Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Population and Environment 4/2015

01-06-2015 | Research Brief

Can glacial retreat lead to migration? A critical discussion of the impact of glacier shrinkage upon population mobility in the Bolivian Andes

Author: Kaenzig Raoul

Published in: Population and Environment | Issue 4/2015

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

This article examines the role of glacial retreat on human migration in the Bolivian Andes—a topic with virtually no scholarly focus, yet of critical importance in the era of global climate change. Glacial melting has increased since the 1980s, and popular reports often suggest there will be significant impacts on local populations, including migration. Based on interviews with local residents, both migrants and nonmigrants, as well as topical experts, this study suggests that residents do, indeed, have serious concerns about future livelihood conditions in the Bolivian Andes. Even so, glacial retreat has not triggered new migration flows and has had a limited impact on the existing migratory patterns.
Footnotes
1
In its original version: “El deshielo empuja la emigración en una comunidad indígena de Bolivia”. (translation by the author).
 
2
Earthjustice (USA) and Agua Sustentable (Bolivia).
 
3
There are also complex interactions with the wetlands (bofedales) situated at a higher altitude (Hoffmann, 2008; Squeo, et al., 2006), but these hydrological interactions are beyond the scope of this paper.
 
Literature
go back to reference Abegg, B., Agrawala, S., Crick, F., & de Montfalcon, A. (2007). Climate change impacts and adaptation in winter tourism. In S. Agrawala (Ed.), Climate change in the European Alps (pp. 25–60). Paris: OCDE: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Abegg, B., Agrawala, S., Crick, F., & de Montfalcon, A. (2007). Climate change impacts and adaptation in winter tourism. In S. Agrawala (Ed.), Climate change in the European Alps (pp. 25–60). Paris: OCDE: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
go back to reference Adamo, S. B. (2010). Environmental migration and cities in the context of global environmental change. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2(3), 161–165. CrossRef Adamo, S. B. (2010). Environmental migration and cities in the context of global environmental change. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2(3), 161–165. CrossRef
go back to reference AguaSustentable. (2012). Estrategia de adaptación a los efectos del cambio climático y global en comunidades de la microcuenca del río Sajhuaya. La Paz, Bolivia: Agua Sustentable, UMSA: Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Recursos Naturales, UMSA: IHH, IDRC, NEFCO, Diakonia, Chrisitan Aid and OXFAM. AguaSustentable. (2012). Estrategia de adaptación a los efectos del cambio climático y global en comunidades de la microcuenca del río Sajhuaya. La Paz, Bolivia: Agua Sustentable, UMSA: Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Recursos Naturales, UMSA: IHH, IDRC, NEFCO, Diakonia, Chrisitan Aid and OXFAM.
go back to reference Alurralde, J. C., Ramirez, E., García, M., Pacheco, P., Salazar, D., & Mamani, R. S. (2011). Living with glaciers, adapting to change the experience of the Illimani project in Bolivia. In Proceedings of the XIVth IWRA world water congress (September 25–29, 2011—Porto de Galinhas, Recife, Brazil) (pp. 1–8). Alurralde, J. C., Ramirez, E., García, M., Pacheco, P., Salazar, D., & Mamani, R. S. (2011). Living with glaciers, adapting to change the experience of the Illimani project in Bolivia. In Proceedings of the XIVth IWRA world water congress (September 25–29, 2011—Porto de Galinhas, Recife, Brazil) (pp. 1–8).
go back to reference Andersen, L., E. (2002). Rural–urban migration in Bolivia: Advantages and disadvantages. Documento de Trabajo, 5(02). Andersen, L., E. (2002). Rural–urban migration in Bolivia: Advantages and disadvantages. Documento de Trabajo, 5(02).
go back to reference Arancibia, V. R. (2012). Oportunidades y limitaciones para el aceso a fuentes de agua para La Paz Agua para La Paz. Adaptación al cambio climático y prevención para el suministro de agua en La Paz. (pp. 52-63). La Paz: Concejo Municipal. Gobiernon Autónomo Municipal de La Paz. Arancibia, V. R. (2012). Oportunidades y limitaciones para el aceso a fuentes de agua para La Paz Agua para La Paz. Adaptación al cambio climático y prevención para el suministro de agua en La Paz. (pp. 52-63). La Paz: Concejo Municipal. Gobiernon Autónomo Municipal de La Paz.
go back to reference Arber, S. (1993). Designing samples. In N. Gilbert (Ed.), Researching social life (pp. 59–92). London: SAGE. Arber, S. (1993). Designing samples. In N. Gilbert (Ed.), Researching social life (pp. 59–92). London: SAGE.
go back to reference Balderrama Mariscal, C., Tassi, N., Rubena Miranda, A., Aramayo Caned, L., & Cazorla, I. (2011). Rural migration in Bolivia: The impact of climate change, economic crisis and state policy. IIED Human Settlements Working Paper(31), p. 45. Balderrama Mariscal, C., Tassi, N., Rubena Miranda, A., Aramayo Caned, L., & Cazorla, I. (2011). Rural migration in Bolivia: The impact of climate change, economic crisis and state policy. IIED Human Settlements Working Paper(31), p. 45.
