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About this book

TheBPMN2010workshopseriesprovidesa forumfor academicsandpractiti- ers that share an interest in business process modeling using Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) which has seen a huge uptake in both academia and industry. It is seen by many as the de facto standard for business process modeling.Ithasbecomeverypopularwithbusiness analysts,toolvendors,pr- titioners, and end users. BPMN promises to bridge business and IT, and brings process design and implementation closer together. BPMN 2010 was the second workshop of the series. It took place October 13–14, 2010 at the Hasso Plattner Institute at the University of Potsdam, Germany. This volume contains six contributed research papers that were - lected from 16 submissions. There was a thorough reviewing process, with each paper being reviewed by, on average, four Program Committee members. In addition to the contributed papers, these proceedings contain three short - pers and three extended abstracts of the invited keynote talks. In conjunction with the scienti?c workshop, a practitioners’ event took place the day after the workshop. We want to express our gratitude to all those who made BPMN 2010 pos- ble by generously and voluntarily sharing their knowledge, skills, and time. In particular, we thank the ProgramCommittee members as well as the additional reviewers for devoting their expertise and time to ensure the high quality of the workshop’s scienti?c program through an extensive review process. Finally, we are grateful to all the authors who showed their appreciation and support for the workshop by submitting their valuable work to it.

Table of Contents


Invited Talks

Unraveling Unstructured Process Models

A BPMN model is well-structured if splits and joins are always paired into single-entry-single-exit blocks. Well-structuredness is often a desirable property as it promotes readability and makes models easier to analyze. However, many process models found in practice are not well-structured, and it is not always feasible or even desirable to restrict process modelers to produce only well-structured models. Also, not all processes can be captured as well-structured process models. An alternative to forcing modelers to produce well-structured models, is to automatically transform unstructured models into well-structured ones when needed and possible. This talk reviews existing results on automatic transformation of unstructured process models into structured ones.
Marlon Dumas, Luciano García-Bañuelos, Artem Polyvyanyy

BPEL vs. BPMN 2.0: Should You Care?

BPMN 2.0 is an executable process modeling language. Thus, its relation to BPEL becomes an issue. In this paper, we propose a positioning of both languages, introduce the notion of a “native metamodel”, and emphasize the role of the native metamodel of a process engine for the actual discussion.
Frank Leymann

An Overview of BPMN 2.0 and Its Potential Use

BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) is an OMG standard for business process modeling that is widely adopted today. The OMG lists 62 tool vendors who offer products that support BPMN [3]. This success is based on the fact that BPMN provides a standardized graphical notation which is easy to use for business analysts, allowing them to document and communicate their business processes within their company and with their external business partners.
Hagen Völzer

Full Papers

BPMN 2.0 Execution Semantics Formalized as Graph Rewrite Rules

This paper presents a formalization of a subset of the BPMN 2.0 execution semantics in terms of graph rewrite rules. The formalization is supported by graph rewrite tools and implemented in one of these tools, called GrGen. The benefit of formalizing the execution semantics by means of graph rewrite rules is that there is a strong relation between the execution semantics rules that are informally specified in the BPMN 2.0 standard and their formalization. This makes it easy to validate the formalization. Having a formalized and implemented execution semantics supports simulation, animation and execution of BPMN 2.0 models. In particular this paper explains how to use the formal execution semantics to verify workflow engines and service orchestration and choreography engines that use BPMN 2.0 for modeling the processes that they execute.
Remco Dijkman, Pieter Van Gorp

On a Study of Layout Aesthetics for Business Process Models Using BPMN

As BPMN spreads among a constantly growing user group, it is indispensable to analyze the expectations of users towards the appearance of a BPMN model. The user groups are mostly inhomogeneous since users stem from different backgrounds, e.g. IT, managerial sciences or economics. It is conceivable that BPMN novices may have different issues compared to higher skilled modeling experts. When this large set of users starts modeling, the expectations considering the graphical outcome of the modeling process may differ significantly.
In this work, we analyze layout preferences of user groups when modeling with BPMN. We present a set of layout criteria that are formalized and then confirmed by a user study. The conduction of the study reveals preferences of single user groups with respect to secondary notation and layout aesthetics. From our results, proposals for adaptions of software tools towards different BPMN users can be derived.
Philip Effinger, Nicole Jogsch, Sandra Seiz

