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About this book

This book exhibits novel semiconductor black phosphorous (BP) materials that are developed beyond other 2D materials (graphene and TMDs). It accurately reviews their manufacture strategies, properties, characterization techniques and different utilizations of BP-based materials. It clarifies all perspectives alongside down to earth applications which present a future direction in the biomedical, photo, environmental, energy, and other related fields. Hence, the sections accentuate the basic fundamentals, synthesis, properties, applications, state-of-the-art studies about the BP-based materials through detailed reviews.

This book is the result of commitments by numerous experts in the field from various backgrounds and expertise. It will appeal to researchers, scientists and in addition understudies from various teaches, for example, semiconductor innovation, energy and environmental science. The book content incorporates industrial applications and fills the gap between the exploration works in the lab and viable applications in related ventures.

Table of Contents


Functionalization and Doping of Black Phosphorus

Black phosphorus (BP), a new rising star in the post-graphene era, has been extensively studied from early 2014 onward. To take full advantage of its potential, much research is rapidly generated on the modification of BP-based nanostructures via functionalization, decoration, and doping. The fast-growing research in this area has led to significant trends in the fast-evolving field of 2D nanomaterials over a wide range of applications including field effect transistors, diodes, phonon detectors, biomedicine, digital circuits, sodium- and lithium-ion batteries, sensors, photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, thermoelectric materials, memory devices, and so forth. This chapter is aimed to present a state-of-the-art overview of the advancements of the field through the modifications mentioned above from both theoretical and experimental points of view.
Mehdi Ghambarian, Zahra Azizi, Mohammad Ghashghaee

Black Phosphorous Based Nanodevices

Black phosphorus (BP) has come into sight as a hopeful two dimensional (2D) material from its time of invention in 2014 through flourishing exfoliation method. Devices possessing nonspecific properties in at least one dimension are generally considered as nanodevices. The far reaching attention on BP based nanodevices came from its unique structural, compositional and functional features. Researchers have focused on 2D structures of BP because of the electron distribution and wide band gap peculiarities. On an overall point view, the material is considered to be apt for a plethora of medical as well as non-medical application scenarios. Nevertheless, its applicability is getting hindered by certain characteristic drawbacks. For the reason that BP is relatively unstable in air and aqueous environment, several functionalization strategies have been adopted in recent years. This chapter addresses mainly the different types of BP based nanodevices, its non-medical and medical applications, safety aspects of the material along with assured challenges it possess in application scenarios. The section lends a hand to the readers to grab information on fascinating potentials of BP nanodevices in various applications.
J. Ashtami, S. S. Athira, V. G. Reshma, P. V. Mohanan

Chemistry of Black Phosphorus

Black phosphorus (BP), a rediscovered one-element two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, has been intensively explored in the past few years. Of particular interest is its single-layer structure, called phosphorene. Understanding the chemistry of BP can substantially help in the development of BP-based practical devices. This chapter provides an overview of various aspects of BP chemistry.
Mohammad Ghashghaee, Mehdi Ghambarian, Zahra Azizi

Black Phosphorous Quantum Dots

Black phosphorus a.k.a phosphorene is a very recent offshoot in the genre of 2D materials, which gained immense scientific engrossment ever since its appreciable rediscovery in 2014. Ascribe to the outstanding inherent characteristics like tunable bandgap, good enough carrier mobility, size tunable absorption spectra, narrow emission spectra, potent biodegradability and excellent biocompatibility; BP has become an encouraging successor for various applications in biomedical sector. In the zero dimensional state, black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) has become a crucial substitute for various currently employed carbon based and semiconductor quantum dots. Apart from all the exhibited physico-chemical characteristics of its 2D form, BPQDs has contributed more towards optical applications as well. Even though the outlook seems to be extremely well adapted for biomedicine, practical applications are still highly challenging especially due to its fast degradation and instability under ambient conditions of air and moisture. Therefore proper characterisation and surface modifications should be done to unveil these challenges. The present chapter has adopted strategies to give precise attention inorder familiarise upon the various physico-chemical properties, synthesis methods as well as stability of BPQDs under ambient conditions. Also focussed on the various biomedical applications of BPQDs along with briefly underlining the applications of BPQDs in other research arenas like optoelectronics, photo catalysis etc., Briefly discussed about the possible toxic impacts of this emerging material also.
S. Anju, N. Prajitha, V. G. Reshma, P. V. Mohanan

