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About this book

This book highlights the various types of polymer and nanocomposites that can be derived from biorenewable resources. It covers various aspects of biobased polymers and nanocomposites, including preparation, processing, properties, and performance, and the latest advances in these materials. It also includes recent findings from leading researchers in academia and industry, government, and private research laboratories around the globe, providing the latest information on biobased polymers and nanocomposites. Offering an overview of the entire production process, it guides readers through all stages, from the raw source materials, processing and property characterization to application performance. This book is suitable for professionals and researchers seeking in-depth practical information as well as the fundamental science behind this. It also serves as a point of reference for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdoctoral researchers working in the area of polymer and composites with a special emphasis on biobased materials.

Table of Contents


Renewable Resource-Based Polymers

There are growing concerns that a significant reliance on fossil resources is not sustainable for the production of polymers. The all-out transition toward renewable resources for polymer production is inevitable. Polymers from renewable resources include cellulose, starch, chitosan, lignin, proteins, oils, common commodity polymers (e.g., polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate), and microbial poly(ester)s. Fundamental research in the production, modification, property enhancement, and new applications of these materials is an important undertaking. In this chapter, existing advances in the exploitation of renewable resources to produce polymers are summarized.
Ahmed Sharif, Md Enamul Hoque

Fillers and Reinforcements for Advanced Nanocomposites

The performance and properties of nanocomposites largely depend on its nanofiller and reinforcement. This chapter presents an overview of the different types of nanofiller and reinforcement in biopolymer nanocomposite. It mainly focuses on the preparation, processing, properties, and the application of the bio-nanocomposite. Bio-nanocomposite based on biopolymer such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), and chitosan, and nanofiller such as graphene, carbon nanotube, layered silicate reinforcement, sepiolite, and halloysite nanofiller has become a topic of discussion, and their performance and future application become a focus of interest. Enhanced mechanical and thermal properties imparted by the nanofiller reinforcement on the bio-nanocomposite and its optimum loading had been reviewed. It can be concluded that the properties of bio-nanocomposite could be further enhanced by the utilization of compatibilizer, coupling agent, and nanofiller treatment in bio-nanocomposite, which play an important role in enhancing the compatibility between the component of bio-nanocomposite and state of nanofiller dispersion and distribution in bio-nanocomposite.
Nilesh Kumar Shrivastava, Muhammad Akmal Ahmad Saidi, Norhayani Othman, Mohamad Zurina, Azman Hassan

Cellulose Nanocrystals-Based Nanocomposites

In this chapter, an effort has been made to summarize the outstanding research and development related to cellulose nanocrystal-reinforced nanocomposites. A detailed study showed the isolation of crystalline part of cellulose fibers using various chemicals is reported. Furthermore, different functional groups emerged since used chemicals during isolation steps are discussed and their interference during composites production is reported (effect on dispersion, distribution, mechanical properties, etc). Various processing routes are also reported for the production of dimensional nanocomposites. Authors have tried to show a comparative study of various processing routes and impact on final properties. The opted processing routes somehow affect the properties, which someway indicate the possible application in the future. In the last, two emerging applications of cellulose nanocrystal-based nanocomposites have been discussed in short. Water purification and fabrication of scaffold for regeneration of bone are new and budding fields, required biodegradable and biocompatible dimensional structures for green future. Therefore, fabricated cellulose nanocrystal-based composites might be a possible solution of these hurdles, which not only make the process green but also directly convert the waste materials into valuable products.
Malladi Nagalakshmaiah, Malladi Rajinipriya, Sadaf Afrin, Mohd Ayub Ansari, Mohammad Asad, Zoheb Karim

