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01-07-2014 | Original Article | Issue 1/2014

Environmental Earth Sciences 1/2014

Biomarkers of selected heavy metal toxicity and histology of Chanos chanos from Kaattuppalli Island, Chennai, southeast coast of India

Journal:
Environmental Earth Sciences > Issue 1/2014
Authors:
Sivakumar Rajeshkumar, Samuvel Sukumar, Natesan Munuswamy

Abstract

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and its associated histological perturbations were studied in various tissues of Chanos chanos collected from Kaattuppalli Island, and they were compared with those of fish collected from the Kovalam coast. The concentration of four heavy metals: copper, lead, zinc and cadmium were determined in water, sediment and different tissues of fish (gills, liver and muscle). The result showed a marked difference between the two sites as well as significant variations within the water, sediment and biota samples. The decreasing trend of metals from both Kaattuppalli Island and Kovalam coast was in the order of Cd > Cu > Pb > Zn. Overall, the highest metal concentration was found in the sediment, water and biota collected from Kaattuppalli Island. The accumulation in the gills and liver of C. chanos was found to be quite high in comparison with that of muscle. These tissues were further investigated by light microscopy and the results were compared with the tissues from the reference site (Kovalam coast). The presence of large lipid droplets in the liver and increase of mucous cells in the gills were some of the most noticeable alterations observed that were related to heavy metal contaminants. It is concluded that histopathological biomarkers provide reliable and discriminatory data to augment heavy metal pollution in Kaattuppalli Island. Therefore, long-term monitoring is necessary to assess the eco-health of the Kaattuppalli Island environment by choosing a bio-indicator species like C. chanos, which provide accurate, reliable measurements of environmental quality.

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