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About this book

This collection gives broad and up-to-date results in the research and development of materials characterization and processing. Topics covered include advanced characterization methods, minerals, mechanical properties, coatings, polymers and composites, corrosion, welding, magnetic materials, and electronic materials. The book explores scientific processes to characterize materials using modern technologies, and focuses on the interrelationships and interdependence among processing, structure, properties, and performance of materials.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Mineral Processing and Analysis I

Frontmatter

Characterization of Iron Ore Sinter Samples by Automated SEM

This paper presents a new mineralogical and textural characterizationCharacterization solution for iron ore sinter samples using an automated single scanning electron microscopeScanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It employs a motorized and computer-controlled multiple sample stage. Mosaic images covering large areas of polished sections are acquired to measure the volume/weight fraction of mineral compositions (phase fraction calculation is based on user-defined density per phase). Different classifiers discriminate hematite, calcium ferriteCalcium ferrite, calcium silico-ferrite, magnesioferrite, calcium silicate and glasses. The entire process is automatic and produces a full pdf report containing typical images and the quantification of mineral phases and grain size. This study represents a convenient method for analyzing mineral phase and grain size in iron ore sinter samples that can allow for quicker results in sinteringSintering process control and optimization.

Mingming Zhang, Marcelo Andrade

Effects of Sintering Temperature and Time on Preparation of Refractory Materials from Ferronickel Slag Under Microwave Irradiation

Ferronickel slagFerronickel slag canSintering temperature bePreparation usedFerronickel slag for refractory materialRefractory material production by sinteringSintering it with the addition of sintered magnesia in the microwave field. In this study, the influence of microwave sinteringMicrowave sintering temperatureSintering temperature and time on the refractoriness and mechanical propertiesMechanical properties of refractory materialRefractory material was assessed based on determination of the phase transformationsPhase transformation and microstructural Microstructure evolutions of the materials obtained at different sinteringSintering temperatures and time. It was shown that a high-quality refractory materialRefractory material with refractoriness of 1730 ℃ was obtained when the sample was sintered at 1350 ℃ for 20 min. The findings can be used for developing an efficient approach for utilization of ferronickel slagFerronickel slag and other related industrial wastes.

Huimin Tang, Zhiwei Peng, Foquan Gu, Lei Yang, Ziming Liu, Quanle Leng, Weiguang Tian, Mingjun Rao, Guanghui Li, Tao Jiang

Non-isothermal Carbothermic Reduction Kinetics of Calcium Ferrite

Calcium ferriteCalcium ferrite isCarbothermic reduction recognizedKinetics asCalcium ferrite the ideal bonding phase with superior strength and reducibility in the iron ore sinteringSintering process. In present study, the reduction behaviorReduction behavior of CaO · Fe2O3Fe2O3 with graphite was studied by a non-isothermal method using thermo-gravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry. The Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method and the Škvára-Šesták method were adopted to analyze the ‘kineticsKinetics triplet’ (activation energyActivation energy, pre-exponential factor, and model functionModel function). Results indicated that the reduction process did not start until 1090 K, and the reactions shifted toward a higher temperature with an increase of heating rate. The maximum reduction degree of CaO · Fe2O3Fe2O3 could reach 0.93 at 1473 K. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that CaO · Fe2O3Fe2O3 was reduced to CaO and Fe with four steps (CF → CWF → CW3F → C2F → Fe). The apparent activation energyActivation energy of CaO · Fe2O3Fe2O3 varied from 543.33 to 753.10 kJ/mol. The reduction in CaO · Fe2O3Fe2O3 can be described by 2-D diffusion model with an integral form of G(α) = [1 − (1 − α)1/2]2.

Gang Li, Xuewei Lv, Xuangeng Zhou, Guishang Pei, Guibao Qiu

Gasificating Dephosphorization During the Carbothermic Reduction of Medium Phosphorus Iron Ore Concentrate in the Presence of Na2CO3 and SiO2

ToCarbothermic reduction relieve the increasing lack of high-quality iron ore, the medium and high phosphorus refractory mineral resources are being developed worldwide due to the rich storage. The novel method of pre-reducing sinter process was applied to remove phosphorus, characterized by reduced atmosphere, high temperature, and negative pressure. For medium phosphorus Bayan Obo iron ore concentrateBayan Obo iron ore concentrate, the effect of the carbon mixing ratioCarbon mixing ratio, reduction temperatureReduction temperature, and time on phosphorous gasification and iron metallization during carbothermic reductionCarbothermic reduction was investigated using XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD), FESEM-EDS, and FactSage software, in the presence of Na2CO3 and SiO2. The optimal carbothermic reductionCarbothermic reduction is conducted at 1050 ℃ for 60 min with 20 wt% carbon mixing ratioCarbon mixing ratio. The corresponding gasificating dephosphorization and iron metallization are 31% and 96%, respectively. Moreover, the further increased carbon mixing ratioCarbon mixing ratio and reduction temperatureReduction temperature causes the large absorption of reduced phosphorus gas into metallic iron. Notably, the above result provides data support for pre-reducing sinter process.

Jing Zhang, Guoping Luo, Yanbiao Chen, Wenbin Xin, Jianguo Zhu

Trends in Characterization and Beneficiation of Non-ferrous Metallic Ores in Nigeria

NigeriaCharacterization aBeneficiation nationNon-ferrous adequateMetallic ores blessed with large deposit of non-ferrousNon-ferrous metallic oresMetallic ores which are yet to be fully harnessed, characterized, and beneficiated due to lack of sufficient studies and technology. The non-ferrousNon-ferrous metallic oresMetallic ores found in Nigeria include lead-zinc oreLead-zinc ore , tin oreTin ore (Cassiterite), niobium ore, uranium ore, and precious metals such as (Gold and Silver). This article focuses on trends in previous works on characterizationCharacterization and beneficiationBeneficiation of some non-ferrousNon-ferrous metallic oresMetallic ores deposits, showing the mineral, elemental contents, and the amount present in a particular ore. Knowledge gap in the field of study was identified to enable further research on non-ferrousNon-ferrous metallic oreMetallic ores characterizationCharacterization and beneficiationBeneficiation of yet to be characterized and beneficiated non-ferrousNon-ferrous metallic oreMetallic ores which include; columbite, cassiterite, tantalite, chalcopyrite, gold, niobium ore, etc. Also, in-depth and further studies be done on lead-zinc oreLead-zinc ore , which is the most characterized and beneficiated non-ferrousNon-ferrous metallic oreMetallic ores in Nigeria.