go back to reference Barnett, T. P., Adam, J. C., & Lettenmaier, D. P. (2005). Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions. Nature, 438(17), 303–309. CrossRef Barnett, T. P., Adam, J. C., & Lettenmaier, D. P. (2005). Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions. Nature, 438(17), 303–309. CrossRef
go back to reference Beniston, M., Diaz, H. F., & Bradley, R. S. (1997). Climatic change at high elevation sites: An overview. Climatic Change, 36(3–4), 233–251. CrossRef Beniston, M., Diaz, H. F., & Bradley, R. S. (1997). Climatic change at high elevation sites: An overview. Climatic Change, 36(3–4), 233–251. CrossRef
go back to reference Black, R. (2001). Environmental refugees: Myth or reality? New issues in refugee research. UNHCR research paper (34). Black, R. (2001). Environmental refugees: Myth or reality? New issues in refugee research. UNHCR research paper (34).
go back to reference Bolivia’s Water Ministry. (2007). Plan nacional de riego. Bolivia: La Paz. Bolivia’s Water Ministry. (2007). Plan nacional de riego. Bolivia: La Paz.
go back to reference Botez, R. N. (2010). Displacement risks from glacial melting in Nepal. The state of environmental migration. Paris: IDDRI (Sciences Po) and IOM. Botez, R. N. (2010). Displacement risks from glacial melting in Nepal. The state of environmental migration. Paris: IDDRI (Sciences Po) and IOM.
go back to reference Bradley, R. S., Vuille, M., Diaz, H. F., & Vergara, W. (2006). Threats to Water supplies in the tropical Andes. Science, 312(5781), 1755–1756. CrossRef Bradley, R. S., Vuille, M., Diaz, H. F., & Vergara, W. (2006). Threats to Water supplies in the tropical Andes. Science, 312(5781), 1755–1756. CrossRef
go back to reference Buytaert, W., & De Bièvre, B. (2012). Water for cities: The impact of climate change and demographic growth in the tropical Andes. Water Resources Research, 48(8), W08503. CrossRef Buytaert, W., & De Bièvre, B. (2012). Water for cities: The impact of climate change and demographic growth in the tropical Andes. Water Resources Research, 48(8), W08503. CrossRef
go back to reference Carey, M. (2010). In the shadow of melting glaciers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef Carey, M. (2010). In the shadow of melting glaciers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Castles, S. (2002). Environmental change and forced migration: Making sense of the debate. New Issues in Refugee Research. UNHCR Research Paper (70). Castles, S. (2002). Environmental change and forced migration: Making sense of the debate. New Issues in Refugee Research. UNHCR Research Paper (70).
go back to reference Chaplin, A. (2009). Percepciones de comunarios y comunarias del Altiplano Boliviano sobre los cambios en el clima y sus efectos. La Paz: CIPE, CIPCA and Christian Aid. Chaplin, A. (2009). Percepciones de comunarios y comunarias del Altiplano Boliviano sobre los cambios en el clima y sus efectos. La Paz: CIPE, CIPCA and Christian Aid.
go back to reference Chevallier, P., Pouyaud, B., Suarez, W., & Condom, T. (2011). Climate change threats to environment in the tropical Andes: Glaciers and water resources. Regional Environmental Change, 11, 179–187. CrossRef Chevallier, P., Pouyaud, B., Suarez, W., & Condom, T. (2011). Climate change threats to environment in the tropical Andes: Glaciers and water resources. Regional Environmental Change, 11, 179–187. CrossRef
go back to reference Cortes, G. (2000). Partir pour rester. Survie et mutations de sociétés paysannes andines (Bolivie). Paris: Editions de l’IRD (Institut de recherche pour le développement) Collection à travers champs. Cortes, G. (2000). Partir pour rester. Survie et mutations de sociétés paysannes andines (Bolivie). Paris: Editions de l’IRD (Institut de recherche pour le développement) Collection à travers champs.
go back to reference Coudrain, A., Francou, B., & Kundzewicz, Z. W. (2005). Glacier shrinkage in the Andes and consequences for water resources. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 50(6), 925–932. CrossRef Coudrain, A., Francou, B., & Kundzewicz, Z. W. (2005). Glacier shrinkage in the Andes and consequences for water resources. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 50(6), 925–932. CrossRef
go back to reference de Sherbinin, A., Castro, M., Gemenne, F., Cernea, M. M., Adamo, S., Fearnside, P. M., et al. (2011). Preparing for resettlement associated with climate change. Science, 334(6055), 456–457. CrossRef de Sherbinin, A., Castro, M., Gemenne, F., Cernea, M. M., Adamo, S., Fearnside, P. M., et al. (2011). Preparing for resettlement associated with climate change. Science, 334(6055), 456–457. CrossRef
go back to reference Earthjustice. (2009). Submission of agua sustainable and earthjustice to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Earthjustice. (2009). Submission of agua sustainable and earthjustice to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.
