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2022 | Book

Building Rehabilitation and Sustainable Construction


About this book

This book provides a collection of recent research works related to building pathologies, recycled materials, case studies and practical advices on implementation of sustainable construction. It is divided in seven chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties to network. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as civil, mechanical and materials engineering.

Table of Contents

Application of Indo-Saracenic Style in Architectural Design Process
The heritage architecture in British period in Asia was influenced under the Indo-Saracenic architecture style. This style was also know as Neo-Gothic style of architecture. It was used by British engineer and architects in many buildings during colonial period. The famous British architect George Wittet designed Gateway of India, General Post Building and Prince of Wales Museum in Mumbai (Bombay), India. In his design he used design parameter of Indo-Saracenic architecture. But, after the independence, buildings were rehabilitated for new uses. Particularly, the Prince of Wales Museum is now adapted into new galleries as per the modern requirements. In this rehabilitation process, original architecture style is lost. The chapter here illustrated a project of design of gallery in which the original Indo-Saracenic style of architecture was conserved in the rehabilitation process of the building. The research here illustrates what is the Indo-Saracenic style of architecture? What is architectural design process? How to apply the Indo-Saracenic style of architecture in the architectural design process? Thus, the research illustrated the methods to conserve the historic buildings by retaining the original styles of architecture.
Prafulla Parlewar
Design of Structure for Steam Turbine Generator
The structure for Back Pressure Steam Turbine Generator of 6.0 Mw is designed in structural steel and Reinforced Cement Concrete (R.C.C.) for a petroleum refinery. This structure included a composite arrangement of structural steel build form and R. C. C. structure to support the turbine generator. This structure was having complex loading of steel structure and dynamic loading of the turbine generator. The research here looks into the questions like how to design a composite technical structure? How vibration affects the design criteria for design of technical structure? What are the design criteria of design of R.C.C. structure for turbine generators? The project included design to facilitate the operation and maintenance of the steam turbine generator. The research looks into the complete cycle of structure of steam turbine generators. The cycle of designing the structure included the loading, aesthetic, functionality of the structure. Similar approaches can be used to design structures under various dynamic loading in industries and refineries.
Prafulla Parlewar
Fiber Optic Sensors to Perform Structural Health Monitoring of Concrete Structures Affected by Internal Swelling Reactions
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) on concrete structures is an important issue in controlling its performance during its service life. Data obtained using this technology can provide valuable information for decision making about the needs for corrective interventions that can ensure the integrity and safety of concrete structures. When concrete structures exhibit internal expansions due to the several types of swelling reactions a strong surface mapping cracking process appears that can significantly affect its durability and performance. The paper presents the state-of-art of the use of fiber optics sensor to monitoring concrete structures with focus in the researches related with its use. Background of the theory regarding fiber optics sensors and advantages and limitations are also discussed.
K. K. Santos Silva, F. A. N. Silva, T. Mahfoud, A. Khelidj, A. C. Azevedo, J. M. P. Q. Delgado
Evaluation of Lime Solution in Kneading Water for the Preparation of Roughcast and Plaster Coating
Comprehension of the mechanical fixation behaviour of coatings is crucial for a better understanding of the bonding systems, especially at the interface between the mortar and the base. Physical adherence is related, among other things, to the contents of the materials used in the roughcast and plaster, due to the necessary colloidal water penetration into the pores of the substrate, providing mechanical locking of hydrated calcium sulfoaluminate and calcium silicate crystals, according to the principle of active pores. This study proposes to evaluate the influence of the use of a lime solution as a substitution for the kneading water in the preparation of roughcast and plaster, with blends of 0% (reference), 5%, 10%, and 15% in relation to the amount of water used. The experiment included preparing masonry panels 220 × 180 cm2, prepared with concrete blocks and ceramic bricks. Direct tensile bond strength tests were performed, and the results, with a 95% confidence level, showed significant differences for levels from 10% lime blend in the roughcast, in both base types, reaching increments of up to 39% in relation to the reference sample, a behaviour not identified in the plaster samples.
A. M. Santos, A. J. Costa e Silva, J. M. Freitas Mota, J. M. P. Q. Delgado, F. A. N. Silva, A. C. Azevedo