Furqan Abdulfattah, Ibrahim A. Rafukka, Sunusi M. Manladan

Kinetics of Coke Gasification Reaction Catalyzed by Alkali Carbonates

CokeCoke isKinetics theAlkali carbonates mainGasification reaction kinetics material of blast furnace (BF), and its reaction speed has an important influence on BF smooth operation. The cokeCoke reactivity is mainly affected by cokeCoke structure and mineral catalysis. The objective of the present work is to expand the catalytic mechanism of alkali carbonatesAlkali carbonates on cokeCoke gasification reaction. Thermogravimetric equipment was used to carry out the non-isothermal analysis experiment and the isothermal analysis experiment. The software (FactSage 6.2) was used to carry out the thermodynamic calculation for gasification of alkali carbonatesAlkali carbonates . Then, the interaction of surface activated oxygen species of C6 clusters and alkali carbonatesAlkali carbonates , the adsorption, and subsequent desorption behaviors of CO2 on the oxygen vacant surface of Na2O and K2O were systematically studied by using the first-principle methodFirst-principle method based on density functional theory. The reaction path of carbon–oxygen catalytic gasification was theoretically analyzed to explain the reaction mechanismReaction mechanism of catalytic gasification.

Yunpeng Fang, Shengfu Zhang, Cheng Yin, Yuhan Zhu, Rongjin Zhu, Yang Li

Advances in Characterization Methods II

Frontmatter

Phase Transformation Characterization by Means of High Temperature Digital Image Correlation for Graded Thermo-Mechanical Processing of SteelSteel Sheet Parts

ByPhase transformation locallyCharacterization adjusting Digital image correlation the microstructureMicrostructure during the press hardening process, the production of load-tailored safety relevant parts is possible. The thermo-mechanical treatment of 22MnB5 steelSteel at different austenitization temperatures, cooling, and forming conditions within a sheet leads to the development of mixed microstructuresMicrostructure , which locally influence the material properties. A high number of experiments and specimens are necessary to determine the resulting phase composition in such graded parts. Within this study, a contactless characterizationCharacterization method to detect local phase transformationsPhase transformation across an inhomogeneous treated flat steelSteel specimenFlat specimens is developed. Digital image correlationDigital image correlation and infrared thermography are used to identify transformation induced local straining during the inhomogeneous thermo-mechanical treatment. Flat steelSteel specimensFlat specimens of 22MnB5 steelSteel up to a thickness of 2 mm are tested. Coupling of temperature and strain fields enables the characterizationCharacterization of transformation kineticsKinetics for different austenitization temperatures, cooling rates, and hot deformation strains with a reduced number of samples.

A. Reitz, O. Grydin, M. Schaper

Austenite Stability Under Focused Ion Beam Milling

ArtifactsFocused Ion Beam (FIB) from FIBFocused Ion Beam (FIB) milling can be of great concern. Aside from commonly known defects (e.g., Ga ion implantation, re-deposition, microstructureMicrostructure change due to specimen temperature increase, surface amorphization, etc.), FIBFocused Ion Beam (FIB) milling can even result in phase transformationPhase transformation in some metal alloys. Limited study has shown normal incident Ga ion beam milling which can transform austenite (FCCFCC ) to BCCBCC structure in some stainless steelsSteel . This can be detrimental when austenite in stainless steelsSteel needs to be analyzed. However, one important question to answer is if milling in high glancing angle can result in such transformation. The susceptibility of austenite transformation to BCCBCC structure is studied using EBSD on commercial stainless steelsSteel . When irradiated by normal incidence Ga ion beam, even with low dose, surface of SS304 and SS316 was transformed from austenite to BCCBCC structure. However, irradiation from high glancing angle does not result in such transformation of relatively unstable austenite structure in SS304.

Jian Li, Pei Liu

Minerals Processing and Analysis II

Frontmatter

Experimental Research on Pellet Production with Boron-Containing Concentrate

InBoron-containing concentrate this paper, the basic performance of boron-containing concentrateBoron-containing concentrate and the method of pellet production with boron-containing concentrateBoron-containing concentrate was studied. Research results show that the granularity of boron-containing concentrateBoron-containing concentrate was finer; it had a good performance in pelletizing, and the green ball ballability index was at a higher level. If the boron-containing concentrateBoron-containing concentrate was heated, there was an obvious endothermic reaction between 550 and 700 ℃. This phenomenon had a negative effect on the compressive strength of preheated pellet. So the preheating temperature and preheating time of pellet should be increased in order to reduce the ring forming phenomenon of rotary kiln. The compressive strength of boron-bearing pellet decreased with the increase of the proportion of boron-bearing ore powder; the appropriate roasting system should be selected according to the proportion of boron-bearing concentrate. The metallurgical propertiesMetallurgical properties of boron-bearing pellets were similar to those of ordinary acid pellets.