go back to reference Escurra, J., Vazquez, V., Cestti, R., De Nys, E., & Srinivasan, R. (2014). Climate change impact on countrywide water balance in Bolivia. Regional Environmental Change, 14(2), 727–742. CrossRef Escurra, J., Vazquez, V., Cestti, R., De Nys, E., & Srinivasan, R. (2014). Climate change impact on countrywide water balance in Bolivia. Regional Environmental Change, 14(2), 727–742. CrossRef
go back to reference Findlay, A. M. (2011). Migrant destinations in an era of environmental change. Global Environmental Change, 21(Supplement 1), S50–S58. CrossRef Findlay, A. M. (2011). Migrant destinations in an era of environmental change. Global Environmental Change, 21(Supplement 1), S50–S58. CrossRef
go back to reference Foresight. (2011a). Migration and global environmental change— Future challenges and opportunities. London: Government Office for Science. Foresight. (2011a). Migration and global environmental changeFuture challenges and opportunities. London: Government Office for Science.
go back to reference Foresight. (2011b). Migration and global environmental change: Mountainous regions workshop. London: Government Office for Science. Foresight. (2011b). Migration and global environmental change: Mountainous regions workshop. London: Government Office for Science.
go back to reference García, M. C. R., García, C. E. R., Brown, S., & Cordero, E. (2008). Water resource research and education in mountain communities. Mountain Research and Development, 28(3/4), 196–200. CrossRef García, M. C. R., García, C. E. R., Brown, S., & Cordero, E. (2008). Water resource research and education in mountain communities. Mountain Research and Development, 28(3/4), 196–200. CrossRef
go back to reference García, M., Raes, D., Jacobsen, S. E., & Michel, T. (2007). Agroclimatic constraints for rainfed agriculture in the Bolivian Altiplano. Journal of Arid Environments, 71(1), 109–121. CrossRef García, M., Raes, D., Jacobsen, S. E., & Michel, T. (2007). Agroclimatic constraints for rainfed agriculture in the Bolivian Altiplano. Journal of Arid Environments, 71(1), 109–121. CrossRef
go back to reference García, M., & Taboada, C. (2010). Vulnerabilidad y adaptación al cambio climático en comunidades de la cuenca del rio Sajhuaya. La Paz: Informe del proyecto Illimani para AguaSustentable. García, M., & Taboada, C. (2010). Vulnerabilidad y adaptación al cambio climático en comunidades de la cuenca del rio Sajhuaya. La Paz: Informe del proyecto Illimani para AguaSustentable.
go back to reference Gemenne, F. (Ed.). (2010). Migrations et environnement Paris: Numéro spécial de la revue « Hommes et migrations » 1284. Gemenne, F. (Ed.). (2010). Migrations et environnement Paris: Numéro spécial de la revue « Hommes et migrations » 1284.
go back to reference Guilbert, M.-L. (2005). Environnement et migration: les difficultés d’une communauté rurale andine (El Terrado, Potosi, Bolivie). VertigO- la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement, 6(3). Guilbert, M.-L. (2005). Environnement et migration: les difficultés d’une communauté rurale andine (El Terrado, Potosi, Bolivie). VertigO- la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement, 6(3).
go back to reference Hardy, S. (2009). La vulnérabilité de l’approvisionnement en eau dans l’agglomération pacénienne: le cas du sous-système El Alto. Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography. Hardy, S. (2009). La vulnérabilité de l’approvisionnement en eau dans l’agglomération pacénienne: le cas du sous-système El Alto. Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography.
go back to reference Hoffmann, D. (2008). Consecuencias Cel Retroceso Glaciar En La Cordillera Boliviana. Pirineos, 163, 77–84. CrossRef Hoffmann, D. (2008). Consecuencias Cel Retroceso Glaciar En La Cordillera Boliviana. Pirineos, 163, 77–84. CrossRef
go back to reference Hoffmann, D., & Requena, C. (2012). Bolivia en un mundo 4 grados más caliente. Escenarios sociopolíticos ante el cambio climático para los años 2030 y 2060 en el altiplano norte. La Paz, Bolivia. Hoffmann, D., & Requena, C. (2012). Bolivia en un mundo 4 grados más caliente. Escenarios sociopolíticos ante el cambio climático para los años 2030 y 2060 en el altiplano norte. La Paz, Bolivia.
go back to reference Hoffmann, D., & Weggenmann, D. (2012). Climate change induced glacier retreat and risk management glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in the Apolobamba mountain range, Bolivia. In W. Leal Filho (Ed.), Climate change and disaster risk management (pp. 71–88). La Paz: Springer. Hoffmann, D., & Weggenmann, D. (2012). Climate change induced glacier retreat and risk management glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in the Apolobamba mountain range, Bolivia. In W. Leal Filho (Ed.), Climate change and disaster risk management (pp. 71–88). La Paz: Springer.
