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About this book

This book is a monograph on aerodynamics of aero-engine gas turbines focusing on the new progresses on flow mechanism and design methods in the recent 20 years. Starting with basic principles in aerodynamics and thermodynamics, this book systematically expounds the recent research on mechanisms of flows in axial gas turbines, including high pressure and low pressure turbines, inter-turbine ducts and turbine rear frame ducts, and introduces the classical and innovative numerical evaluation methods in different dimensions. This book also summarizes the latest research achievements in the field of gas turbine aerodynamic design and flow control, and the multidisciplinary conjugate problems involved with gas turbines. This book should be helpful for scientific and technical staffs, college teachers, graduate students, and senior college students, who are involved in research and design of gas turbines.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Fundamental Concepts

A turbine is a rotary device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into mechanical work. It is widely used in power and energy equipment such as aircraft gas turbines, industrial gas turbines, steam turbines, hydraulic turbines, wind turbines, turbochargers, etc. and serves as an important component. This book focuses on gas turbines, in which the working fluid is gas, but the basic principles therein may be also applicable to other types of turbines.
Zhengping Zou, Songtao Wang, Huoxing Liu, Weihao Zhang

Chapter 2. Flow Mechanism in High Pressure Turbines

High pressure turbine (HP turbine, HPT) technologies are developed inseparably from the development of engines. The characteristic parameter of some high pressure turbines, as shown in Table 2.1, was collected from engine manuals and other materials for reference. As can be seen from the table, with the continuous development of the engines, their thrust-to-weight ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and overall pressure ratio are reaching higher and higher levels, which means the high-pressure turbines will be operating in more severe environment and it becomes more and more challenging to study and design high-performance high-pressure turbines.
Table 2.1
Parameters of civil and military engines
Engine type
Model
Thrust to weight ratio
Fuel consumption (kg/daN h)
Turbine inlet temp. (K)
Overall pressure ratio
Pressure ratio of high pressure compressor
Number of high pressure turbine stages and expansion ratio
Manufacturer
Civil engines
CF6-50A
6.18
0.6505
1583
32.5
13
2/4.4236
GE
CF6-80C2
6.8
0.61
1588
30.4–32.7
13
2/
GE
GE90
6.3
0.56
1703
39.3
23
2/
GE
JT9D
5.63
0.6903
1585
24.21
10.3
2/3.6225
PW
PW2000
5.24
0.574
1698
27.6
 
2
PW
PW4084
6.0
0.566
1777
34.2
 
2
PW
V2500-A5
5.84
0.585
1700
31.4
 
2
IAE
CFM56-5C2
5.5
0.577
1635
37.4
11.2
1/3.78
CFM
Trent884
5.3
0.567
1686
39.88
 
1 (three-axis)
RR
Military engines
F404-402
7.83
0.76
1686
26
 
1
GE
F110-129
9.5
0.7
1728
32
 
1
GE
F100-229
7.9
0.66
1672
32
 
1
PW
F119
11.6
0.62
1950
35
 
1
PW
M88-2
8.8
0.89
1850
25
 
1
SNECMA
AL-31F
7.14
0.795
1665
23.8
 
1
NPO
Zhengping Zou, Songtao Wang, Huoxing Liu, Weihao Zhang

Chapter 3. Flow Mechanism in Inter Turbine Ducts

In the main flow passage of aero gas turbines, the channel connecting the high-pressure stage and low-pressure stage is generally called inter-turbine duct (ITD) . The inter-turbine duct mainly serves as a flow passage, which is formed by the casing and hub, and in some occasions, the duct, together with guide vanes, also serves as a supporter and pathway of accessory pipelines. In geometry, the inter-turbine duct is an annular pipe with its two ends having different diameters; the end connecting to the high-pressure turbine is its inlet, and the other end, which connects to the low-pressure turbine, is its outlet.
Zhengping Zou, Songtao Wang, Huoxing Liu, Weihao Zhang

Chapter 4. Flow Mechanisms in Low-Pressure Turbines

In aircraft engine, the main task for low pressure turbine (LP turbine, LPT) is to drive rotational components, for example the fan or booster stages. It also can be used as direct power output apparatus, which provides shaft power to drive a propeller, fan, or other lift or thrust equipment. In turboprop and turboshaft engine, LP turbine is also known as power turbine or free turbine. In the spatial position of the flow path, LP turbine locates behind the high pressure turbine (HP turbine, HPT). Between the HP turbine and LP turbine in the high bypass ratio (BPR) turbofan engines, there usually arranges the bearing freamework known as the inter-turbine ducts, and turbine rear frame (TRF) ducts which is connecting to outlet nozzle.
Zhengping Zou, Songtao Wang, Huoxing Liu, Weihao Zhang

Chapter 5. Flow Mechanism in Turbine Rear Frame Ducts

Structurally, turbine rear frame (TRF) is a part of the engine’s load supporting system, which is designed to support the low-pressure rotor. Aerodynamically, it is a component of the flow passage, connecting the low-pressure turbine with the exhaust nozzle, and thus it is also called exhaust casing.
Zhengping Zou, Songtao Wang, Huoxing Liu, Weihao Zhang

Chapter 6. Aerodynamic Design Technologies for Turbines

Aerodynamic design of turbines is a process of progressive design and optimization from low dimensions to high dimensions, and the design results obtained in low-dimensional space serve as the basis of high-dimensional design.
Zhengping Zou, Songtao Wang, Huoxing Liu, Weihao Zhang

Chapter 7. Flow Control Technologies

In gas turbines, stages of the turbine is not so much causing high pressure and temperature gradient and high blade load , the second flow system including metal material cooling, hub and shroud sealing, etc.
Zhengping Zou, Songtao Wang, Huoxing Liu, Weihao Zhang

Chapter 8. Multidisciplinary Coupling Analysis and Design

Increasing turbine inlet temperature is an important method to improve cycle efficiency of gas turbines. A previous study has shown that each increase of 40 K in turbine inlet temperature would result in a 10% increase in output power of gas turbines and a 1.5% increase in cycle efficiency.
Zhengping Zou, Songtao Wang, Huoxing Liu, Weihao Zhang

Backmatter

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