Skip to main content
Top

2024 | Book

Channel Characterization and Modeling for Vehicular Communications

insite
SEARCH

About this book

This book presents and develops comprehensive knowledge of vehicular channel characteristics and proper vehicular channel models. The studied topics contain the propagation characteristics of vehicular communications, such as: a time-frequency non-stationary single-input single-output (SISO) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) non-geometry stochastic model (NGSM); a space-time non-stationary massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) V2V regular-shaped geometry-based stochastic model (RS-GBSM); and a space-time non-stationary massive MIMO V2V irregular-shaped geometry-based stochastic model (IS-GBSM). Each is introduced, with characteristics then discussed in detail. Finally, this book discusses future research directions to inspire further investigation in the field of vehicular channels from three different perspectives.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Introduction of Vehicular Communications
Abstract
Since the end of the last century, the vehicular communication, which is an important technology of the next generation intelligent transportation system (ITS), has received extensive attention. With the help of vehicular communications, many potential advanced applications associated with future vehicles, such as autonomous vehicles as well as intelligent vehicles, can be facilitated and promoted. In this chapter, the overview of vehicular communications is first presented, including introductions of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) together with cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X). Then, four physical features of actual vehicular communication scenarios are given, and unique vehicular channel characteristics are elaborated. Next, existing vehicular channel models are properly classified according to the modeling methods. Finally, the organization of the monograph is discussed.
Xiang Cheng, Ziwei Huang, Lu Bai
Chapter 2. A NGSM for SISO V2V Channels
Abstract
In this chapter, a novel time-frequency non-stationary non-geometry stochastic model (NGSM) is proposed. To include the line-of-sight (LoS) component, the proposed model generates a non-uniformly distributed tap phase. Moreover, the proposed model can experience variable types of Doppler spectra for different delays. To model the time non-stationarity, the Markov chains are leveraged to capture the appearance and disappearance of paths. In consideration of the non-stationarity in the frequency domain of vehicular communication channels, we further consider that the amplitude and phase of different taps are correlated. Based on the proposed model, some significant statistical properties are derived. Finally, excellent agreement is achieved between the simulation results and the measurement data, confirming the accuracy of the proposed model.
Xiang Cheng, Ziwei Huang, Lu Bai
Chapter 3. A 3D RS-GBSM with Uniform Planar Antenna Array for Massive MIMO V2V Channels
Abstract
In this chapter, a novel three-dimensional (3D) non-stationary vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) regular-shaped geometry-based stochastic model (RS-GBSM) with uniform planar antenna arrays (UPAs) for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems is proposed. A novel method, the so-called BD process and seed-algorithm-based selective cluster evolution, is developed to capture the space non-stationarity. The time non-stationarity is further mimicked by employing this novel method over the entire timeline. In addition, the proposed RS-GBSM divides clusters into static and dynamic clusters to investigate the impact of vehicular traffic density (VTD) on channel statistics. Important statistical properties are derived. Simulation results show that the space-time non-stationarity is mimicked. Finally, an excellent agreement between simulation results and measurements is achieved.
Xiang Cheng, Ziwei Huang, Lu Bai
Chapter 4. A 3D IS-GBSM for Massive MIMO V2V Channels
Abstract
In this chapter, a three-dimensional (3D) cluster-based model for beyond fifth generation (B5G)/sixth generation (6G) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) channels is proposed. It is the first cluster-based irregular-shaped geometry-based stochastic model (IS-GBSM) to distinguish the dynamic clusters and static clusters in vehicular massive MIMO communication scenarios. The proposed IS-GBSM integrates the vehicular traffic density (VTD) into birth–death (BD) process to model the massive MIMO V2V channel characteristics, where a novel VTD-combined time-array cluster evolution algorithm for B5G/6G massive MIMO V2V channel model is developed. The influence of several parameters on the channel statistics is explored. Finally, the utility of the proposed IS-GBSM is verified by the close agreement between simulation results and measurement data.
Xiang Cheng, Ziwei Huang, Lu Bai
Chapter 5. A 3D IS-GBSM with Continuously Arbitrary Trajectory for mmWave Massive MIMO V2V Channels
Abstract
In this chapter, a novel three-dimensional (3D) millimeter wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) irregular-shaped geometry based stochastic model (IS-GBSM) is proposed for sixth generation (6G) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) channels. To support the high delay resolution in mmWave communications, rays within each cluster are resolvable. The continuously arbitrary trajectory of transceivers and dynamic clusters is captured. To model space–time–frequency (S-T-F) non-stationarity, a new method, which integrates the frequency-dependent factor, birth-death (BD) process, and selective evolution of static and dynamic clusters, is developed. Simulation results explore impacts of VTD and vehicular movement trajectory (VMT) on channel statistics. Finally, the generality of proposed IS-GBSM is validated by comparing simulation results and measurement data.
Xiang Cheng, Ziwei Huang, Lu Bai
Chapter 6. A 3D Mixed-Bouncing IS-GBSM with Time-Space Consistency for mmWave Massive MIMO V2V Channels
Abstract
In this chapter, a novel three-dimensional (3D) irregular-shaped geometry-based stochastic model (IS-GBSM) is proposed for sixth generation (6G) millimeter wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) V2V channels. The clusters are distinguished into static/dynamic single/twin-clusters to capture the mixed-bouncing propagation. A new method is developed to model space–time–frequency (S-T-F) non-stationarity of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) channels with time-space consistency. The continuously arbitrary vehicular movement trajectory (VMT) and soft cluster power handover are modeled to further ensure time-space consistency. Simulation results show that S-T-F non-stationarity of channels with time-space consistency is modeled. The accuracy of the proposed model is validated by comparing simulation results and measurement/ray-tracing-based results.
Xiang Cheng, Ziwei Huang, Lu Bai
Chapter 7. Conclusions and Future Research Directions
Abstract
Since the end of the last century, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications have received increasing attention. Aiming at properly and successfully supporting the design and performance evaluation of V2V wireless communication systems, both the comprehensive understanding of V2V wireless communication channel characteristics and the accurate and easy-to-use V2V wireless communication channel models are indispensable. In this chapter, the contents of the proposed channel models are adequately summarized. Then, important research directions, which can be regarded as the guidelines for developing more precise and easy-to-use models for V2V wireless communication channels, are presented from the perspectives of channel measurement, channel modeling, as well as channel application.
Xiang Cheng, Ziwei Huang, Lu Bai
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Channel Characterization and Modeling for Vehicular Communications
Authors
Xiang Cheng
Ziwei Huang
Lu Bai
Copyright Year
2024
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-47440-8
Print ISBN
978-3-031-47439-2
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-47440-8