go back to reference Huggel, C., Haeberli, W., Kääb, A., Hoelze, M., Ayros, E., & Portocarrero, C. (2002). Assessment of glacier runoff for different climate scenarios based on remote sensing data: A case study for a hydropower plant in the Peruvian Andes. In W. O. o. C. f. Space” (Ed.). Proceedings of the EARSeL-LISSIG-Workshop, Bern. Huggel, C., Haeberli, W., Kääb, A., Hoelze, M., Ayros, E., & Portocarrero, C. (2002). Assessment of glacier runoff for different climate scenarios based on remote sensing data: A case study for a hydropower plant in the Peruvian Andes. In W. O. o. C. f. Space” (Ed.). Proceedings of the EARSeL-LISSIG-Workshop, Bern.
go back to reference IAI. (2010). Melting the ice—receding glaciers in the American Cordillera. Inter- American Institute (IAI) For Global Change Research, Communiqué 2. IAI. (2010). Melting the ice—receding glaciers in the American Cordillera. Inter- American Institute (IAI) For Global Change Research, Communiqué 2.
go back to reference IPCC. (1990). Climate change: The IPCC impacts assessment. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization—United Nations Environment Programme. IPCC. (1990). Climate change: The IPCC impacts assessment. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization—United Nations Environment Programme.
go back to reference IPCC. (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Basis. In T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. K. Plattner, M. M. B. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, & P. M. Midgley (Eds.), Working Group 1 contribution to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC. (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Basis. In T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. K. Plattner, M. M. B. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, & P. M. Midgley (Eds.), Working Group 1 contribution to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
go back to reference Kaijser, A. (2013). White Ponchos dripping away? Glacier Narratives in Bolivian Climate Change Discourse. In C. Methmann, D. Rothe & B. Stephan (Eds.), Interpretive approaches to global climate governance: Deconstructing the greenhouse (pp. 266). Routledge. Kaijser, A. (2013). White Ponchos dripping away? Glacier Narratives in Bolivian Climate Change Discourse. In C. Methmann, D. Rothe & B. Stephan (Eds.), Interpretive approaches to global climate governance: Deconstructing the greenhouse (pp. 266). Routledge.
go back to reference Kaján, E., & Saarinen, J. (2013). Tourism, climate change and adaptation: A review. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(2), 167–195. CrossRef Kaján, E., & Saarinen, J. (2013). Tourism, climate change and adaptation: A review. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(2), 167–195. CrossRef
go back to reference Kaser, G., & Ostmaston, H. (2002). Tropical glaciers. UNESCO international hydrology series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kaser, G., & Ostmaston, H. (2002). Tropical glaciers. UNESCO international hydrology series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Killeen, T. J., Guerra, A., Calzada, M., Correa, L., Calderon, L., Soria, L., et al. (2008). Total historical land-use change in Eastern Bolivia: Who, where, when, and how much? Ecology and Society, 13(1), 36. Killeen, T. J., Guerra, A., Calzada, M., Correa, L., Calderon, L., Soria, L., et al. (2008). Total historical land-use change in Eastern Bolivia: Who, where, when, and how much? Ecology and Society, 13(1), 36.
go back to reference Kniveton, D., Schmidt-Verkerk, K., Smith, C., & Black, R. (2008). Climate change and migration: Improving methodologies to estimate flows. Geneva: IOM (International Organization for Migration). Kniveton, D., Schmidt-Verkerk, K., Smith, C., & Black, R. (2008). Climate change and migration: Improving methodologies to estimate flows. Geneva: IOM (International Organization for Migration).
go back to reference Kollmair, M., & Banerjee, S. (2011). Drivers of migration in mountainous regions of the developing world: A review. London: Government Office for Science. Kollmair, M., & Banerjee, S. (2011). Drivers of migration in mountainous regions of the developing world: A review. London: Government Office for Science.
go back to reference Lazar, S. (2008). El Alto, rebel city: Self and citizenship in Andean Bolivia. Duke University Press Books. Lazar, S. (2008). El Alto, rebel city: Self and citizenship in Andean Bolivia. Duke University Press Books.
go back to reference Lemelin, H., Dawson, J., Stewart, E. J., Maher, P., & Lueck, M. (2010). Last-chance tourism: The boom, doom, and gloom of visiting vanishing destinations. Current Issues in Tourism, 13(5), 477–493. CrossRef Lemelin, H., Dawson, J., Stewart, E. J., Maher, P., & Lueck, M. (2010). Last-chance tourism: The boom, doom, and gloom of visiting vanishing destinations. Current Issues in Tourism, 13(5), 477–493. CrossRef
go back to reference Magrin, G., C., Marengo, J., Boulanger, J.-P., Buckeridge, M. S., Castellanos, E., Poveda, G., et al. (2014). Chapter 17. Central and South America. Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution to the IPCC fifth assessment report (WGII AR5). (Vol. II, Regional Aspects). Magrin, G., C., Marengo, J., Boulanger, J.-P., Buckeridge, M. S., Castellanos, E., Poveda, G., et al. (2014). Chapter 17. Central and South America. Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution to the IPCC fifth assessment report (WGII AR5). (Vol. II, Regional Aspects).