Technological Performance of Cellulose Fibre Reinforced Cement-Based Mortars
This work presents the study of the effect of the incorporation of cellulose fibres in mortars, as waste recycling alternatives in the productive chain of construction, in favor of sustainability policy. Building construction is an area of great potential to absorb waste in its productive chain, producing alternative materials and thus reducing the environmental impact with the reuse of by-products or waste from other industries and its own chain. In the search for innovation, the use of vegetable fibres and particularly cellulose fibres in cementitious composites have been studied throughout the world and in mortars, such fibre-matrix interaction allows to enhance certain properties inherent to the material. Thus, this research was aimed to evaluate the effect of fibre in the deformability of the mortars, focusing on mechanical behavior from comparing mortars with fibre and mortar without fibre, these called reference mortar. To obtain the composites were formulated experimental dosages of mixed mortar cement and lime in a ratio of 1:1:6 by weight with the addition of fibre at 5 and 10% of the total mix weight, and a water/agglomerates rate fixed at 0.60. The analysis between the mortars was made in the fresh state with tests for measuring the consistency and the weight density and in the hardened state with tests of tensile strength when bending and compression strength tests. The results showed that the greater the fibre content added smaller are the tensile and compression strengths, however antagonistically, the higher the fibre content the higher is the value of tenacity and deformability of the composite clearly characterized at the load versus deformation curve. Thus, even supporting lower load bearing, the use of the cellulose fibres provides a greater bearing capacity to deformations required for the mortar, particularly in post crack stage, absorbing more energy before rupture.
E. C. L. Rezende, A. J. Costa e Silva, J. M. P. Q. Delgado, A. C. Azevedo
Use of Construction Waste to Replace Conventional Aggregate in Reinforced Concrete Production
The work aims to study the influence of using construction and demolition waste (CDW) in replacing coarse and fine aggregate in the production of concrete and its impact on hardened concrete properties. To compare and analysis its behavior a moderate compressive strength concrete was used as a benchmark. Compressive and splitting tests were performed using 120 cylindrical concrete specimens with 150 mm diameter and 300 mm length. Additionally, reference and RAC concrete beams were prepared and tested under four points loaded scheme to investigate the mechanical response on both maximum load capacity, displacements and also evaluate the flexural strengths of the beams tested. Results obtained showed to be a good solution for an adequate destination to the CDW from the construction industry and the full recycled fine aggregate replacement exhibited better performance in all tests performed proving, this way, great potentialities to be used as fine aggregate in concrete production.
F. A. N. Silva, M. T. A. Silva, F. A. F. Lopes, J. M. P. Q. Delgado, A. C. Azevedo
Thermal Performance of Dwellings: Comparative Study Between Simulation Methods with NBR 15,575 (2013) and NBR 15,575 (2021)
Depending on the constructive, geographical, and geometric characteristics, the thermal performance of buildings is parameterized by regulatory technical standards that aim to promote appropriate thermal comfort conditions for users. The knowledge of the ways to mitigate radiation, the biggest source of thermal gains in buildings, is essential to enable better thermal energetic levels and, above all, reduce the consumed thermal load. This work aims to carry out a comparative analysis between the computational simulation methods recommended by NBR 15,575 (2013) and NBR 15,575 (2021). For this purpose, two buildings were selected: one housing of social interest and another with q high-end standard level. From this, computational models for thermoenergetic simulation were carried out using the Energy-Plus software. The results obtained in the social interest housing simulations indicated compliance with the minimum level, but there was no compliance with the criteria of the intermediate and superior levels given the two normative methods analyzed. In the simulations carried out in the high-end building, compliance with the minimum level was achieved only with the use of shading devices in the frames, and, like social housing, it did not meet the intermediate and higher levels. When observing the simulations, in spite of being different, the service profile between the two methods was maintained. The house of social interest, whose construction systems are similar to the normative reference model, predisposes to meeting the minimum level, whereas buildings with large areas of transparent elements tend to have greater difficulties in meeting the thermal performance requirement. This work also shows the normative advances given by NBR 15,575 (2021) through the insertion of parameters that incorporate energy efficiency and the concept of annual analysis of buildings.
M. M. Barbosa, P. E. Silva de Oliveira, A. J. Costa e Silva, J. M. P. Q. Delgado, A. C. Azevedo
Building Rehabilitation and Sustainable Construction
Prof. João M. P. Q. Delgado
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