Simulation Studies for Black Phosphorus: From Theory to Experiment

Phosphorene or 2D black phosphorus have attracted enormous attention of researcher due to its excellent structural, mechanical, electronic, magnetic and vibrational properties. This chapter presents a comprehensive review of properties of black phosphorus, techniques of improving its properties and to date most of the significant research conducted in this field of research. Studies show that most of the simulation research has been performed using molecular dynamics and density functional theory. The mechanical properties of black phosphorus have been excellent and can be tunned using defect engineering. Electronic and magnetic properties have been studied using density functional theory. It is observed that both can be successfully tuned by substituting doping of the suitable impurity atoms. Black phosphorus in its pristine form is expected to have nonmagnetic behaviour with can be revert to ferromagnetic by addition of suitable dopant which causes orbital hybridization resulting in ferromagnetism. The modes of vibrations for black phosphorene were calculated using the supercell method and these modes are characterized for IR and Raman spectroscopy. Theoretical calculated IR and Raman active modes are comparable with experimental available results.
Muhammad Imran, Fayyaz Hussain, Abdul Rehman, R. M. Arif Khalil, Tariq Munir, M. Zeeshan Yaqoob, Sungjun Kim

Biomedical Applications of Black Phosphorus

Two dimensional (2D) materials have attracted extravagant eminence in the area of biomedical applications due to their distinctive structure, biocompatibility, and physicochemical properties. Mono-layered black phosphorus (BP), also known as phosphorene, is a thermodynamically stable allotrope of phosphorous and is the very recent member of the 2D family has lured tremendous scientific interest since its rediscovery in 2014. The exceptional properties of BP including high carrier mobility, large specific surface area, tunable band gap, intrinsic anisotropy, and inherent in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability make it an ideal alternative to other 2D materials in biomedical applications. This chapter summarizes various biomedical applications of BP including drug delivery, bio-imaging, bio-sensing, photothermal/photodynamic therapy, and theranostics. The main focus of this chapter is to emphasize the efficacy of BP nanosheets (NSs) and quantum dots (QDs) as robust and tunable diagnostic and therapeutic platforms. Finally, the current challenges and future perspectives in biomedical applications of BP have also been addressed.
Sashivinay Kumar Gaddam, Ramyakrishna Pothu, Aditya Saran, Rajender Boddula

Structure and Fundamental Properties of Black Phosphorus

Black phosphorus (BP) is one of the most stable allotropes among the three allotropes of phosphorus at a high temperature under a high pressure possessing new two-dimensional layered structure, which was first prepared by Bridgman in 1914. Since, the development and recent success in growing two-dimensional material family, single- or few-layered, BP has recently a vital field of interest due to their various superior properties, such as a tunable and direct/narrow band gaps, high carrier mobility, large specific surface area, photothermal property, biocompatibility, biodegradability and many interesting in-layer anisotropies and attracted considerable attention on applications in energy conversion and storage, oxygen evolution, electronics, optoelectronics, photocatalytic hydrogenation, water splitting, and thermoelectric generators, etc. Especially, there emerge contributions on electrochemical energy storage devices as supercapacitors and in batteries like lithium/sodium ion batteries. This chapter summarizes the structure and fundamental properties and few preparation methods of BP.
Mohd Imran Ahamed, Nimra Shakeel, Naushad Anwar

Future Prospects and Challenges of Black Phosphorous Materials

The cutting-edge developments in the field of black phosphorus (BP) nanostructures have contributed significantly to the progress of 2D nanomaterials in a broad range of foreseeable applications. This chapter intends to outline the remaining challenges and prospects of different BP nanomaterials, including the bulk phase, few-layer BP structures, nanoribbons, nanotubes, and heterostructures. Potential perspectives in different application areas including but not limited to electronic devices, sensors, biomedical devices, and catalysis are briefly reviewed.
Zahra Azizi, Mohammad Ghashghaee, Mehdi Ghambarian

Black Phosphorous Photodetectors

As a new two-dimensional material, black phosphorus (BP) has a direct band gap that can be controlled with the change of the number of layers, good light absorption rate and excellent electron mobility making it a good application in the field of photodetectors. To date, many studies on BP photodetectors have been reported and have demonstrated excellent photoresponsive performance. Here, we have a comprehensive summary and review of research reports on BP-based photodetectors. We first briefly summarize the structural characteristics, optical and electronic properties of BP. Then BP-based photodetectors are divided into three categories according to the structure of the material and the configuration of the device (BP photodetectors, BP heterojunction photodetectors, photoelectrochemical (PEC)-type BP photodetectors) for summary and description. Finally, the research status of BP-based photodetectors is summarized, and its future development direction is prospected. The content of this chapter can give readers a comprehensive understanding of BP-based photodetectors, and has certain guiding significance for the further development of photodetectors.
Hui Qiao, Chenguang Duan, Zongyu Huang, Xiang Qi

Correction to: Black Phosphorus

Inamuddin, Rajender Boddula, Abdullah M. Asiri
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