go back to reference Mark, B. G., Bury, J., McKenzie, J. M., French, A., & Baraer, M. (2010). Climate change and tropical Andean glacier recession: Evaluating hydrologic changes and livelihood vulnerability in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 100(4), 794–805. CrossRef Mark, B. G., Bury, J., McKenzie, J. M., French, A., & Baraer, M. (2010). Climate change and tropical Andean glacier recession: Evaluating hydrologic changes and livelihood vulnerability in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 100(4), 794–805. CrossRef
go back to reference Mazurek, H. (2007). Three pre-concepts regarding the internal migration in Bolivia. Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales (Santa Cruz de la Sierra), 3. Mazurek, H. (2007). Three pre-concepts regarding the internal migration in Bolivia. Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales (Santa Cruz de la Sierra), 3.
go back to reference McDowell, J. Z., & Hess, J. J. (2012). Accessing adaptation: Multiple stressors on livelihoods in the Bolivian highlands under a changing climate. Global Environmental Change, 22(2), 342–352. CrossRef McDowell, J. Z., & Hess, J. J. (2012). Accessing adaptation: Multiple stressors on livelihoods in the Bolivian highlands under a changing climate. Global Environmental Change, 22(2), 342–352. CrossRef
go back to reference McKenzie, D. J., & Mistiaen, J. (2009). Surveying migrant households: A comparison of census-based, snowball and intercept point surveys. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 172(2), 339–360. CrossRef McKenzie, D. J., & Mistiaen, J. (2009). Surveying migrant households: A comparison of census-based, snowball and intercept point surveys. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 172(2), 339–360. CrossRef
go back to reference McLeman, R. (2013). Climate and human migration. Past experiences, future challenges. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef McLeman, R. (2013). Climate and human migration. Past experiences, future challenges. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference McLeman, R., & Ploeger, S. (2012). Soil and its influence on rural drought migration: Insights from depression-era Southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. Population and Environment, 33(4), 304–332. CrossRef McLeman, R., & Ploeger, S. (2012). Soil and its influence on rural drought migration: Insights from depression-era Southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. Population and Environment, 33(4), 304–332. CrossRef
go back to reference Montalvo, T. L. (2010). El deshielo empuja la emigracion en una comunidad indigena de Bolivia. CNN Mexico. Montalvo, T. L. (2010). El deshielo empuja la emigracion en una comunidad indigena de Bolivia. CNN Mexico.
go back to reference Morrissey, J. W. (2013). Understanding the relationship between environmental change and migration: The development of an effects framework based on the case of northern Ethiopia. Global Environmental Change, 23(6), 1501–1510. CrossRef Morrissey, J. W. (2013). Understanding the relationship between environmental change and migration: The development of an effects framework based on the case of northern Ethiopia. Global Environmental Change, 23(6), 1501–1510. CrossRef
go back to reference Mortreux, C., & Barnett, J. (2009). Climate change, migration and adaptation in Funafuti, Tuvalu. Global Environmental Change, 19(1), 105–112. CrossRef Mortreux, C., & Barnett, J. (2009). Climate change, migration and adaptation in Funafuti, Tuvalu. Global Environmental Change, 19(1), 105–112. CrossRef
go back to reference Myers, N. (1993). Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world. BioScience, 43, 752–761. CrossRef Myers, N. (1993). Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world. BioScience, 43, 752–761. CrossRef
go back to reference O’Hare, G., & Rivas, S. (2007). Changing poverty distribution in Bolivia: the role of rural–urban migration and urban services. GeoJournal, 68, 307–326. CrossRef O’Hare, G., & Rivas, S. (2007). Changing poverty distribution in Bolivia: the role of rural–urban migration and urban services. GeoJournal, 68, 307–326. CrossRef
go back to reference Olmos, C. (2010). Gestion des ressources hydriques des villes de La Paz et El Alto (Bolivie): Modélisation des apports glaciaires et analyse des enjeux. Bruxelles: Université Libre de Bruxelles. Olmos, C. (2010). Gestion des ressources hydriques des villes de La Paz et El Alto (Bolivie): Modélisation des apports glaciaires et analyse des enjeux. Bruxelles: Université Libre de Bruxelles.
