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The axle performs numerous fundamental functions in the vehicle. The typical functions of axles are: Support, spring, suspension, rolling, braking, steering and driving.
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In the case of trucks this always applies because there are only so-called rear longitudinal configurations—see Fig. 1.4. In the case of passenger cars and vans there is also so-called front wheel drive with transverse engine installation, whereby the axis of rotation of the crankshaft runs parallel to the axis of rotation of the drive wheels.
In fact, the roll paths of the wheels not only differ when cornering, but they also differ a little when traveling straight ahead, because the wheel circumference, the degree to which the tires are inflated and the tire slip of the individual wheels differ.
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