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2023 | Book

Built Heritage Sustainable Reuse

Approaches, Methodologies and Practices


About this book

This book gathers the latest advances and innovations in the field of sustainable reuse of built heritage, as presented by international researchers at the conference "ReUSO - Documentation, Restoration and Reuse of Heritage”, held on November 2-4, 2022, at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP), Porto, Portugal. The X edition of the ReUSO conference promoted the discussion among the participants on issues related to the sustainable and adaptive reuse of built heritage, from the theoretical perspectives to the methodological and practical applications in contemporary interventions in relation to the complexity and vulnerability of the present-day context and the future orientations of our scientific sectors.

Table of Contents

Reuse and Conservation of Built Heritage in Exposed Concrete: Recent Intervention by Álvaro Siza (2018–2021)
The Ocean Swimming Pool (1960–1966) is one of Álvaro Siza’s most internationally recognized works for its exceptional landscape integration while expressing a tectonic shift from regionalist inspiration towards more abstract design and innovative constructive solutions. Recent conservation has enhanced the site’s significance, by preserving the original design principles and extending the building to the north, where the original construction had been left unfinished. Under the Keeping It Modern Grant awarded by the Getty Foundation, inspection and diagnosis were carried out during the building site, providing a complete material assessment of the building. Also, the funding allowed for the localized repair of concrete spalling due to steel corrosion which went beyond the traditional patch repair by applying innovative techniques of chromatic and texture integration between the existing and the new repair mortars.
Teresa Cunha Ferreira, Hugo Mendonça, Paulo B. Lourenço, Rui Fernandes Póvoas, Ana Tostões, Jónatas Valença, Hugo Costa, Eduardo Júlio
Behavioural Decision-Making in Sustainable Conservation of Built Heritage
The role of heritage buildings in pursuing a more sustainable built environment has been widely discussed in the last decades, from their importance to cohesive and inclusive communities to their contribution to resources conservation and therefore to reducing materials-related carbon emissions. Norms, policies, standards, and design-aid tools have been developed to encourage urban conservation, but a question persists: why are best practices not yet widely implemented? Decision-making processes have an intrinsic behavioural dimension. Decisions are influenced not only by conscious and rational factors related to heritage buildings and their adaptive reuse, but also by a conjugation of social, psychological, and emotional factors related to the designer. This research uses the “Theory of Planned Behaviour” to analyse architects’ design decisions and reveal the common beliefs, challenges, and opportunities in the conservation of heritage buildings. The results show that while responsibility for the failure in the implementation of conservation is often attributed to third parties, individual attitudes and personal beliefs strongly correlate to the adopted behaviours and, thus, need to be targeted for effective change. Understanding the behavioural dimension of the decision-making process in the adaptive reuse of built heritage is essential to maximize the effect of tools and policies that support actual change toward the growth of a circular economy and a more sustainable future.
Joana dos Santos Gonçalves, Ricardo Mateus, José Dinis Silvestre, Ana Pereira Roders
Continuity and Innovation as Design Principles for Adaptive Reuse of Built Heritage: A Case Study by Architect Fernando Távora
This paper focuses on the concepts, methods and design principles of the Portuguese architect and professor Fernando Távora (1923–2005) in the adaptive reuse of built heritage through an in-depth analysis of the renovation and conversion of the so-called Primo Madeira House into the Porto University Club (1986–1990). The architect’s different performance on the two buildings of the pre-existing complex reflects his case-by-case approach. The intervention in the main house consisted in occasional and delicate repairs that demanded skilled labour in traditional techniques, aimed at restoring the original bourgeois character. By contrast, the annexes show a more affirmative contemporaneity in the introduction of a modern staircase and the renewal and update of the bedrooms. This representative case took place at a stage of full maturity in the architect’s career, reflecting the main features of his personal modus operandi: careful prior analysis of the pre-existence, respect for the previous character of spaces, atmospheres and construction systems, as well as sensitive introduction of new elements with subtle modern expression in continuity with the architectural identity of the building.
David Ordóñez-Castañón, Teresa Cunha Ferreira
Architectural Conservation Design Training in a Pandemic: Recent Resilient Experiences in Brazil
The COVID-19 pandemic was severe and abrupt for Brazilian education, forcing adaptation and the development of new pedagogies. However, since conservation training deals with the observation and analysis of built heritage, mostly based on field activities, how training could continue under social isolation? This work presents educational experiences conducted at the Architecture and Urbanism undergraduate course of the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil, aiming to describe how strategies were applied for training Architectural Conservation Design under the global health emergency in 2020. Methodology was based on problem solving during social isolation periods to promote conservation as a holistic design process. Although new forms of “remote” adaptations faced efficiency difficulties, the experience showed that any strategy to guarantee and enhance teaching quality of Higher Education in adverse scenarios must show resilience and creativity.
