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2021 | Book

Case Studies in Building Rehabilitation


About this book

The book presents recent research and practical insights relating to building pathology. As such it contributes toward the systematization and dissemination of knowledge regarding structural and hygrothermal pathologies, durability and diagnostic techniques, while at the same time, demonstrating the latest advances in this domain. It includes new developments in the field of building pathology and rehabilitation, bridging the gap between current approaches to the surveying of buildings and the detailed study of defect diagnosis, prognosis and remediation. It also features a number of case studies and a detailed list of references and suggestions for further reading. Providing an overview of the current state of the art in the field, the book will appeal to scientists, students, practitioners and lecturers. Furthermore, the topics covered are relevant to a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, including civil, materials and mechanical engineering.

Table of Contents

Rehabilitation of K. G. Road Complex at New Delhi, India
The Kasturba Gandhi (K. G.) road residential complex is a prestigious building located at the New Delhi, India. This building suffered structural deterioration due to the damaged rainwater and drainage system. This research mainly looks into the reasons for the decay of the building, method adapted for the structural analysis and proposed methods of retrofitting. In particular, this research includes assessment of the structural condition for the future viability of the building. Assessment studies were conducted on the building through geometric survey and structural testing. Building was not found suitable for habitation based on the results of assessment. Furthermore, the retrofitting was proposed to strengthen the structure with various methods like use of micro concrete, mild steel jacketing and repair of spalling.
Prafulla Parlewar
Characterization of Ancient Mixed Masonry Structures of Brickwork Infilled by Cobblestone Wall
A great part of the Architectural Heritage is constructed with masonry walls. Certain interventions in this Heritage make it necessary to characterize the mechanical properties of these load-bearing elements. This article has the aim of proposing and using several complementary methods applicable to the characterization of the materials forming historical masonry structures, applying them to mixed masonry made up of bricks, lime mortars and cobblestones. In this research, tests were carried out on a building constructed in two clearly differentiated periods, 15–18th century and 19–20th century. A sample-taking campaign was done on bricks, mortars and portions of masonry, for later physical-chemical-morphological-mechanical testing in laboratory, and an in situ experimental minimally-intrusive campaign using techniques such as flat-jack, sclerometer and penetration-meter on mortars. The mechanical results obtained enabled the evaluation of the validity of some experimental formulas for estimating the strength of masonries from the strength of their component materials (brick and mortar), when applying them to historical constructions. In the same way, the physical-chemical characterization tests carried out enabled the justification, economically and minimally intrusively, the differentiation of the materials employed in the two construction periods.
I. Lombillo, Y. Boffill, J. Pinilla, E. Moreno, H. Blanco
Rehabilitation of Historic Chancery Building, Yangon, Myanmar
The historic Chancery Building is located on Merchant Street in downtown Yangon, Myanmar. This building was originally constructed as office of the Oriental Life Assurance Company of Calcutta, India. The research here investigates the physical conditions, structural damages and causes for deterioration of the building. The main reason for the structural deterioration of building was the damaged rainwater drainage system. This structural deterioration was investigated through geometric studies and Non-destructive Test. Also, the building had damages in exteriors, problems of termites, dampness and seepages. Based on this research, rehabilitation was proposed for the building by retrofitting the structural members with latest technology. Moreover, the building rehabilitation included redesigning of roofing system, water proofing and repair of drainage.
Prafulla Parlewar
Rehabilitation Operations in Residential Buildings in La Mina Neighborhood (S. Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona)
This chapter describes the physical operations of reforming and improving the accessibility, habitability and security of La Mina’s buildings. La Mina, which was built between 1968 and 1974, is comprised of 2,727 social dwellings in Sant Adrià del Besòs, a city close to the border of Barcelona. The usual techniques of the time were used in its construction. In the first phase, reinforced concrete was used for the structures and ceramic bricks for the exterior enclosures, and in its second and final phase the tunnel formwork technique, which was then new, and reinforced concrete panels for exterior enclosures were used. In some of the operations that were carried out, specific improvements were implemented. However, many of the rehabilitation operations that are described, such as the renovation of facilities, the addition of elevators or the reduction of energy loss from the exterior enclosure, could be applied in other situations to buildings constructed in the same period and urban context.
C. Díaz, C. Cornadó
Repair of Face Brick Facades Sustained in Reinforced Concrete Slabs
In recent decades face brick facades have been one of the architectural forms used to build the vertical exterior enclosures of buildings. However, some support solutions in the slabs have led to specific problems, especially in high buildings, which have sometimes required very expensive repairs. This chapter presents and briefly discusses the numerous agents that can influence the anomalous behavior of these facades and the most common damage. The knowledge of agents involved in each case in the formation of damage is considered essential to analyze the repair systems that have been applied so far. The information obtained over time on the results of repairs can be used to draw up guidelines on the most appropriate solutions.
C. Díaz, C. Cornadó
Influence of Environmental Factors on Deterioration of Mural Paintings in Mogao Cave 285, Dunhuang
The Mogao caves in Dunhuang, located in the inland desert region of China, are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Within this site, cave 285 is one of the most important caves. As a great deal of deterioration has taken place in this cave, a large amount of research has been carried out on the environmental effects that caused these changes. The deterioration such as changes in color and cracks in the mural paintings are due to physical environmental factors. In this work, the influence of the hygrothermal and light environments on the deterioration of the mural paintings in cave 285 was examined through several experiments using simulated mural paintings, focusing on the time period when the entrance hall had collapsed. In the drying experiments, many cracks in the Bengal red, a few in the lapis lazuli, were observed but none could be seen in the others. White crystals appeared in all the paint layers mixed with salt, and a herpetiform swell appeared in the talc substrate to which the saturated NaCl solution was added. The UV radiation caused the chroma saturation changes in most of the paint layers, showing a significant change in the case of the organic pigments. To examine the influence of light on the deterioration of the mural paintings, the simulation of illuminance under natural lighting condition during the period when the entrance hall collapsed was conducted, and the calculated results were compared with the visual observation. It was found that many discolored paintings or color changes of the layers are related to the large amount of annually integrated illuminance. Previous researches show that the East wall has been least affected by moisture, solar radiation, and sunlight compared to the other walls and ceiling. However, the effects of deterioration, including scratches, detachment, and discoloration, are also seen on the east wall. Hence, we investigated the effects of adhesion and the collision of windblown sand as factors contributing to the deterioration of the east wall. We conclude that sand blown by high velocity wind has led to detachment, flaking, and losses including fading of the paintings. To examine the effects of the hygrothermal environment on the deterioration of the mural paintings in cave 285, simulations of heat, moisture, and salt transfer were conducted for the time before and after the fall of the entrance hall. It was shown that the cracks caused by drying shrinkage were mainly created soon after the production of the paintings. The cracks caused by thermal expansion are likely to keep increasing; biodegradation and destruction due to freeze-thaw are scarcely progressing currently but they probably occurred more frequently when the entrance hall had collapsed. A part of the paintings on the west wall deteriorated due to the crystallization of the salt contained in the paintings (or the soil wall) just after the production of the paintings. Regarding the relationship between temperature in the cave and insect excrement or secretion, the black-spotted soiling spread over the entire walls and the brown deposit seen in the cracks or peeled parts on the ceiling is considered to be the results of the excrement or secretion of insects on the wall paintings. The inside of the main chamber where temperature is stable throughout the year provides the insects a suitable space to live in.
D. Ogura, T. Hase, Y. Nakata, A. Mikayama, S. Hokoi, H. Takabayashi, K. Okada, B. Su, P. Xue
Case Studies in Building Rehabilitation
Prof. J.M.P.Q. Delgado
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