Yunqing Tian, Gele Qin, Yan Zhang, Luyao Zhao, Tao Yang

Leaching of Platinum Group Metals from Automobile Spent Catalyst

AutomobileLeaching spent catalystAutomobile spent catalyst isPlatinum group metals leachedAutomobile spent catalyst for recovering platinum group metalsPlatinum group metals using oxidizing acid leachingAcid leaching. Hydrogen peroxideHydrogen peroxide is regarded as oxidant and hydrochloric acid as leachingLeaching reagent. The experimental results show that the best conditions are as follows: the concentration of hydrochloric acid is 6 mol/l, the liquid-solid ratio is 10:1, the reaction temperature is 9 5 °C, the volume ratio of hydrogen peroxideHydrogen peroxide to raw material is 5 ml/g, and the reaction time is 2 h. Under the above conditions, the leachingLeaching ratio of platinum, palladium, and rhodium are 93.9%, 99.8%, and 86.9%, respectively. In this study, the platinum group metalPlatinum group metals is directly recovered from the automobile spent catalystAutomobile spent catalyst, achieving a good leachingLeaching effect. This provides a feasible method for the effective treatment of the automobile spent catalystAutomobile spent catalyst.

Sujun Lu, Dalin Chen, Peng Zhang, Guoju Chen, Yan Zhang, Yujun Pan, Ruikang Wang, Jinxi Qiao, Xintao Sun, Ailiang Chen

Characterization on the Behaviors of Ca and Si Constituents During the Consolidation of Ferruginous Manganese Ores

ConsolidationConsolidation ofCharacterization theConsolidation ferruginous manganese oreFerruginous manganese ores fines is of vital importance for manganese extraction in the smelting process. The main impurities in the Fe–Mn ores are Ca and Si constituents and they have a significant effect on the consolidationConsolidation of iron and manganese oxides. In this study, characterizationCharacterization on the behaviors of Ca and Si constituents during the roasting process of Fe–Mn ores were investigated by thermodynamic, fusion temperatures, and phase identification analyses. The results showed that the Ca and Si constituents can decrease the fusion temperature of the MnO2–Fe2O3Fe2O3 binary system dramatically due to the formation of low-melting complicate silicates from the CaO, SiO2, and partial manganese and iron oxides. The high-melting solid manganese ferritesManganese ferrites phase generated from the remaining manganese and iron oxides were bonded and solidified by the liquid phase. This provided favorable mineralizationMineralization conditions for the consolidationConsolidation of Fe–Mn ore.

Bingbing Liu, Ruijie Li, Shengpeng Su, Yuanbo Zhang

Microscopic Appearance Transformation of Bornite During Acid Leaching and Bioleaching

TheBornite microscopicAcid leaching appearanceBioleaching transformation of borniteBornite during leachingLeaching and bioleachingBioleaching was investigated in this article. LeachingLeaching experiments, X-ray diffraction (XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD) ), scanning electron microscopeScanning Electron Microscope (SEM) (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) were conducted to investigate the microscopic appearance of borniteBornite in the presence of Leptospirillum ferriphilumLeptospirillum ferriphilum (L. ferriphilum) and sterile condition. The leachingLeaching and bioleachingBioleaching experimental results showed that the recoveryRecovery of acid leachingAcid leaching was 29.117% while the recoveryRecovery of bioleachingBioleaching was 51.328%, which means that the presence of L. ferriphilum significantly improved recoveryRecovery of copperCopper . The SEM imaging revealed that the bioleachingBioleaching sample surface is rougher than sterile leachingLeaching sample due to surface roughness of the borniteBornite increased with oxidationOxidation potential.

Hao Lin, Jun Wang, Yuling Liu, Yi Zhou

Pb(II) Removal from Acidic Wastewater by Magnetic Manganese Ferrites Synthesized from Ferromanganese Ores

Pb(II) isPb(II) removal aManganese ferrites typical toxin in industrial wastewater, which has significant pollution risk for drinking water sources. Magnetic manganese ferritesManganese ferrites are a proven recyclable adsorption material on account of their excellent ferromagnetism. In this study, manganese ferritesManganese ferrites adsorbent synthesized from ferromanganese ore were used for Pb(II) removalPb(II) removal from acid wastewater. Thermodynamic calculation and adsorption tests were conducted. Under optimal conditions, the removal ratio of Pb(II) reached 99.4% when initial Pb(II) concentration was 10 mg/L (pH = 5), and the residual Pb(II) concentration was reduced to lower than 0.1 mg/L. The results indicated that the synthetic manganese ferritesManganese ferrites were an excellent magnetic adsorbentMagnetic adsorbent, which was easy to be separated and recycled. The adsorption mechanism was explored by isothermal adsorption analysis using φ-pH and ICP.

Jia Wang, Zijian Su, Manman Lu, Juan Wang, Yuanbo Zhang

Recovery of Valuable Metals from the Leaching Tailings from the Arsenic/Nickel/Cobalt Residue

The leachingLeaching residueArsenic residue after extracting arsenic from the arsenic/nickelNickel/cobaltCobalt residue is treated to recover copperCopper, cobaltCobalt, nickelNickel, and other valuable metals. The experimental results show that the best conditions are as follows: the liquid–solid ratio is 10:1, the ratio of oxidant to raw material is 0.6 ml/g, the sulfuric acid concentration is 20%, the temperature is 40 °C, and the leachingLeaching time is 2 h. Under the above conditions, the leachingLeaching ratio of copperCopper, cobaltCobalt, nickelNickel, zinc, and arsenic reached 96.31%, 97.23%, 98.56%, 98.46%, and 93.84%, respectively. The leachingLeaching kineticsKinetics of copperCopper, cobaltCobalt, and nickelNickel were further studied. The activation energyActivation energy of copperCopper, cobaltCobalt, nickelNickel is 47.22 kJ/mol, 37.91 kJ/mol, and 44.93 kJ/mol, respectively, and the reaction grades are 1.88, 1.94, and 1.92, respectively. The above valuable metals may be further recovered in the leachingLeaching residue. This technique is beneficial for the efficient use of resources, reducing resource waste in the metallurgical process.