go back to reference Orlove, B. (2009). The past, the present, and some possible futures of adaptation. In W. N. Adger, I. Lorenzoni, & K. O’Brien (Eds.), Adapting to climate change: Thresholds, values, governance (pp. 63–131). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Orlove, B. (2009). The past, the present, and some possible futures of adaptation. In W. N. Adger, I. Lorenzoni, & K. O’Brien (Eds.), Adapting to climate change: Thresholds, values, governance (pp. 63–131). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Orlove, B., Wiegandt, E., & Luckman, B. H. (2008). The place of glaciers in natural and cultural landscapes. In B. Orlove, E. Wiegandt, & B. H. Luckman (Eds.), Darkening peaks (pp. 3–22). London: University of California Press Ltd. Orlove, B., Wiegandt, E., & Luckman, B. H. (2008). The place of glaciers in natural and cultural landscapes. In B. Orlove, E. Wiegandt, & B. H. Luckman (Eds.), Darkening peaks (pp. 3–22). London: University of California Press Ltd.
go back to reference Painter, J. (2007). Deglaciation in the andean region. In UNDP (Ed.), Human development report 2007/2008. Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world. New York. Painter, J. (2007). Deglaciation in the andean region. In UNDP (Ed.), Human development report 2007/2008. Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world. New York.
go back to reference Painter, J. (2009). Bolivian’s Indians feel the heat . BBC News (29.07.2009). Painter, J. (2009). Bolivian’s Indians feel the heat . BBC News (29.07.2009).
go back to reference Perch-Nielsen, S., Bättig, M. B., & Imboden, D. (2008). Exploring the link between climate change and migration. Climatic Change, 91(3–4), 375–393. CrossRef Perch-Nielsen, S., Bättig, M. B., & Imboden, D. (2008). Exploring the link between climate change and migration. Climatic Change, 91(3–4), 375–393. CrossRef
go back to reference Perez, C., Nicklin, C., Dangles, O., Vanek, S., Sherwood, S., Halloy, S., et al. (2010). Climate change in the high Andes: Implications and adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers. The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, 6(5), 71–88. Perez, C., Nicklin, C., Dangles, O., Vanek, S., Sherwood, S., Halloy, S., et al. (2010). Climate change in the high Andes: Implications and adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers. The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, 6(5), 71–88.
go back to reference Piguet, E. (2010). Linking climate change, environmental degradation and migration: A methodological overview. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 1(4), 517–524. Piguet, E. (2010). Linking climate change, environmental degradation and migration: A methodological overview. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 1(4), 517–524.
go back to reference Piguet, E. (2013). From “primitive migration” to “climate refugees”—The curious fate of the natural environment in migration studies. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 103(1), 148–162. CrossRef Piguet, E. (2013). From “primitive migration” to “climate refugees”—The curious fate of the natural environment in migration studies. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 103(1), 148–162. CrossRef
go back to reference Piguet, E., & Laczko, F. (2014). People on the move in a changing climate: The regional impact of environmental change on migration. Springer and IOM. Piguet, E., & Laczko, F. (2014). People on the move in a changing climate: The regional impact of environmental change on migration. Springer and IOM.
go back to reference PNUD. (2011). Tras las huellas del cambio climatico en Bolivia. La Paz: PNUD. PNUD. (2011). Tras las huellas del cambio climatico en Bolivia. La Paz: PNUD.
go back to reference Rabatel, A., Francou, B., Soruco, A., Gomez, J., Caceres, B., Ceballos, J. L., et al. (2013). Current state of glaciers in the tropical Andes: A multi-century perspective on glacier evolution and climate change. The Cryosphere, 7(1). Rabatel, A., Francou, B., Soruco, A., Gomez, J., Caceres, B., Ceballos, J. L., et al. (2013). Current state of glaciers in the tropical Andes: A multi-century perspective on glacier evolution and climate change. The Cryosphere, 7(1).
go back to reference Ramírez, E. (2006). Impacto del Cambio Climático sobre la Disponibilidad de los Recursos Hídricos. In J. Choquehuanca, D. Hoffmann, & M. Frias (Eds.), Retroceso de los Glaciares y Recursos Hídricos en Bolivia - De la Investigación a la Acción (pp. 19–31). La Paz Bolivia: Instituto Boliviano de la Montaña—UMSA. Ramírez, E. (2006). Impacto del Cambio Climático sobre la Disponibilidad de los Recursos Hídricos. In J. Choquehuanca, D. Hoffmann, & M. Frias (Eds.), Retroceso de los Glaciares y Recursos Hídricos en Bolivia - De la Investigación a la Acción (pp. 19–31). La Paz Bolivia: Instituto Boliviano de la Montaña—UMSA.
