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2020 | Book

Building Pathology, Durability and Service Life


About this book

This book provides a collection of recent research works, helping contribute to the systematization and dissemination of the latest findings on building pathologies (structural and hygrothermal), salt attack and corrosion, durability and service-life prediction. It reflects a number of recent advances concerning the above-mentioned topics, particularly in concrete structures. Intended as an overview of the current state of knowledge, the book will benefit scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties. At the same time, the topics covered are relevant to a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, including civil, materials and mechanical engineering.

Table of Contents

Durability and Service Life Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Frames Subjected to Chloride Corrosion and Mechanical Loading
The objective of this work is to propose a mathematical model for the prediction of service life in reinforced concrete frames subjected to chloride corrosion and mechanical loading. Corrosion causes the reduction of the cross section of the steel bars and decreases the yield stress; mechanical loading produces concrete cracking and yield of the reinforcement. For the modeling of the structural behavior, this research is based on lumped damage mechanics. As a theoretical basis for the proposed mathematical model, some concepts and laws of the thermodynamics of frames are also introduced. The model proposed in this work is called elastoplastic with damage and corrosion, and the internal variables used are plastic rotation, damage level and corrosion level. The propagation of damage causes an acceleration of the evolution of corrosion and the constant that characterizes this relationship can be identified experimentally. The proposed model was used for the simulation of a reinforced concrete frame. In the example, corrosion evolution causes increments of cracking and the evolution of the damage accelerates the corrosion process.
Carlos Alberto Caldeira Brant, Karolinne Oliveira Coelho, Edna Possan, Edson Denner Leonel, Julio Flórez-López
Service Life and Durability of Reinforced Concrete Structures Present in Marine Environment
Reinforced concrete structures present in the marine environment are subject to physical attacks, due to the waves collision against the concrete structures, and chemical attacks, due to the presence of the different ions present in seawater that react both with the concrete and the reinforcement leading to structure’s degradation. In this sense, marine environment is characterized as one of the most aggressive to coastal reinforced concrete infrastructures. Thus, this chapter deals with the aggressiveness of the marine environment towards these structures, taking into account since the different mechanisms of substance penetration in the different marine aggressive zones up to recent empirical models for service life prediction of structures present in this environment. It is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the marine environment effects on the degradation of reinforced concrete structures, allowing the managers responsible for the conservation of these structures to have a bibliographic tool easy to read that helps in their decision making about the service life of concrete structures present in marine environment.
Carlos Eduardo Tino Balestra
Salt Attack, Durability and Service Life of Concrete Structures
The chapter in this book presents concepts on the durability of concrete structures directly relating to deterioration due to the attack of chloride and sulfate salts. The matter becomes necessary due to the aggressive conditions that the structure may be exposed to. In the case of sulfates, these can be present in soils, acid rain, sewage and the sea. Marine environments, on the other hand, are mainly responsible for the penetration of chlorides in concrete, another situation is the free chloride that can be present in the concrete mass and react when in large quantities. We covered the operation of chloride attack and sulfate attack, the calculation models and related life prediction and some recent studies to understand the behavior of buildings in the long term. This study becomes relevant for understanding the deterioration mechanisms that compromise durability.
Wellington Mazer, Alessandra Monique Weber, Carlos Alberto Brunhara, Juliana McCartney Fonseca
Guidelines for Inspection and Receipt of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Newly Constructed Buildings
The purchase of real estate is an important decision, besides being costly, it must fulfill the legitimate needs and expectations of buyers, which means that it must bring comfort, safety and resistance. Therefore, receipt inspections are useful in several situations, and may be demanded by developers, builders, consumers, financing agents, insurance companies and even public entities to reduce uncertainties. The buyer have to inspect the property and formally point out any irregularities identified before formalizing the possession. Among the various systems present in a building, the structure is the system that represents greater importance in aspects related to security. In order to collaborate in this process, an excerpt from this author the master’s thesis (GROSSI 2019) was proposed, proposing guidelines and methods of inspection and receiving newly built housing, based on technical standards, legislation and established building techniques. It is a very important topic, where there are many studies aimed at building inspection during use, however, with few references related to the receipt of newly constructed buildings. The elaboration of the mentioned work was based on a broad bibliographic search, contemplating procedures for carrying out incoming inspections, covering aesthetic, functional aspects, safety in use and operation, compliance with technical standards and applicable legislation, contributing to assess the apparent building conditions of conformity and performance before its use.
Marcus Vinícius Fernandes Grossi
Application of the Degradation Measurement Method in the Study of Facade Service Life
The degradation of buildings needs to be investigated more and more, mainly due to the increasing demands of performance and service life specified for the facades. Otherwise, the definitions of rehabilitation and pathology are increasingly associated with the evolution of performance over time. Measuring the degradation allows to evaluate the service condition of the component, identifying whether it has already reached or exceeded the specified service life. The aim of this chapter is to describe the Degradation Measurement Method developed to quantify the degradation in facades. Guidelines for anomaly inspection, mapping and quantification operations are presented, as well as for calculating the FGD indicator. An application is made with the purpose of exemplification in two degraded samples, as well as the application to identify the service life value for several samples is also presented. The daily use of this methodology has allowed constant improvements and also the development of more accurate models to quantify the degradation.
E. Bauer, J. S. de Souza, C. B. Piazzarollo
The Influence of Mass Tourism and Hygroscopic Inertia in Relative Humidity Fluctuations of Museums Located in Historical Buildings
The preservation of artefacts in museum collections is profoundly affected by fluctuations in temperature and, especially, relative humidity (RH). Since the late nineteenth century, many studies have been carried out into the best way to control hygrothermal conditions. In old buildings located in maritime temperate climate zones (as Portugal) with strong thermal inertia, and which have low ventilation rate (relative to the volume and number of visitors) daily and seasonal hygroscopic inertia may help to assure the maintenance of RH stabilization conditions. The use of expensive active systems may be minimized through passive behaviour of internal finishing building materials. In order to assess the risk of mass tourism and hygroscopic inertia of finishing materials associated with the hygrothermal behaviour of museums, an analysis of several numerical scenarios with a different number of occupants (visitors per hour), different Portuguese climatic zones and finishing materials in order to quantify the risks associated with the fluctuations of relative humidity in a museum. The results of sensitivity studies performed are presented for the case of a museum located in Porto and Lisboa.
C. Ferreira, V. P. de Freitas, João M. P. Q. Delgado
Residual Safety in One-Way Slabs with Severe Corrosion
There are numerous cases of slabs with corrosion in their joists, in which the constructive elements that rest on them do not show remarkable damage. Sometimes, even with all the lower reinforcement corroded in all the joists, there is no alarming cracking in flooring or partition walls. This research provides support for making expert decisions about the corroded slabs, from the initial tasks of diagnosis until late intervention criteria, by evaluating the remaining safety of the most common slabs in residential buildings: the reinforced concrete one-way slabs with in situ and precast joists, having the most usual thickness. The remaining safety assessment has been performed by the analysis of complete building models, where each element is in its real position and appears when real construction dictates. ACI-318 load test is used as a criterion for acceptance or rejection of an existing structure. The assessment of the Load Factor (LF), which quantifies the remaining safety and gives the necessary order of magnitude in the intervention, is developed in this research.
Jose Vercher, Enrique Gil, Ángeles Mas, Carlos Lerma
Building Pathology, Durability and Service Life
Prof. J.M.P.Q. Delgado
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