Jinxi Qiao, Ailiang Chen, Xintao Sun, Zhen Qian, Yan Zhang, Yutian Ma, Yalin Ma

Characterization of Mechanical Properties I

Frontmatter

Effect of Microstructure on Cleavage Fracture of Thick-Section Quenched and Tempered S690 High-Strength Steel

OneMicrostructure ofCleavage fracture theSteel main challenges in applying thick-section high-strength steelsSteel (HSS) at arctic condition in offshore and maritime industry is to maintain a sufficient level of toughness to prevent brittle failure. An aspect that requires special attention is the through-thickness microstructural variation which may result in different local mechanical responses affecting the overall material’s fracture behaviour. This paper presents an experimental study combining microstructural investigation and sub-sized fracture toughnessFracture toughness testing at −100 °C of different sections of 80 mm S690QL steelSteel aimed to evaluate the effect of microstructureMicrostructure on cleavage fractureCleavage fracture. In addition, different crack depth to width ratios (a/W) were used to investigate the constraint effect, while different notch orientations were applied to assess the effect of rolling orientation. Results show lower fracture toughnessFracture toughness for the middle of the plate, which was attributed to the presence of large Nb-rich inclusions which may feature pre-existing cracks and/or defects in the inclusion/matrix interface and also often distributed as clusters. It was also observed that a/W ratio plays an important role in fracture toughnessFracture toughness showing shallow-notched specimens with substantially higher fracture toughnessFracture toughness than deep cracked specimens. Moreover, microstructural features such as inclusions aligned parallel to the pre-crack can ease the crack propagation and contribute to a reduction in fracture toughnessFracture toughness.

V. M. Bertolo, Q. Jiang, C. L. Walters, V. A. Popovich

Effect of Thermal Aging on Impact Toughness of Electron Beam-Welded AISI 316 Stainless Steel

Thick section of cold-rolled austenite stainless steelSteel AISI 316 is widely used in heat exchangers, jet engines, furnace parts, exhaust manifolds, fast breeder test rector, etc., because of its high strength, corrosionCorrosion, and pittingPitting resistance properties at high working temperature 400–550 °C approximately. Electron beam weldingElectron beam welding is considered as highly efficient welding process in order to achieve high-quality welds with low heat-affected zone. In this paper, single-pass narrow gap square butt welding of 18-mm-thick plates using electron beam weldingElectron beam welding at constant accelerating voltage 150 kV, beam current 90 mA, welding travel speed 600 mm/min, and beam oscillation in circular pattern was investigated. The impact toughness and metallurgical propertiesMetallurgical properties in as-welded condition and after imparting post-weld thermal aging (PWTA) at 750 °C for 24 h were also investigated in this piece of work. The full penetration had been achieved in single pass by optimizing the relationship between welding parameters (beam accelerating voltage, beam current, welding travel speed, and beam oscillation). The results showed that welding of plates without filler metal leads to defect-free welds. The average impact toughness conducted by Charpy impact test at cryogenic temperature (−40 °C) in as-welded samples was recorded as 284 J, and after aged at 750 °C for 24 h it reduced to 180 J.

Arun Kumar, Sandeep Singh Sandhu, Beant Singh

Mineral Processing and Analysis III

Frontmatter

Preparation and Photocatalytic Properties of Mo-Doped TiO2@Fly Ash Cenospheres for Degradation of Methylene Blue

Mo-doped titanium dioxideTitanium dioxide (TiO2)-coated fly ash cenosphereFly ash cenosphere (FAC) wasPreparation synthesizedMo-doped TiO2 byFly ash cenosphere the sol-gel method. The novel photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD)), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The results showed that the catalyst maintains the structure of anatase (TiO2), and the majority of doped Mo ions existed as Mo6+ substitution in anatase lattice, which caused redshift of TiO2 light absorption wavelength, broadening the light absorption range and making more effective use of solar energy. The photocatalytic activity of Mo-TiO2@FAC sample for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible lightVisible light irradiation was investigated. The photocatalyst that was calcined at 550 °C with Mo/Ti molar ratio of 0.3% and concentration of 2 g/L exhibited the optimal photodecomposition property.

Yongfeng Cai, Bin Xu, Min Li, Pengxu Cao, Jun Luo, Mingjun Rao, Zhiwei Peng, Guanghui Li

Removing Arsenic from the NiSO4 Solution Using Modified D301 Resin

Arsenic is removed from the NiSO4 solutionNiSO4 solution using modified D301D301 resin. The modification is based on the fact that $$ {\text{WO}}_{4}^{2 - } $$WO42- react with $$ {\text{AsO}}_{4}^{3 - } $$AsO43- in the NiSO4 solutionNiSO4 solution to form arsenotungstic ions. This study grafted $$ {\text{WO}}_{4}^{2 - } $$WO42- onto the resin to remove arsenic in the NiSO4 solutionNiSO4 solution and avoided the loss of tungsten. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and the pH of solution on arsenic removalArsenic removal efficiency were investigated. When the reaction time is 4 h and the pH value of solution is 3.06, arsenic is removed using $$ {\text{WO}}_{4}^{2 - } $$WO42--loaded D301D301 in the NiSO4 solutionNiSO4 solution at normal temperature. Results show that the concentration of As (V) from 50 mg/L fell to below 5 mg/L in the NiSO4 solutionNiSO4 solution. There is no impurities were brought in the process of arsenic removalArsenic removal, achieving higher ratio of arsenic removalRatio of arsenic removal in the industry.

Ailiang Chen, Xintao Sun, Jinxi Qiao, Zhen Qian, Yan Zhang, Yutian Ma, Zhiqiang Liu, Lixue Shi

Activated Carbon Prepared from Bituminous Coal/Poplar Blends by Direct KOH Activation

ColumnarActivated carbon activatedBituminous coal carbonsPoplar (ACs) wereActivation prepared from the bituminous coalBituminous coal/poplarPoplar blendsBlend using KOH as an activationActivation agent by varying the mass ratio (bituminous coalBituminous coal/poplarPoplar and KOH/carbon materials). The specific 2D-NLDFT surface area and total porePores volume of the prepared ACs are in the range of 436–825 m2/g and of 0.193–0.360 cm3/g, respectively. The porePores size distribution of ACs shows that most of the poresPores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by both mass ratios. While the obvious differences in surface morphology between the woodWood and coal phase, as expected from the intrinsic property of the two materials, were observed from SEM images, the former was irregular, heterogeneous, and highly porous, while the latter showed a smooth and regular surface.