Nanofibrillated Cellulose-Based Nanocomposites

Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), a form of nanocellulose, is currently recommended to be utilized in a wide of industrial applications like food packaging, printing, paper, biomedical, and nanocomposite materials. Their exploitation is not a coincidence, but a fruitful result of many studies showing that NFCs have exciting characteristics such as renewable, sustainable, recyclable, the high length-to-diameter ratio (aspect ratio), and high mechanical properties at the nanometric scale. This chapter is a boon to show the added value of NFCs and their applications in nanocomposites materials. To do this, this content deals with two parts: the first one focuses on the extraction of the NFCs from the cellulosic fiber, their structures, and the processes allowing to modify/treated nanocellulose surface to make it compatible with the polymer matrix. In the second part, focused on the manufacturing process of nanocomposites, their properties and the industrial applications are discussed in depth.
Hind Abdellaoui, Marya Raji, Hamid Essabir, Rachid Bouhfid, Abou el kacem Qaiss

Bacterial Cellulose Nanocomposites

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a biopolymer with high purity of cellulose and excellent mechanical properties. Increased interest in the use of natural polymer makes BC as an excellent alternative for plant cellulose. Although both celluloses consist of unbranched pellicle with chemically equivalent structure, bacterial cellulose exhibits greater properties and potential in wider applications. The structure of bacterial cellulose that consists only glucose monomer and nanosized cellulose fibres secreted by the bacteria induces it to have high water-holding capacity, high crystallinity, high degree of polymerization and high mechanical strength. Furthermore, the characterization of BC can be certainly altered by incorporation with materials that are not essential for the bacterial growth into the fermentation medium. This unique property of BC opens a new gate for the development of new cellulose nanocomposites with desired properties by the incorporation of selective suitable materials. The BC nanocomposites produced opens new opportunity for various usages of BC in different fields of application in the pharmaceutical, chemical, medical and wastewater treatment plants.
N. Pa’e, I. I. Muhamad, Z. Hashim, A. H. M. Yusof

Properties of Nano-composites Based on Different Clays and Polyamide 6/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Blends

In the last years, serval researches have been focused on organophilic clay as reinforcements for polymer matrices. In this respect, the aim of this chapter is to valorize mineral resources; montmorillonite clay was modified using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and then used as reinforcement in a thermoplastic copolymer matrix to compare with pristine montmorillonite and commercially organo-modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 20A). The nano-composites were prepared by melt compounding using a blend of polyamide 6 (PA6) with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) as the matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as mechanical and rheological tests were carried out to understand the properties of these nano-composites at different particle contents. The results obtained clearly showed that the Moroccan montmorillonite was successfully modified and its addition in the selected matrix substantially improved the properties of the resulting nano-composites.
Marya Raji, Elmokhtar Essassi, Hamid Essabir, Denis Rodrigue, Abou el kacem Qaiss, Rachid Bouhfid

Nanotube/Biopolymer Nanocomposites

Nanotubes are one of the most important classes of 1D nanomaterial which can be used as reinforcing filler for the polymers and biopolymers. Out of several organic/inorganic nanotubes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were most studied due to their high aspect ratio, outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Nanotubes have potential to increase the physical properties of the biopolymer even at very low loading. The properties of nanotube-filled nanocomposite depend on various parameters like the aspect ratio, dispersion, and interaction between filler and polymer. To improve the utilization and maximum potential of these fillers, it is important to understand the mechanisms of reinforcement. It will help the future researchers to find out the limitations and issues with existent processing method of nanotube-based nanocomposite which is required for further improvement. In this regard, this chapter will help the researchers to fully understand the current progress in processing method, issues, and possible methods to prepare an ideal nanotube and biopolymer-based nanocomposites. This chapter will discuss only biopolymer-based nanocomposites filled by the two most important 1D tubular nanofillers, which are CNT and HNT. This study has been divided into three subtopics, namely (i) thermoplastic nanocomposites, (ii) thermoset nanocomposites, and (iii) natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites. It focuses on the fabrication processes, properties, and potential applications of CNT and HNT biopolymer nanocomposites.
Nilesh Kumar Shrivastava, Muhammad Akmal Ahmad Saidi, M. S. Z. Mat Desa, Mohamad Zurina, Norhayani Othman, Azman Hassan, A. K. M. Moshiul Alam, M. D. H. Beg, R. M. Yunus

