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2021 | Book

Border Management in Transformation

Transnational Threats and Security Policies of European States

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About this book

This book looks into the processes of change and renewal of border control and border security and management during the past 30 years after the fall of the Iron Curtain, and the immense challenges in nation-building in South-Eastern Europe after the collapse of former Yugoslavia in relation to strategic security management. The abolition of border controls within the Schengen area and simultaneous introduction of necessary replacement measures was an additional topic.

The book provides an insight into which the European Union is competent in the reform and modernisation of state law enforcement agencies for ensuring effective border control, border surveillance and border management in line with the EU acquis communautaire and EU standards.

In the 21st century, along with the process of globalisation, a constantly evolving security environment creates new dimensions of threats and challenges to security and stability of transnational nature. This seeks for comprehensive, multidimensional, collective and well-coordinated responses.

The European Union, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, United Nations, as well as other international organisations are able to really contribute to developing cooperative and coordinated responses to these threats by relying on its broad membership and profound expertise and experience.

According to the position of the European Union, a modern, cost-benefit-oriented and effective border management system should ensure both, open borders as well as maximum of security at the same time. Thus, the Union’s endeavour is to safeguarding internal security to all member states through preventing transnational threats, combating irregular migration and any forms of cross-border crime for ensuring smooth border crossings for legitimate travellers and their belongings, goods and services.

That is why the Union’s concept of Integrated Border Management has been developed to ensure effective border control and surveillance and cost-efficient management of the external borders of the European Union.

The Union’s policy is and will continue to be developed on the basis of the three main areas in place: common legislation, close operational/tactical cooperation and financial solidarity. In addition, Integrated Border Management has been confirmed as a priority area for strengthening the cooperation with third countries in the European Commission’s strategic security management approach, where non-EU countries are encouraged as partners to upgrade their border security, surveillance and border management systems.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Introduction

Frontmatter
1. Thematic Introduction
Abstract
State borders define a national territory. Sovereign nationhood is also defined in relation to the understanding of a modern and secure state, whether a state is able to effectively control crossings of its borders, and also being able to oversee and manage it.
Johann Wagner

Methods

Frontmatter
2. Methodical Structure of the Work
Abstract
The book constitutes an in-depth update as to which border security and management (BSM) mechanisms and procedures effectively enhance border control and border surveillance standards.
Johann Wagner

Analytical Framework

Frontmatter
3. Transnational Threats
Abstract
Due to the complexity of transnational threats (TNT) the author held a series of technical discussions with senior experts focusing specifically on identified challenges, inter alia, in the areas of crime prevention, law enforcement and criminal justice, migration, crisis and intervention management, inter-agency and international cooperation and the exchange of relevant information in the period of 2014 to 2017.
Johann Wagner
4. Transnational Organised Crime (TOC)
Abstract
Organised forms of crime are to be found in nearly all countries around the world, and from the criminals’ point of view are extremely lucrative industries with an estimated turnover of about one trillion US dollars annually. According to the economic reports from 2012, the southern Italian syndicates alone generated sales of approximately 140 billion Euros and that despite the negative effects of economic and financial crises.
Johann Wagner
5. Migration in the Context of EU Border Management
Abstract
In the second half of the twentieth century, in most of the EU MS great changes were observed in the field of migration
Johann Wagner
6. Summary of the Analytical Framework
Abstract
Parallel to an increasingly rapid globalisation, a growing endeavour is becoming apparent in the fields of security and stability.
Johann Wagner

Empirical Analysis

Frontmatter
7. Border Management in Europe
Abstract
The borderline—it is the physical and visible distinction between two states (or between integrated groups of states such as the EU), including their respective legal systems. Border crossing points (BCPs) are the points of transfer from one legal system to another, and border control is the process, which confirms that the crossing is in line with the underlying rules and regulations.
Johann Wagner
8. Coordinated Border Management
Abstract
The safeguarding and surveillance of national borders is becoming increasingly complex and complicated for the responsible heads of state border services.
Johann Wagner
9. EU Agencies with Regard to Integrated Border Control Within the Framework of the Created Compensatory Measures
Abstract
Generally, the EU agencies are juridical separate and independent from the EU institutions, which have been established to perform certain tasks under EU law.
Johann Wagner
10. Frontex—The EU Border Management and Coast Guard Agency
Abstract
In 2018, the common external borders of the 28 EU MS measure around 13,500 km of land borders and 66,000 km (41,000 ml) of coastlines. The area of ‘air borders’ could, where appropriate, be categorised by the number of international airports in all EU MS combined with all international inbound and outbound flights of the EU MS.
Johann Wagner
11. International Police Cooperation
Abstract
It is certainly understandable when states are perceived as passive and slow in comparison to the enormous flexibility of cross-border OC groups.
Johann Wagner

Good Practices as Recommendations for Action

Frontmatter
12. Crisis Intervention and Management
Abstract
The Ohrid Border Process initiative−a model for successful intervention and crisis management through external target-oriented promotion of regional cooperation in the area of BSM that specifically focused on strengthening inter-agency cooperation, border surveillance, border control and information exchange.
Johann Wagner
13. Supranational Organisations in the Context of IBM
Abstract
The Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, which was inaugurated in Helsinki on 3rd July 1973, continued in Geneva from 18th September 1973 to 21st July 1975 and was concluded in Helsinki on 1st August 1975, where 35 participating states agreed on a joint final report.
Johann Wagner
14. Extraterritoriality and Border Control
Abstract
As described in Chap. 7, Sect. 7.​1, the border is understood as a territorial delineation and defined as a physical barrier where access checks prior to entering a national territory take place. The border is not an invention of modernism, but the result of a further evolution of border strips and zones of medieval empires.
Johann Wagner
15. Border Management in Transformation
Abstract
Ultimately, the aspiration is for open borders with a simultaneous requirement for maximum security through the use of extensive and effective compensatory measures in accordance with the EU acquis and rule of law. However, the number of cases detected during the reinforced border controls at the G-7 summit and the resulting analyses have shown that the implementation of this project is more difficult than initially assumed.
Johann Wagner

Concluding Remarks

Frontmatter
16. Conclusions from the Thesis
Abstract
Comprehensive analyses in the areas of border security, management, surveillance and control needs have been conducted, in addition to research.
Johann Wagner
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Border Management in Transformation
Author
Johann Wagner
Copyright Year
2021
Electronic ISBN
978-3-030-62728-7
Print ISBN
978-3-030-62727-0
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-62728-7

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