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Published in: Cellulose 5/2022

01-10-2021 | Review Paper

Cellulose-synthesizing machinery in bacteria

Authors: Kenji Tajima, Tomoya Imai, Toshifumi Yui, Min Yao, Inder Saxena

Published in: Cellulose | Issue 5/2022

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Abstract

Cellulose is produced by all plants and a number of other organisms, including bacteria. The most representative cellulose-producing bacterial species is Gluconacetobacter xylinus, an acetic acid bacterium. Cellulose produced by G. xylinus, commonly referred to as bacterial cellulose (BC), has exceptional physicochemical properties resulting in its use in a variety of applications. All cellulose-producing organisms that synthesize cellulose microfibrils have membrane-localized protein complexes (also called terminal complexes or TCs) that contain the enzyme cellulose synthase and other proteins. The bacterium G. xylinus is a prolific cellulose producer and a model organism for studies on cellulose biosynthesis. The widths of cellulose fibers produced by Gluconacetobacter are 50–100 nm, suggesting that cellulose-synthesizing complexes are nanomachines spinning a nanofiber. At least four different proteins (BcsA, BcsB, BcsC, and BcsD) are included in TC from Gluconacetobacter, and the proposed function of each is as follows: BcsA, synthesis of a glucan chain through glycosyl transfer from UDP-glucose; BcsB, complexes with BcsA for cellulose synthase activity; BcsC, formation of a pore in the outer membrane through which a glucan chain is extruded; BcsD, regulates aggregation of glucan chains through four tunnel-like structures. In this review, we discuss structures and functions of these four and a few other proteins that have a role in cellulose biosynthesis in bacteria.

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Literature
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Metadata
Title
Cellulose-synthesizing machinery in bacteria
Authors
Kenji Tajima
Tomoya Imai
Toshifumi Yui
Min Yao
Inder Saxena
Publication date
01-10-2021
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
Cellulose / Issue 5/2022
Print ISSN: 0969-0239
Electronic ISSN: 1572-882X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-021-04225-7