Starch-Based Nanocomposites: Types and Industrial Applications

The extraordinary physicochemical and functional features offered by the starch material segregated from various sources of plants, such as rice, corn and wheat, are put into use for a large extent of applications. The physicochemical features of starch namely lipids content, a ratio of amylose to amylopectin, the size distribution of granule play a significant role to grasp the concept related to the mechanism on the functionality of starch in various systems. The starch-modified chemistry along with a large number of reactive sites carries the biologically active compounds as biocompatible carriers and are metabolized in the human body quickly and comfortably. The current chapter focusses on the different composites made up of starch along with polymers like polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, polyhydroxy alkaloid where the synthesis, chemistry and application part are greatly discussed. Further, the physicochemical stability of the nanocomposites relating the specific structure is compared in addition to their deployment in various industrial applications.
Faruq Mohammad, Tanvir Arfin, Ibrahim B. Bwatanglang, Hamad A. Al-lohedan

Recent Developments in Chitosan-Based Nanocomposites

Chitosan is the second most abundant natural biopolymer available on the earth. Chitosan possesses its own identity among various other biopolymers due to its remarkable structural, chemical and mechanical properties. Recently, chitosan-based materials have emerged as ideal candidates for a wide range of applications such as biomedical, tissue engineering, filter and composite fields. This is mainly due to their accessibility for surface modification along with their non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties. Chitosan-incorporated composites appeared as most astonishing in their physical and mechanical properties. This chapter highlights the structural chemistry, extraction process and the different preparation methods of chitosan-based composites, along with most interesting, advanced studies developed from last decade.
Swaroopini Ramachandran, Malladi Rajinipriya, Jeremie Soulestin, Malladi Nagalakshmaiah

Structural Properties of Protein and Their Role in Polymer Nanocomposites

The growing concern over the environment raises the question of biodegradability and renewability in numerous fields, including materials and energy. Therefore, industries and researchers focus more on the development of biomaterials generated from natural sources. In this context, proteins and their unique properties made them ideal candidates to be used in different novel applications and are not limited to films, hydrogels, biological tissue engineering, and polymer composites. In this chapter, authors highlight the different sources of protein and their structural properties. Then, the extraction methods are discussed in detail. Further, the different processing methods to prepare the protein-based composites were explained. In overall, this chapter aims to highlight the recent developments of protein-based materials in different fields, based on the literature.
Malladi Rajinipriya, Florent Gauvin, Mathieu Robert, Saïd Elkoun, Malladi Nagalakshmaiah

Polylactic Acid (PLA)-Based Nanocomposites: Processing and Properties

Polylactic acid (PLA) is the most comprehensively explored biodegradable and renewable thermoplastic polyester. It has the capacity to substitute polymers from fossil fuel-based resources. However, certain properties such as uncontrolled degradation, poor thermal properties, gas permeability, and profound brittleness characteristic may restrict the wide-scale utilization of PLA. Consequently, nano-based reinforcements have been widely exploited to upgrade some of the shortcomings. With the advancement in the field of nanotechnology, PLA nanocomposites have emerged as an excellent material. These materials have a big potential for applications in food packaging, medical applications, and tissue cultures. This chapter mainly assesses the different types of nanocomposites from PLA in terms of reinforcing materials. The resultant composite structures are correlated for different processing methods with the quality and factors of dispersion of reinforcements.
Ahmed Sharif, Sudipta Mondal, Md Enamul Hoque

Biopolymers-Based Nanocomposites: Properties and Applications

The actual environmental policy, together with the strong interest to develop novel materials with better performances, makes the new eco-friendly and biodegradable composites a very attractive research field. Additionally, in this branch of composite materials, substantial attention is focused on the biopolymers made from “nanocomposites” particles that were considered both at academic level and industrial plant. The biopolymer-based nanocomposites provide an opportunity to replace the conventional non-biodegradable polymers, due to their user-friendliness, great biodegradability, and relatively good mechanical properties. This chapter contains a robust overview of a new class of biopolymers nanocomposites.
Naruemon Sumrith, Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa, Rapeephun Dangtungee, Suchart Siengchin, Mohammad Jawaid, Catalin Iulian Pruncu
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