Pedro Murilo Gonçalves de Freitas
A Methodology for Historic Villages Preservation. The Case Study of San Giovanni Lipioni
The preservation of the built heritage in historic villages is often connected with the progressive abandonment by their inhabitants because of the lack of services and facilities. In the last decades, inner areas all around Europe have been facing that problem. It is, therefore, essential to elaborate and develop targeted strategies aimed at the conservation of the buildings’ typical characteristics, integrated with sustainable reuse practices. Restoration Manuals are valuable support as they are intended to convey intervention practices respecting the existing typical features and, at the same time, cultural-artistic traditions, parts of the intangible heritage. This research aims to define a strategy for valorising the village of San Giovanni Lipioni (Italy). It addresses the existing building stock mainly located in the historic centre and the surrounding rural territory. The methodology envisages the following phases: (i) on-site surveys and data collection about 51 building units, (ii) databases’ structuring and organising using specific datasheets, (iii) identification of recurring and significant characteristics or building elements that need to be preserved, and (iv) proposal of some interventions for improving structural safety and energy efficiency. Finally, drafting the Restoration Manual for the village of San Giovanni Lipioni allows for collecting and organising the insights from the previous phases and providing a tool that public administrations, professionals and other actors involved in the preservation process can use.
Anna Chiara Benedetti, Carlo Costantino, Nicola Mantini, Cristiana Bartolomei, Giorgia Predari
Application of New Technologies for the Graphic and Constructive Analysis and Dissemination of the Archaeological Heritage of Mérida, Spain
Heritage is under constant pressure to be adapted for tourist use and is the economic lifeline of many cities. The aim of this research project is to propose a sustainable, new and inclusive tourist response thanks to virtual models that offer a new tourist experience. The project, led by the UEX as a forerunner in the digitisation of heritage, has the collaboration of the Consorcio de Mérida, which ensures access to the documentation and monuments for their digitisation and 6D survey. The methodology will use non-invasive tools such as GPR, UAVs, VR and AR technologies. The case study is the city of Mérida, a World Heritage Site, where tourism is an economic engine and the tourist use of monuments is very polarized, some with high impact, while others are highly unknown to society. The expected results are twofold: an effective interdisciplinary working methodology for heritage management and the creation of new tourist attractions such as inclusive physical prototypes, virtual tours of the most inaccessible places, new digital tourist routes and gamification to attract new audiences.
Adela Rueda Márquez de la Plata, Pablo Alejandro Cruz Franco, Jorge Alberto Ramos Sánchez
Fairground of Lebanon in Tripoli and the War. Meanings and Challenges for the Future
The Fairground of Lebanon in Tripoli, designed by architect Oscar Niemeyer in collaboration with many Lebanese architects and engineers, was built from 1963 to 1975 and never completed. It was occupied by armed forces and then by a foreign army during the “civil” war (1975–1989) until it was abandoned around 1995. Since such information is sensitive, it is not easy to find or gain access to documentation about the wartime period. The rare traces of the military occupation can be found in the archive preserved in the basement of the Fair, in some feasibility studies held by former politicians, in visible traces on concrete walls, and in some interviews. These sources confirm that this unique utopian place was used for a considerable time for violent actions. The paper aims to investigate what happened during these years (1975–1995). Recently, the high interest from abroad stimulated the promulgation of a law in March 2022 for its conservation and reuse. A knowledge of events during the war period could contribute to defining the strategy for the future of this architectural complex, as an outstanding example of Lebanese Modernism in architecture.
Francesca Albani, Joe Zaatar
Sarajevo Military Brownfields. Principles for Adaptive Reuse
Strategic military bases in Bosnia and Herzegovina sought to provide a defence system for the protection of the society and to transform the commonly viewed as complex and diverse historically, culturally, and socially interlocking territories into an ordered and unified identity. Today, this architectural and political project still witnesses the utopian visions of former military systems and their importance and collective power. However, this endangered heritage indicates the lack of integration into contemporary society due to complex political, social, and cultural misuses. Therefore, this research aims to shed light on the rather unexplored military architecture in the city of Sarajevo and to question the concept of power and protection as a source of revival for a new ideological role of social, cultural, and educational inclusion, where several principles of architectural regeneration are used as a guiding point for post-war reconstruction. Military brownfields are an enormous resource that can be transformed from the negative connotation those facilities have into a potential for architectural and urban regeneration of a war-torn city.
Amra Salihbegović, Domenico Chizzoniti
Built Heritage Sustainable Reuse
Humberto Varum
Teresa Cunha Ferreira
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