Xiaohu Zhou, Shengfu Zhang, Yuyang Wei, Xiong Xiao, Weiyi Chen

Preparation of Thermal Insulation Materials from Ferronickel Slag with Addition of Fly Ash Cenosphere

Ferronickel slagFerronickel slag isPreparation theFly ash cenosphere fourth largest industrial waste in China, in urgent need of efficient treatment. In this study, a facile route for preparing thermal insulation materials from ferronickel slagFerronickel slag with the addition of fly ash cenosphereFly ash cenosphere (FAC) was developed based on thermodynamic calculation and experimental exploration. The experimental results showed that a high-quality insulation material with thermal conductivityThermal conductivity of 0.4752 W/(m K), bulk density of 1.36 g/cm3, compressive strength of 49.13 MPa, water absorption of 16%, and linear shrinkage of 14.7% could be obtained when the ferronickel slagFerronickel slag was sintered with the addition of 25 wt % FAC at 1200 °C for 2 h. The method is expected to provide a useful guide for value-added treatment of ferronickel slagFerronickel slag.

Lei Yang, Zhiwei Peng, Yawen Huang, Liancheng Wang, Leixia Zheng, Mingjun Rao, Guanghui Li, Tao Jiang

Leaching of Copper, Cobalt, and Nickel from Complex Ore

The paper focuses on leachingLeaching of complex copperCopper–cobaltCobalt–nickelNickel ore from Mwinilunga district in Zambia, containing 0.6% Cu, 0.21% Co, 2.6% Fe, and 0.13% Ni. Mineralogical examination of the ore using scanning electron microscopeScanning Electron Microscope (SEM) (SEM) showed that copperCopper, cobaltCobalt, and nickelNickel exist in fine particles of heterogeniteHeterogenite and limonite mineral phases. The effects of leachingLeaching temperature, pH, and sodium meta-bisulphate (SMBS) addition were studied. The optimal conditions were found as follows: leachingLeaching temperature of 65–75 °C, leachingLeaching time of 1 h, and SMBS addition at 0.6 wt%. CopperCopper, cobaltCobalt, and nickelNickel were recovered from the leach solution via precipitation with sodium sulphide and magnesium oxide. Sodium sulphide was more selective than magnesium oxide.

Yotamu R. S. Hara, Golden Kaluba, Douglas Musowoya, Kennedy Chikontwe, Choolwe Muchindu, Haggai Simfukwe, Tina Phiri Chanda, Stephen Parirenyatwa

Characterization of Corrosion Resistance

Frontmatter

Corrosion Inhibition Effect of Clove Essential Oil Extract with Basil and Atlas Cedar Oil on Mild Steel in Dilute Acid Environment

The corrosionCorrosion inhibition effect of clove, atlas cedar, and basil essential oilOil extracts onMild steel mild steelSteel was studied. Clove essential oilOil was separately admixed with basil oilOil extract (CBO) and atlas cedar oilOil extract (CAO) in 0.5 M H2SO4 and HCl solutions. Weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization technique, and optical microscopy were used to evaluate their performance. The two admixed inhibitorInhibitor compounds performed effectively at most concentrations with highest inhibition performance of 95.48 and 95.32% in H2SO4 solution. In HCl solution, the inhibition performance of CBO and CAO inhibitorInhibitor compounds are 92.7 and 97.98%. CBO and CAO displayed mixed inhibiting properties with dominant cathodic inhibition effect. Severe surface degradation was visible on the non-inhibited steelsSteel in H2SO4 while extensive localized degradation was visible on the non-inhibited steelSteel from HCl solution. The presence of CBO and CAO inhibitorInhibitor significantly improved the surface of theMild steel mild steelSteel.

Roland Tolulope Loto, Tiwa Olukeye, Eugene Okorie

Effect of Dual Phase Stabilization via Varying Ti/Nb Ratios on the Pitting Behavior of AISI 347 Welds

The aim of the present work was to study the role of Ti additions made to Nb contained stabilized austenitic stainless steelSteel grade AISI 347 welds for improving their metallurgical stability and pitting corrosionPitting corrosion resistance. For achieving this, gas tungsten arc welding process (GTAW) was used to fabricate multi-pass and multi-layer weld pads comprising of 28 weld passes; and using AISI 347 (Nb based) and AISI 321 (Ti based) solid fillers in a systematic combination, so as to obtain different weld metals’ surfaces with varying Ti/Nb ratios of 0.45, 0.66, and 1.57. These surfaces were examined for their pittingPitting behavior using electrochemical method, an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) equipped with a wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WDS) for chemical composition analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling of passive filmsPassive film . Austenitic stainless steelSteel welds with Ti/Nb ratio of 0.45 exhibited maximum pittingPitting potential of 380.5 mVSCE as compared to sole Nb weld with 270.7 mVSCE. The atomic concentration profiles of oxygen across different weld surfaces indicate that estimated passive filmPassive film thickness values for sole Nb (347 weld metal) and Nb weld stabilized with Ti/Nb ratio of 0.45 were calculate to be 8.43 nm and 7.11 nm, respectively. Ti addition suppressed the carbideCarbide formation tendencies resulting in higher levels of Ni in the matrix as well as different dendritic regions of 347 weld metal. Thus, this study establishes that Ti additions of 0.21 wt% in Nb weld can significantly enhance its pittingPitting resistance.

