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2021 | Book

Case Studies in Building Constructions


About this book

The book presents recent research and a collection of case studies and real-world experiences relating to building construction. Covering building rehabilitation, building diagnostics, service-life prediction and life-cycles, and hygrothermal behaviour, it bridges the gap between current approaches to the surveying of buildings and the detailed study of defect diagnosis, prognosis and remediation. The book features several case studies on building pathologies as well as a detailed set of references and suggestions for further reading. Offering a systematic review of the current state of knowledge, it is a valuable resource for scientists, students, practitioners, and lecturers in various scientific and engineering disciplines, including civil and materials engineering, as well as and other interested parties.

Table of Contents

Prince of Wales Museum: Revitalization of European Painting Store
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly, known as Prince of Wales Museum of Western India) at Mumbai (Bombay) is an world heritage site built in year 1914 by British architect George Wittet. It is famous for it’s Indo-Saracenic architecture and construction technology. The European painting store have many famous painting from the British period. From many years, this storage area was deteriorated with passage of time, however, the revitalization provided new design through analysis of building structural system. Proposed design was developed to sustain the loading conditions of the shelving system and paintings. This chapter in beginning discusses the building architecture and structural system. Then, it discusses the old condition and revitalization proposed for the store. Thus, this research illustrates approach for analysis of the structural pathology of similar historic buildings.
Prafulla Parlewar
Analysis of Temperature and Humidity Variation in the Stone Chamber of Takamatsuzuka Tumulus from Construction of the Conservation Facility to Before the Dismantlement of the Stone Chamber
Immediately after the discovery of the Takamatsuzuka Tumulus mural painting, which was discovered on March 21, 1972, in Asuka village in Nara Prefecture, Japan, various preservation measures were taken to protect the mural painting in its stone chamber, from local preservation to the dismantling of the stone chamber. Until its dismantling, the stone chamber had been preserved at the site by environmental management with the aim of keeping the environment inside and outside the stone chamber in a stable state before excavation. In addition to the generation of mold and other microorganisms as the main problems in the preservation of murals related to the temperature and humidity in the stone chamber, the plaster layer peels off when the stone chamber dries, and the temperature and humidity in the stone chamber must be properly managed. It is necessary to maintain high humidity levels in order to prevent cracking and peeling of the plaster layer. At the same time, to suppress the generation of mold and the like, it is desirable to prevent condensation on the surface of the mural, avoid a high humidity environment, and keep the temperature as low as possible, but considering the above, low humidity levels cannot be achieved. For the latter reason, the relative humidity in the stone chamber was maintained at a high value, close to saturation, as it was before its discovery. Thus, from the construction of the conservation facility to the dismantling phase, using the record of the preservation measures and the measured values of the temperature and humidity in the stone chamber and the estimation results by numerical analysis, we examined how the temperature and humidity in the stone chamber changed. The measurements are reported here when possible; in some cases, an estimation through numerical analysis is presented instead.
Daisuke Ogura, Shuichi Hokoi, Takeshi Ishizaki, Yonghui Li
Estimation of Seismicity Parameters and a Backpropagation Neural Network for Prediction of Earthquake Magnitude in Northeast Region of India
This study presents the spatial variation of seismicity parameters and artificial neural network (ANN) model for earthquake magnitude prediction in the northeast region of India considering updated earthquake catalogue of magnitude Mw ≥ 4.0 that occurred from year 1731 to 2015 in the study area. The study area has been divided into 17 seismic source zones keeping in view the spatial variation in earthquake occurrences, distribution pattern of events and orientation of seismic sources. Seismicity parameters were estimated for each source zone as well as for the whole study area. The estimated ‘b’ value in this study varies from 0.50 to 0.84 in different seismic source zones and for the whole study area it is found as 0.77. The proposed ANN technique to predict the possible magnitude of earthquakes in the identified seismic source zones is based on feedforward backpropagation neural network model with single hidden layer. Total five input parameters namely, longitude, latitude, elapsed time between two events, cumulative magnitude probability and seismic energy and one output parameter namely, magnitude of earthquakes were used in ANN. The ‘b’ value estimated in this study was used as an input unit in ANN in calculating the cumulative magnitude probability for different zones. The performance of ANN was evaluated by estimating the mean absolute error (MAE), sum of squared error (SSE) and Mean squared error (MSE). And the results obtained in this study show that the ANN model yields good prediction accuracy for earthquake magnitude in NE India.
