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2019 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

Challenges and Issues in Water, Climate Change, and Food Security in Egypt

Author : Mosaad Khedr

Published in: Conventional Water Resources and Agriculture in Egypt

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

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Abstract

Climate change is a real and growing problem and a complex phenomenon that alters the whole environment in which humans live. The impacts of climate change on freshwater systems and their management are mainly due to the observed and projected increases in temperature and precipitation variability. Developing countries, such as Egypt, are the most threatened by drastic impact of climatic changes on agriculture and food security. Several studies reported that Egypt is one of the most vulnerable countries to the potential impacts and risks of climate change, even though it produces less than 1% of the world total emissions of GHG, with a vulnerability of all sectors of development and a low resilience of the majority of stakeholders. One of the main challenges facing water management in Egypt is the expected impacts of climate change on the Nile flows and the different demands of the water sector. This in turn will directly affect the agricultural sector which is a key sector for the socio-economic development in Egypt, and plays a significant role in the Egyptian national economy. Climate change, population growth, and economic development will likely affect the future availability of water resources for agriculture in Egypt. The demand and supply of water for irrigation is expected to be influenced not only by changing hydrological regimes (through changes in precipitation, potential and actual evaporation, and runoff at the watershed and river basin scales), but also by concomitant increases in future competition for water due to population and economic growth. Egypt is therefore in a situation where it must plan for several different future scenarios, mostly negative, if climate change results in increased temperatures and decreased precipitation levels. Egypt’s negative environmental consequences of climate warming represent rise of sea level, water scarcity, agriculture and food insufficiency, and pressures on human health and national economy. Even in the absence of any negative effects of climate change, Egypt is dealing with a steady growth in population, increased urbanization, and riparian neighbors with their own plans for securing future water needs. All of these will require Egypt to put water resource planning as a top national security priority. The future impact of the above negative environmental consequences of climate change scenarios, the adaptation measures, and mitigation polices are the main points of concern in this chapter.

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Metadata
Title
Challenges and Issues in Water, Climate Change, and Food Security in Egypt
Author
Mosaad Khedr
Copyright Year
2019
Publisher
Springer International Publishing
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2017_67