A. S. Shahi, Dikshant Malhotra

Corrosion Resistance of GX4CrNiMo16-5-1 Martensitic, 316L Austenitic, and 904L Austenitic Stainless Steels Subjected to High Temperature Variation

Study of the effect of high temperature at 1000 °C on the corrosionCorrosion resistance of GX4CrNiMo16-5-1 martensitic, 316L austenitic, and 904L austenitic stainless steelsSteel in 2 M H2SO4/3.5% NaCl solution was done through potentiodynamic polarization technique, potentiostatic method, and optical microscopy analysis. Untreated GX4CrNiMo16-5-1 steelSteel displayed the highest corrosionCorrosion rate of 4.775 mm/year while untreated 904L steelSteel showed the lowest corrosionCorrosion rate of 1.043 mm/year. Alteration of the microstructural properties of the steelsSteel due to high temperature exposure significantly decreased the corrosionCorrosion rates of the stainless steelsSteel to 2.167, 1.396, and 0.519 mm/year. 904L steelSteel exhibited the least significant metastable pittingPitting activity among the untreated steelsSteel due to higher resistance to transient pit formation. Heat treated GX4CrNiMo16-5-1 steelSteel lost its ability to passivate after anodic polarization. The heat treated steelsSteel were more resistant to pitting corrosionPitting corrosion from observation of pittingPitting potential values. The optical image of untreated and heat treated EN-1.4404 and EN-1.4539 steelsSteel was generally similar while the images for EN-1.4405 significantly contrast each other.

Roland Tolulope Loto, Cleophas Akintoye Loto, Muyiwa Fajobi

Characterization of Electronic and Magnetic Materials

Frontmatter

Influence on the Structural and Magnetic Properties of the Pre-alloyed Gas-Atomized Maraging Steel Powder During Mechanical Milling

We investigated theMaraging steel powders influence on the structural and magnetic propertiesMagnetic properties of gas-atomized maraging steelSteel powder during mechanical millingMechanical milling. The as-received powder comprised, primarily, martensite phase (α) and traces of retained austenite (γ); the saturation magnetization (MS) and intrinsic coercivity (HCI), at 300 K, were ~176 Am2/kg and ~3 kA/m, respectively. Powders milled from 3 to 8 h comprised nanocrystallineNanocrystalline α; the MS and HCI ranged from ~164 to 169 Am2/kg and ~4.9 to 6.7 kA/m, respectively. Milling above 8 h formed austenite and extraneous intermetallic phases, reduced MS, and increased HCI. The MS increased with the decrease in the temperature from 300 to 60 K, for both the as-received and milled powders. The thermomagnetic behavior of the as-received and the milled powders from 300 to 900 K was fairly reversible. The magnetic propertiesMagnetic properties of as-received and powder milled for 5 h were comparatively better than the powder milled for 56 h.

G. V. Thotakura, R. Goswami, T. V. Jayaraman

Phase Diagram of the InP Binary System

Indium phosphide is the only compound in the InP binary system, and it is a semiconducting material used in optoelectronics, microelectronics, and solar cellsSolar Cells . Understanding the thermodynamic properties of this material is important for these applications. Phase diagramPhase diagram of the InP binary system was determined at 1 bar pressure and temperature range 200–1400 K using Thermo-CalcThermo-Calc 2019b softwareThermo-Calc 2019 b Software and compared with experimental and calculated ones found in the literature. There are four phases and six fields of which are four mixed (double phase) fields. The melting points of In and P elements and InPInP compound were determined and all reactions are determined too.

Shadia J. Ikhmayies

Characterization of Mechanical Properties II

Frontmatter

Formation of the Carbon-Enriched Zone and Its Evolution During the Long-Term Aging Process for 9% Cr-CrMoV Dissimilar Welded Joint

TheLong-term aging appearance of carbon migrationCarbon migration in the 9% Cr-CrMoV dissimilar welded jointDissimilar welded joint was resulted from the sharp content transition of the strong carbideCarbide -forming element Cr between the weld (~2.3 wt%) and the base metal (~10.6 wt%). The width of the carbon-enriched zoneCarbon-enriched zone (CEZ) under original state was about 46 μm, and the width of CEZ increased and then kept in 65 μm during the 10,000 h agingAging treatment. The microhardness test showed that the carbon-depleted zone (CDZ) exhibited low hardness value (~220 HV) compared with that (~340 HV) in CEZ. The significant difference in carbideCarbide content was the crucial factor in the sharp change of hardness adjacent to the fusion line. Thus, it is important to understand the evolution of the CEZ to experience a long-term agingLong-term aging to avoid its negative influence on the impact toughness and fatigue performance.

Kai Ding, Bingge Zhao, Yuanheng Zhang, Tao Wei, Guanzhi Wu, Yuanfang Wang, Yulai Gao

The Evolution of Precipitates in a Novel Heat-Resistant Martensitic Steel During Creep

In the past decadesPrecipitate, several 9–12 wt% Cr-containing martensitic steelsSteel have been researched for the application in ultra-supercritical power plants at 650 °C, which is still a worldwide challenge. Among them, G115 martensitic steelSteel, which was developed in China, is one of promising candidates. It has the basic composition of 9% Cr-3% W-3% Co and contains 1% Cu (all in wt%) and the optimized contents of B and N, leading to much better creepCreep strength and creepCreep ductility than P92 steelSteel. Both M23C6 carbidesCarbide and ε-Cu particles were found during the tempering of G115 steelSteel, and the former have finer size than those in P92 steelSteel, which results in Laves phase to form with the refined size too during the latter creepCreep stage. All these formed precipitatesPrecipitate shall contribute to improved creepCreep rupture strength of G115 steelSteel.