Amit Zarola, Arjun Sil
A New Approach for Assessment of the Coating Mortar Adherence in Ancient Masonries Through Ultrasonic Data
In this work ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) was used to assess the coating mortar adherence of clay bricks masonries. As a contribution to employment of non-destructive tests to historic buildings characterization, this paper has as the main aim to introduces a new methodology for damage identification (especially the presence of cracks) and coating mortar detachments in masonry walls. For that, an experimental setup based on ultrasonic measurements were carried out on the external walls of the Nossa Senhora da Expectação Church, built in 1709, at Icó, Brazil. The results showed that ultrasonic pulse velocity mapping can be used to identify the adherence and the non-adherence between coating mortar and the masonry. Also, a standard pattern of ultrasonic velocity distribution for masonry was identified. Finally, in this paper a new point of view on UPV interpretation was introduced, namely based on analysis the pattern of waves distribution.
Emanuel Araújo, Maycon Bessa, Israel Sousa, Amanda Fontenele, Rosineide Luz, Mylene Vieira, Esequiel Mesquita
A Novel Approach for Detection of Voids in Traditional Load-Bearing Masonries Based on Ultrasonic Data
This work has as the main aim proposes a novel approach for the detection of voids in ancient masonries based on ultrasonic data collected by indirect measurements. For that, two samples of ancient walls were built and tested in the laboratory. The first wall sample was built with anomalies (voids) distributed along its area, while the second one was built without voids. The wall samples were divided into 12 frames. In each frame 6 time-measures of ultrasonic propagation were performed. The results showed that the ultrasonic data collected by indirect measurements can be used to characterize masonries. Also, the results show that the assembly between Mixed effect and Lowess models for processing ultrasonic data, can be a powerful tool to detect and identify the voids inside the masonries walls, even in anisotropic materials like masonries, if the distribution of the waves and its behavior is understood, it is possible to identify disturbs on the data by anomalies presence, as voids. This work also demonstrates that, for analysis of anisotropic materials, the pattern distribution of ultrasonic waves can be an alternative way to characterize masonries.
Talisson Rodrigues, Francisco Damasceno Filho, Rosineide Paz, Esequiel Mesquita, Rachel Martini
Pathological Manifestations in a Building at the End of Its Lifespan: A Case Study
Pathological manifestations are generated due to problems in the design project, building materials, execution, or use. Detection can be through visual inspection, non-destructive or destructive testing. This chapter proposes a study of the pathological manifestations existing in a building of approximately 45 years old located in the urban region of Brazil. Visually evaluated and with some non-destructive tests, all the components that compose the building (garage, entrance hall, stairs and halls of the apartments, party room and roof structure). Project management tools (three-dimensional systemic view) were used to define priorities and degree of importance of the elements and pathological manifestations present in the building. There were several pathological manifestations and flaws in the building, which were caused by errors in design project and materials, but mainly by problems associated with deficient maintenance of the building. The prioritization allowed to define an ordering of interventions and reforms by degree of urgency. The application of the solutions found for pathological manifestations aims to extend the lifespan of the building.
G. A. Silva Neto, A. Tolentino Souza, C. Cavalcanti Bignoto, S. R. Souza, W. J. Santos
Comparative Study of Consumption and Life-Cycle Impacts of Water Heating Systems for Residential Multi-familiar Buildings in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Civil construction, as an integral part of the chain of industrial activities, is one of the various segments responsible for energy consumption and potential greenhouse gas emissions throughout its life cycle. The building materials and their systems have a direct influence on energy consumption and impact assessment. In this context, Hot Water Building Systems (HWBS) are included. The type of installation to be used in a building is defined by technical and/or economic requirements. However, the spectrum of possibilities should consider resource consumption and generation of environmental impacts throughout the life cycle. This research proposes a novel application of an environmental management method to empower the decision-making process of HWBS, insights a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to compare the environmental performance of two distinct HWBS (i.e. Natural Gas Heating System and Solar Heating System) for multi-family residential developments. In conclusion to the results obtained, it can be inferred that the HWBS with heating via SHS has better environmental performance than the system with heating via Natural Gas, even though the first one uses an electrical complement for operation appropriate.
Arthur B. Silva, Mohammad K. Najjar, Ahmed W. A. Hammad, Assed Haddad, Elaine Vazquez
Case Studies in Building Constructions
Prof. J.M.P.Q. Delgado
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