The Role of BPMN in a Modeling Methodology for Dynamic Process Solutions

This paper introduces a design method for dynamic business process management solutions in which the well-known modeling elements of business object life cycles, business rules, and business activities are integrated in a distributed system as equal communicating components. Using the EURENT car rental domain originally developed by the business rules community, it is demonstrated how this method can be used to enable adhoc and rule-driven activities integrated with the life cycle management of business objects. A modeling methodology based on BPMN collaboration diagrams is proposed to describe component interactions and behavior. Agile principles are applicable to incrementally build the solution in which scenarios play a major role to validate and further evolve the solution’s behavior. A clear separation between components, their interaction, and details of the internal component behavior facilitates change and the implementation of business patterns.
Jana Koehler

A Concept for Spreadsheet-Based Process Modeling

When it comes to the understanding and usage of business process models, there exists a gap between process modeling method experts and domain experts. This paper proposes an approach to close this gap by using simple spreadsheet-based representations of process models. For this, different approaches for the modeling of business processes in spreadsheets are introduced and evaluated. Transformations from and into BPMN 2.0 are investigated and on basis of these results, a round-tripping concept for process models is developed. Finally, a prototype is introduced that proves the applicability of this concept.
Stefan Krumnow, Gero Decker

Managing Complex Event Processes with Business Process Modeling Notation

Complex Event Processing – the identification of event patterns in event streams, the analysis of their impact, and the execution of corresponding actions – is gaining momentum within various research disciplines and business areas. However, one of the major problems associated with Complex Event Processing is its lack of usability, especially the complexity of its management, preventing its wide diffusion and adoption by users. This usability issue is addressed in this paper by applying Business Process Modeling Notation as graphical support for the definition of complex event patterns.
Steffen Kunz, Tobias Fickinger, Johannes Prescher, Klaus Spengler

Managing Business Process Variants at eBay

The issue of business process variants management has been addressed several times already. However new situations with their own specific arise all the time, and proper solutions need to be developed in order to address such specific context. Process variants management at eBay is an example of such a situation. Variants are imposed by business facts, and only for a single process there could be more than 8000 variants. In this paper we introduce an ontology based approach to address the management of business process variants. The ontology based solution relates business context with reusable process flow elements, thus binding the reason for which a variant has been introduced with the variant itself. Variants can be later compared and queried for based on this relationship. In such a context, first, one has to model for reuse to be able to model with reuse. In order to provide a complete process variants management approach, the ontology based solution is complemented by an inheritance mechanism.
Emilian Pascalau, Clemens Rath

Short Papers

Managing Variability in Process Models by Structural Decomposition

Business process management (BPM) provides companies with techniques for analyzing, designing, and executing operational processes which are documented as process models. Often, companies face the problem of supporting similar processes, i.e., process variants, within their organizational boundaries. This may be due to cultural particularities of running business or/and different legal regulations enforced at different departments operating worldwide. Effective mechanisms for managing process variants should allow companies to achieve operational consistency and effective reuse of their process repositories. This paper presents a novel approach for managing variability in process models based on the structural decomposition and representation of process variants as an integrated set of building blocks called process modules.
Maria Rastrepkina

Adapting BPMN to Public Administration

BPMN was originally defined to provide a process modelling notation that could be easily understood by all business stakeholders. However, when using this notation within a particular domain, as is the case with public administration, some limitations in the original notation become apparent. Documents play a very important role in the public domain. They become first-class citizens and standard BPMN notation is not sufficient to address certain common situations. This paper presents the extension defined for the BPMN 1.1 notation which is to be used to define process models in the Valencian public administration in Spain. In addition to this extension, the paper also presents how BPMN has been integrated into a software development methodology.
Victoria Torres, Pau Giner, Begoña Bonet, Vicente Pelechano

An Evaluation of BPMN Modeling Tools

Various BPMN modeling tools are available and it is close to impossible to understand their functional differences without simply trying them out. This paper presents an evaluation framework and presents the outcomes of its application to a set of five BPMN modeling tools. We report on various differences, for example with respect to the level of BPMN support and the “smart” support a modeler may experience using these tools. Interestingly, while tools that are provided by commercial parties do offer more integration options with other tools in BPM suites, they cannot be said to outperform academic tools in other respects.
Zhiqiang Yan, Hajo A. Reijers, Remco M. Dijkman


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