Pengyu Wen, Zhengzong Chen, Zhengdong Liu, Haiwen Luo

Characterization of Polymers and Composites I

Frontmatter

Synthesis and Characterization of Ultra-Hard Ceramic AlMgB14-Based Materials Obtained from AlxMgy Intermetallic Powder and Boron Powder by the Spark Plasma Sintering

InCharacterization thisCeramic workSintering, AlMgB14-based materials were produced from the intermetallic AlxMgy powder and boron powder using mechanical treatment with a planetary mill and subsequent spark plasma sinteringSintering (SPS). Phase composition and structure of obtained materials were examined. Phase composition of sintered material is represented by the AlMgB14 phase (~95 wt%) and the spinel phase MgAl2O4 (~5 wt%). The sintered bulk sample has a non-porous structure. The formation of the spinel phase is explained by the presence of oxygen in the raw boron powder.

Ilya Zhukov, Pavel Nikitin, Alexander Vorozhtsov, Maxim Boldin

Microstructure Evolution of Additively Manufactured TiC Reinforced Graded Metal Matrix Composite

CeramicCeramic reinforced metal matrix compositesMetal matrix composites (MMCs) have advantages over traditional metallic materials, such as higher hardness, strength, and fracture toughnessFracture toughness, which make them suitable for ballistic and defence applications. In this research, an in situ synthetized TiC reinforced Ti–Ni matrix sample was additively manufactured with Ti64 powders and Ni coated graphite powders. Input of Ni coated graphite powders increases from bottom to top of the sample to create a chemical gradient. MicrostructureMicrostructure of the graded sample was examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The characterizationCharacterization results show that TiC dendrites are in situ synthesized within the metal matrix that contains α-Ti and Ti2Ni. Morphologies and proportions of these phases change with the variation of chemical composition. Mechanisms of the evolution of microstructureMicrostructure are further analysed. The gradual variation of microstructuresMicrostructure indicates that 3D printed graded MMC can provide gradient properties that are preferable for ballistic applications.

Jianshen Wang, Juan P. Escobedo-Diaz, Daniel East, Evgeny V. Morozov, Kun Yang

A Bibliometric Analysis of the Strategy and Performance Measurement of the Polymer Matrix Nanomaterials Development Scenario Globally, and the Participation of Brazil

Extensive studiesBibliometry have been conducted worldwide on the strategy for the development of nanomaterialsNanomaterials . One of the known strategies for this has aroused interest in the market is the incorporation of the nanoparticles, extracted from the residues in the matrices of the polymers for the production of environmentally correct nanocompositesNanocomposite . This work presents a survey of the scientific knowledge of nanomaterialsNanomaterials of the polymer matrix and a panoramic view of the evolution of these nanomaterialsNanomaterials are subject, in order to meet the criteria of sustainable development due to the environmental concerns. This study also intends to use bibliometricBibliometry tools to database acquisition and analysis of bibliographicBibliographic reviews for an evaluation of the scenarios in the world on the development of polymeric nanomaterialsNanomaterials based on three different classes of polymeric nanocompositesNanocomposite : polymer/clayClay ; polymer/graphene, and polymer/nanocellulose nanocompositesNanocomposite .

Robson S. Costa, Esperidiana A. B. Moura

Evaluation of Biodiesel Obtained from Waste Cooking Oil Purified with a Modified Clay

InBiodiesel orderWaste cooking oil toModified clay meet the current environmental demand in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), and the preservation of water with the reduction of the incorrect disposal of residues, particularly soybean oilOil after consumption, the objective of this paper is to evaluate the biodieselBiodiesel obtained from waste cooking oilWaste cooking oil (WCO) purified using a Brazilian clayClay after a modified acid treatment, less aggressive to the environment. The clayClay, before and after the treatment, was characterized by XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD), FTIRFourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and SEM/EDS. The biodieselBiodiesel had its appearance, color, kinematic viscosity, density, water content, acidity level, saponification index, and combustion behavior measured. The results indicated that the biodieselBiodiesel meets some of the main requirements of the Brazilian standard for biodieselsBiodiesel, with the exception of higher water content. Therefore, the effectiveness of the purification process of the WCOWaste cooking oil using the modified Brazilian clayClay was demonstrated.

C. G. Bastos Andrade, M. Shimba, G. Freitas, L. M. Kobayashi, S. M. Toffoli, F. R. Valenzuela Diaz

Characterization of Polymers and Composites II

Frontmatter

Mechanical Behavior of Thermoplastic Filaments Fabricated with the Fused Modeling Deposition Technique

This article intends to evaluate the influence of the printing temperature on the maximum tensile strength for plastic specimens fabricated via 3D printing. The materials evaluated were Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), Polylactic Acid (PLA), and PolyethylenePolyethylene Terephthalate Glycol Modified (PETG). The manufactured samples were evaluated in accordance with ASTM D638. The results obtained allow to establish how the temperature of the nozzle affects the ultimate tensile strength of plastics and some guidelines are given in relation to the appropriate temperature according to the material used.

Elkin I. Gutiérrez, Henry A. Colorado

Characterization of a Brazilian Kaolin and Its Sorption Ability to Mineral Oils

KaolinsCharacterization areKaolin claysClay withOil a wide range of uses, being one of them as a component in several types of cosmeticsCosmetics and pharmaceuticals products as excipient agents for chemical actives, considering its potential to meet international requirements described in pharmacopeias, so the use of kaolinKaolin in the cosmeticCosmetics industry has been expanded based on the final properties achieved with its formulated products, like hydration capabilities, higher nutrition degree of the skin, and smoothness. There are not many published researches available concerning the sorption capacity of cosmeticsCosmetics oilsOil in kaolinKaolin, like chestnut oilOil, pine oilOil, soybean oilOil, among others, mainly related to creams and emulsified products. This paper is focused on a commercial kaolinKaolin from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming its use in the cosmeticCosmetics industry as unguents and skin creams. CharacterizationCharacterization was made using XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD), FTIRFourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), SEM, particle size distributionParticle size distribution, and cosmeticCosmetics oil sorptionOil sorption capacity of the kaolinKaolin. Results obtained in some of the tested oilOil systems were superior to 150% oilOil absorption on a weight basis.

