such as direct manipulation and menus are discussed. Also, we go briefly into the design of alarms and warnings. Finally, we take a look at the design of the in-car infotainment system.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken

Design Process and Research Methodology

Frontmatter
Chapter 10. Design Process
Abstract
In this chapter, we take a closer look at the design process. We summarise design processes from different fields of engineering and conclude that the human-centred design process provides the best structure to ensure that knowledge about and feedback from prospective users is integrated in the design process. Finally, we consider more recent developments, leading to the insight that design is not just a matter of trying to satisfy user needs, but that considerations regarding users and a design vision should be integrated in a balanced process.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken
Chapter 11. Analytic Methods
Abstract
The design process involves different activities: analytical/research activities, design activities and validation activities. In this chapter, we go into methods to support the analytical activities, and summarise methods for doing user research and for analysing qualitative data. The outcomes of the user research may be captured by means of user profiles/personas, requirements and use cases and scenarios. Finally, we go briefly into methods for conducting task analysis.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken
Chapter 12. Generative Methods
Abstract
In this chapter, we go into different generative methods. We discuss the process of going from initial ideas to elaborated concepts and discuss different methods that designers may apply to generate and select concepts that are both innovative and feasible. Furthermore, standards and guidelines that may support the design process are listed. Finally, we go into the conditions that may foster the development of ground-breaking design visions.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken
Chapter 13. Validation/Evaluation
Abstract
Central to the human-centred design process is the reflection on intermittent design proposals and collecting feedback throughout the design process. In this chapter we consider methods for evaluating design proposals in different stages of the design process, both in the early and later stages. Methods for conducting evaluations are discussed, both for conducting expert reviews and user evaluations.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken
Chapter 14. Driving Simulator Applications
Abstract
In the context of driving, driving simulators are an indispensable tool for conducting concept evaluations. In this chapter, different types of driving simulators are discussed, and advantages and limitations of the use of driving simulators are considered. Furthermore, we go into the practicalities of setting up driving simulator tests, and different types of measurements that may be elicited in driving simulator tests are summarised.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken
Chapter 15. Behavioural Research Methodology
Abstract
In the context of automotive innovation, design processes are usually subject to different types of constraints. Validations therefore involve thorough research efforts. In this chapter, we provide a very succinct introduction into behaviour research, describing the process of setting up an experiment, generating hypotheses, designing the experiment and collecting and analysing experimental data.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken

Human Factors of Automated Driving

Frontmatter
Chapter 16. Human Factors of Automated Driving
Abstract
In this chapter, we discuss the human factors of driving automation. First, we go into the objectives of driving automation, and conclude that, from a safety perspective, attempts to automate driving certainly make sense. However, full automation will not appear in the market overnight, and consumers will be exposed to intermediate levels of automation. We discuss issues with different levels of automation, and what they mean for design. Furthermore, we discuss human factors issues that apply to all levels of automation: how to make sure that people understand and trust the automated system; what needs for shared control may be expected; what may be expected with regards to acquisition and loss of driving skill; what ethical issues may arise and how should these be dealt with; and, finally, do interests of individual customers and society in automated driving converge; if not, how can design contribute towards a solution. Finally, we go into design consequences and opportunities of the fact that automated vehicles will interact with other road users.
Fang Chen, Jacques Terken
Metadata
Title
Automotive Interaction Design
Authors
Dr. Fang Chen
Dr. Jacques Terken
Copyright Year
2023
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-19-3448-3
Print ISBN
978-981-19-3447-6
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-3448-3

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