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About this book

In this monograph, the core elements of multidisciplinary bioremediation practices are addressed and environmental pollutants which can be effectively remediated using weeds is focused upon. Weeds plants can easily grow in waste dumping sites with their rapidly colonizing ability. The contents include recent results in bioremediation and focuses on the current trend of introduction of potentials of weeds in bioremediation practice. This volume will be a useful guide for researchers, academics and scientists.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

General Weed Diversity

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Diversity, Distribution, and Status of Weed Species of Northwest Himalaya

Abstract
Weed is defined as ‘a herbaceous plant not valued for use or beauty, growing wild and rank, and regarded as cumbering the ground or hindering the growth of superior vegetation’ (Zimdahl in Fundamentals of weed science. Academic Press, San Diego, C.A., p. 556 1999). Weeds are those plants which are harmful, interfere with the agricultural operations, increase labor, add input to the cultivation, and reduce the crop yield (Sen in Environment and agriculture: at the crossroad of the new millennium. Ecological Society (ECOS), Kathmandu, Nepal, pp. 223–233 2000). Weeds grow in a variety of ecosystems including pastures, rangelands, and forests.
Zishan Ahmad Wani, Shreekar Pant, Virbala Sharma

Bioremediation

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Utilization of Aqueous Weeds for Biofuel Production: Current Status and Future Prospects

Abstract
The energy crisis is one of the biggest issues encountered by today’s world. Rapid economic growth and population explosion have resulted in a substantial increase in energy (fuel) consumption, especially in the transportation sector. The currently available sources of energy (such as fossil fuels) are limited and are consumed at an alarming rate throughout the world. Such limited sources of energy are likely to get exhausted over time
Rafiq A. Rather, Madhulika Bhagat

Chapter 3. Aquatic Weeds: A Potential Pollutant Removing Agent from Wastewater and Polluted Soil and Valuable Biofuel Feedstock

Abstract
The worldwide growing population needs water security for communities will rise higher in the near future. Natural freshwater sources globally decreasing rapidly; therefore, it is expected that clean water will be secured sincerely for basic human needs (Rezania et al. in J Hazard Mater 318:587–599, 2016c). Due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, wastewater discharge into the environment is increasing day by day. In the last few years, developed countries are updating the environmental policies and dedicated to reducing water pollution as well as developing an efficient and self-sustainable approach for wastewater treatment. For higher efficacy particularly in metropolitan cities, the advancement of recognized traditional treatment methods of water and wastewater is in a need to be further developed.
Sanjeet Mehariya, Prasun Kumar, Tiziana Marino, Patrizia Casella, Angela Iovine, Pradeep Verma, Dino Musmarra, Antonio Molino

Chapter 4. Parthenium hysterophorus: Weed to Value

Abstract
Parthenium hysterophorus L. is one of the most invasive weeds and belongs to the family Asteracaeae.
Supriya Ratnaparkhe, Milind B. Ratnaparkhe

Weed Utilization

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. Seaweed Biomass Utilization Pathways in Microbes and Their Applications in the Production of Biofuels

Abstract
Marine algae transform nearly 50 Gt of carbon dioxide each year from the atmosphere and convert it into biomass. Carbohydrates are the main components of the algal biomass, which function as storage of carbon and energy. Macroalgae show numerous features of a potential feedstock that may help the increasing global requirement for energy. Seaweed polysaccharides have been considered as cheap biomass to produce biodiesel, ethanol, and hydrogen. This book chapter is focused on macroalgae-based biorefinery. It provides a background on macroalgae taxonomic classification, habitat environment, enzymes, and metabolic pathways involved in macroalgae polysaccharide catabolism. In addition, it is also focused on providing information on native and engineered microbial platforms for biofuel production from brown macroalgae.
Sujit Sadashiv Jagtap, Ashwini Ashok Bedekar

Chapter 6. Seaweed-Based Biodegradable Biopolymers, Composite, and Blends with Applications

Abstract
The rising environmental awareness is promoting researchers to develop new biodegradable material. Seaweed is a versatile organism able to produce diverse type of polymers, i.e., agar, carrageenan, alginate, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. Several studies confirmed that these biopolymers are non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable, biocompatible, and eco-friendly. Seaweeds have been used as reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties of polymer composites. Several modifications have been investigated in the seaweed biopolymer to change or improve the properties of biopolymers like functionalization, blending with different polymers, and forming composite with supporting materials. The potential of seaweed as filler in polymer composites improves the thermal, physical, and mechanical properties of the synthetic polymer matrix. The chapter focuses on various seaweed biopolymers with their potential sources, modification of biopolymer, and their application in various fields.
Sachin V. Otari, Jyoti P. Jadhav

Chapter 7. Seaweed Cultivation and Its Biobusiness Status Around the World

Abstract
Seaweeds or macroalgae, a highly useful and simple type of plants, lack true roots, stems and leaves. Heavy loads on numerous usual resources impose the development of substitute sources to produce significant goods such as food, food additives, feed, fuel, maquillages, and antibiotics. The improvement of large-scale seaweed aquaculture has the prospective to play a significant role in meeting future resource needs. The seaweed is an important character of culture and society
Ranju Kumari Rathour, Sanjeev Mehta, Pooja Sharma, Ravi Kant Bhatia, Arvind Kumar Bhatt

Chapter 8. Utilization of Weed Plants for Biochemicals and Bioactive Compounds Production

Abstract
Weeds are undesired plants and dominant competitors of desired agriculture, horticulture, or other ornamental plants. Weed plants have high vigor, persistence, produce more seeds, have high seed dormancy, and have the ability to spread quickly.
Vijay Kumar, Virender Kumar, Ranjit G. Gurav, Yung-Hun Yang, Shashi Kant Bhatia

Chapter 9. Utilization of Invasive Weed Biomass for Biochar Production and Its Application in Agriculture and Environmental Clean-up

Abstract
In modern agriculture practices, weeds by advantage of their vibrant and resilient nature pose a constant problem in the agricultural sector and deemed a threat to biodiversity. The common issues linked with invasive species including risk to the native species, excess use of herbicides affects the biological pollinators, competition for the light, water and nutrients that can make a community more vulnerable to re-invasion of weed species.
Ranjit G. Gurav, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Umesh B. Jagtap, Yung-Hun Yang, Yong-Keun Choi, Jingchun Tang, Amit Bhatnagar

Chapter 10. Weed Biomass-Based Nanoparticles and Their Applications

Abstract
To remain completely acquainted with a book chapter, one must know the word weed. There have been numerous definitions of weeds. In Merriam-Webster dictionary, a weed is defined as ‘a plant that is not valued, where it is growing and is usually of vigorous growth; especially: one that tend to overgrow or choke out more desirable plants’.
Umesh B. Jagtap, Ranjit G. Gurav
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