go back to reference Ramírez, E., Francou, B., Ribstein, P., Descloitres, M., Guérin, R., Mendoza, J., et al. (2001). Small glaciers disappearing in the tropical Andes: A case-study in Bolivia: Glaciar Chacaltaya (16 S). Journal of Glaciology, 47(157), 187–194. CrossRef Ramírez, E., Francou, B., Ribstein, P., Descloitres, M., Guérin, R., Mendoza, J., et al. (2001). Small glaciers disappearing in the tropical Andes: A case-study in Bolivia: Glaciar Chacaltaya (16 S). Journal of Glaciology, 47(157), 187–194. CrossRef
go back to reference Ramírez, E., Olmos, C., & Romàn, J. (2007). Deshielo de la cuenca Tuni Condoriri y su impacto sobre los recursos hídricos de las ciudades de La Paz y El Alto. La Paz: GRANT—GREAT ICE, IHH-IRD. Ramírez, E., Olmos, C., & Romàn, J. (2007). Deshielo de la cuenca Tuni Condoriri y su impacto sobre los recursos hídricos de las ciudades de La Paz y El Alto. La Paz: GRANT—GREAT ICE, IHH-IRD.
go back to reference Rhoades, R. (2008). Disappearance of the glacier on Mama Cotacachi: Ethnoecological research and climate change in the Ecuadorian Andes. Pirineos, 163, 37–50. CrossRef Rhoades, R. (2008). Disappearance of the glacier on Mama Cotacachi: Ethnoecological research and climate change in the Ecuadorian Andes. Pirineos, 163, 37–50. CrossRef
go back to reference Rhoades, R., Zapata, X., & Arangundy, J. (2006). Climate change in Cotacachi. In R. Rhoades (Ed.), Development with identity: Community, culture and sustainability in the Andes (pp. 66–74). Wallingford: CAB International. CrossRef Rhoades, R., Zapata, X., & Arangundy, J. (2006). Climate change in Cotacachi. In R. Rhoades (Ed.), Development with identity: Community, culture and sustainability in the Andes (pp. 66–74). Wallingford: CAB International. CrossRef
go back to reference Rosenthal, E. (2009). In Bolivia, water and ice tell of climate change. New York Times (14.12.2009). Rosenthal, E. (2009). In Bolivia, water and ice tell of climate change. New York Times (14.12.2009).
go back to reference Scott, D., McBoyle, G., Minogue, A., & Mills, B. (2006). Climate Change and the sustainability of ski-based tourism in Eastern North America: A reassessment. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(4), 376–398. CrossRef Scott, D., McBoyle, G., Minogue, A., & Mills, B. (2006). Climate Change and the sustainability of ski-based tourism in Eastern North America: A reassessment. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(4), 376–398. CrossRef
go back to reference Soruco, A. (2008). Etude du retrait des glaciers depuis cinquante ans dans les bassins hydrologiques alimentant en eau la ville de la Paz–Bolivie (16 s). Thèse de doctorat de l’Université Joseph Fourier (Grenoble 1). Soruco, A. (2008). Etude du retrait des glaciers depuis cinquante ans dans les bassins hydrologiques alimentant en eau la ville de la Paz–Bolivie (16 s). Thèse de doctorat de l’Université Joseph Fourier (Grenoble 1).
go back to reference Soruco, A., Vincent, C., Francou, B., & Gonzalez, J. F. (2009). Glacier decline between 1963 and 2006 in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia. Geophysical Research Letters, 36(3), L03502. CrossRef Soruco, A., Vincent, C., Francou, B., & Gonzalez, J. F. (2009). Glacier decline between 1963 and 2006 in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia. Geophysical Research Letters, 36(3), L03502. CrossRef
go back to reference Squeo, F. A., Warner, B. G., Aravena, R., & Espinoza, D. (2006). Bofedales: High altitude peatlands of the central Andes. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 79, 245–255. CrossRef Squeo, F. A., Warner, B. G., Aravena, R., & Espinoza, D. (2006). Bofedales: High altitude peatlands of the central Andes. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 79, 245–255. CrossRef
go back to reference Stapleton, L. M. (2010). Survey Sampling, Administration, and Analysis. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), The reviewer’s guide to quantitative methods in the social sciences (pp. 397–412). New York: Routledge. Stapleton, L. M. (2010). Survey Sampling, Administration, and Analysis. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), The reviewer’s guide to quantitative methods in the social sciences (pp. 397–412). New York: Routledge.
go back to reference Terán, V. D. (2009). Manejo del recurso hídrico y cambio climático en la cuenca del río Illimani: características antropológicas. La Paz: Informe para AguaSustentable. Bolivia. Terán, V. D. (2009). Manejo del recurso hídrico y cambio climático en la cuenca del río Illimani: características antropológicas. La Paz: Informe para AguaSustentable. Bolivia.
go back to reference Thiele, G. (1995). The displacement of peasant settlers in the Amazon: The case of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Human Organization, 54(3), 273–282. CrossRef Thiele, G. (1995). The displacement of peasant settlers in the Amazon: The case of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Human Organization, 54(3), 273–282. CrossRef
go back to reference Urrutia, R., & Vuille, M. (2009). Climate change projections for the tropical Andes using a regional climate model: Temperature and precipitation simulations for the end of the 21st century. Journal Geophysical Research, 114(D2), D02108. CrossRef Urrutia, R., & Vuille, M. (2009). Climate change projections for the tropical Andes using a regional climate model: Temperature and precipitation simulations for the end of the 21st century. Journal Geophysical Research, 114(D2), D02108. CrossRef
go back to reference Valdivia, C., Seth, A., Gilles, J. L., Garcia, M., Jimenez, E., Cusicanqui, J., et al. (2010). Adapting to climate change in Andean ecosystems: Landscapes, capitals, and perceptions shaping rural livelihood strategies and linking knowledge systems. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 100(4), 818–834. CrossRef Valdivia, C., Seth, A., Gilles, J. L., Garcia, M., Jimenez, E., Cusicanqui, J., et al. (2010). Adapting to climate change in Andean ecosystems: Landscapes, capitals, and perceptions shaping rural livelihood strategies and linking knowledge systems. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 100(4), 818–834. CrossRef
go back to reference Velarde Quispe, L. F. (2010). Cambio climático y turismo en la Cordillera Real. Investigación en Turismo (Universidad San Andres La Paz), 23, 155–180. Velarde Quispe, L. F. (2010). Cambio climático y turismo en la Cordillera Real. Investigación en Turismo (Universidad San Andres La Paz), 23, 155–180.
go back to reference Vergara, W., Deeb, A. M., Valencia, A. M., Bradley, R. S., Francou, B., Zarzar, A., et al. (2007). Economic impacts of rapid glacier retreat in the Andes. EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 88(25), 261–268. CrossRef Vergara, W., Deeb, A. M., Valencia, A. M., Bradley, R. S., Francou, B., Zarzar, A., et al. (2007). Economic impacts of rapid glacier retreat in the Andes. EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 88(25), 261–268. CrossRef
go back to reference Villaroel, E., Pérez, J., Castel, A., & Torrez, E. (2011). Mapeo de Derechos Humanos. Proyecto Illimani: “Fortaleciendo la capacidad y desarrollando estrategias de adaptación a los fenómenos de cambio climático en Comunidades de la Cordillera Real de Los Andes Centrales de Bolivia”: Agua Sustentable, UMSA: Instituto de Agronomia, UMSA: Instituto de Hidráulica e Hidrología, IDRC (International Development Research Center). Villaroel, E., Pérez, J., Castel, A., & Torrez, E. (2011). Mapeo de Derechos Humanos. Proyecto Illimani: “Fortaleciendo la capacidad y desarrollando estrategias de adaptación a los fenómenos de cambio climático en Comunidades de la Cordillera Real de Los Andes Centrales de Bolivia”: Agua Sustentable, UMSA: Instituto de Agronomia, UMSA: Instituto de Hidráulica e Hidrología, IDRC (International Development Research Center).
go back to reference Vuille, M., Francou, B., Wagnon, P., Irmgard, J., Kaser, G., Mark, B. G., et al. (2008). Climate change and tropical Andean glaciers: Past, present and future. Earth-Science Reviews, 89, 79–96. CrossRef Vuille, M., Francou, B., Wagnon, P., Irmgard, J., Kaser, G., Mark, B. G., et al. (2008). Climate change and tropical Andean glaciers: Past, present and future. Earth-Science Reviews, 89, 79–96. CrossRef
go back to reference Warner, K. (2010). Global environmental change and migration: Governance challenges. Global Environmental Change, 20(3), 402–413. CrossRef Warner, K. (2010). Global environmental change and migration: Governance challenges. Global Environmental Change, 20(3), 402–413. CrossRef
go back to reference Warner, K. (2011). Environmental change and migration: Methodological considerations from ground-breaking global survey. Population and Environment, 33(1), 3–27. CrossRef Warner, K. (2011). Environmental change and migration: Methodological considerations from ground-breaking global survey. Population and Environment, 33(1), 3–27. CrossRef
go back to reference Young, K. R., & Lipton, J. K. (2006). Adaptive governance and climate change in the tropical highlands of western South America. Climatic Change, 78, 63–102. CrossRef Young, K. R., & Lipton, J. K. (2006). Adaptive governance and climate change in the tropical highlands of western South America. Climatic Change, 78, 63–102. CrossRef
go back to reference Zoomers, A. (2012). Migration as a failure to adapt? How Andean people cope with environmental restrictions and climate variability. Global Environment, Special Issue on Environmental Change and Migration in History, 9, 104–129. Zoomers, A. (2012). Migration as a failure to adapt? How Andean people cope with environmental restrictions and climate variability. Global Environment, Special Issue on Environmental Change and Migration in History, 9, 104–129.
Metadata
Title
Can glacial retreat lead to migration? A critical discussion of the impact of glacier shrinkage upon population mobility in the Bolivian Andes
Author
Kaenzig Raoul
Publication date
01-06-2015
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
Population and Environment / Issue 4/2015
Print ISSN: 0199-0039
Electronic ISSN: 1573-7810
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-014-0226-z