Gilmar Pinheiro, Thamires Carvalho, Bianca Michel, Jessica Arjona, Margarita Bobadilha, Maria Silva-Valenzuela, Tatiana Costa, Francisco Valenzuela-Diaz

Fabrication of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Membrane and Evaluation of Physical Characteristics for Wastewater Treatment

A porous tubular-type ultra-high molecular weight polyethylenePolyethylene (UHMWPE) membrane with good filtrationFiltration effect for turbid circulating waterTurbid circulating water was designed and prepared. The physical-chemistry properties such as surface microstructureMicrostructure and tensile strength of tubular-type UHMWPE membraneUHMWPE membrane were investigated. UHMWPE membraneUHMWPE membrane consists of agglomerated particles with diameters of 127–229 μm. The UHMWPE membraneUHMWPE membrane has a porous structure with porePores diameter of 40–152 μm, which can enhance the permeability of UHMWPE membraneUHMWPE membrane. The accumulation and distribution of oxide scaleOxide scale particles in UHMWPE membraneUHMWPE membrane after having been used for 5 years were also analyzed. Oxide scaleOxide scale particles are mainly accumulated on the surface layer of UHMWPE membraneUHMWPE membrane. And the fouling layer is about 2.052 mm. The accumulation of oxide scaleOxide scale particles decreases with the increase of distance from the inner surface of the UHMWPE membraneUHMWPE membrane. The accumulation is about 0.96% at L = 0.342 mm, and the accumulation is about 0.36% at L = 2.052 mm in the UHMWPE membraneUHMWPE membrane. UHMWPE membraneUHMWPE membrane exhibits excellent antifouling property for long-term use.

Shan Shan Xie, Zhang Fu Yuan, Yuan Tao Shi

Poster Session

Frontmatter

A Comparison Between Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide as Reinforcement Agents in Polypropylene Nanocomposite Using Irradiated Polypropylene as Compatibilizer

GraphenePolypropylene isNanocomposite thePolypropylene material with the best mechanical resistance ever encountered. Various types of studies have been carried out on possible applications. The use as a reinforcement in nanocompositesNanocomposite has shown to be a promising field, but some studies indicate that the graphene oxideGraphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) have better results as reinforcement, due to the functional groups, which allow a better adhesion with the matrix. This study analyzes the production of polypropylenePolypropylene (PP) nanocompositeNanocomposite comparing the use of graphene oxideGraphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) as fillers and irradiated polypropylenePolypropylene as a coupling agent. A twin-screw extruder and injection molding machine were used to produce the nanocompositeNanocomposite PP reinforced with 0.2 wt% of GOGraphene oxide and RGOReduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) by melt blending. The GOGraphene oxide and RGOReduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) were characterized by XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. The nanocompositeNanocomposite samples were characterized by XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD), SEM, TG, DSC and mechanical testMechanical tests.

Carlos Soares, Julyana Santana, Olgun Güven, Esperidiana A. B. Moura

A New Method to Obtain Cellulose Nanofiber from Wood

Cellulose nanofiberCellulose nanofiber (CNF) can be obtained from natural or waste woodWood by acid hydrolysisHydrolysis. In this unprecedented research, we describe a process for producing CNFCellulose nanofiber with nitric acid. Crystallinity index of approximately 84% was obtained. Eucalyptus certified by Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) was chosen as source aiming to ensure equal reproducibility of future experiments. A woodWood sample was treated by acid hydrolysisHydrolysis during almost 300 min. The resulting mass was filtered in a vacuum system and dried during one hour at temperature about 100 °C in an oven. The woodWood sample was also analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD)) to be sure of its crystallinity and submitted to a thermal analysis. Cellulose nanofiberCellulose nanofiber has a greater axial elastic modulus (Young’s modulus) than Kevlar, and its mechanical propertiesMechanical properties are within the range of other reinforcements materials. Cellulose nanofiberCellulose nanofiber can be a good material to reinforce some polymeric filament like polylactic acid (PLA) or acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS).

Miguel Sanchez, José Armando Spinoza, Leila Figueiredo Miranda

Analysis of β´ (Cu4Ti) Precipitation During Isothermal Aging of a Cu–4 wt%Ti Alloy

This work analyzed experimentally and numerically the growth kineticsKinetics of β′ precipitation of a Cu–4 wt%Ti alloy after agingAging at 400, 500, and 600 °C for times from 0.0166 to 200 h. Results indicated that the precipitation process is almost controlled by nucleation and growth during agingAging at 400 °C, originating a slow growth kineticsKinetics of precipitation. In contrast, the coarsening of precipitatesPrecipitate dominates the precipitation process during agingAging at 500 and 600 °C. The interfacial energy of interface between the α matrix phase and β′ precipitatesPrecipitate was determined to be about 0.1135, 0.0980, and 0.0725 Jm−2 for agingAging at 400, 500, and 600 °C, respectively. These values suggest a coherent interface, which is in agreement with the flat faces of β′ cuboid precipitatesPrecipitate. Calculated Time–Temperature–Precipitation diagram for the β′ precipitationβ′ precipitation indicated good agreement with experimental results. Precipitation hardening was higher for the slower growth kineticsKinetics of precipitation.

Victor M. Lopez-Hirata, Felipe Hernandez-Santiago, Maribel L. Saucedo-Muñoz, Erika O. Avila-Davila, Jose D. Villegas-Cardenas

Analysis of Nanoscale Iron Oxide Morphology

Two different forms of nano-scale Fe2O3Fe2O3 were prepared by the hydrothermal methodHydrothermal method using Fe(NO3)3·9H2O as the starting material, ethylenediamine and ethylene glycol methyl ether as surfactants. The structure, surface morphology, and composition of nano-scale Fe2O3Fe2O3 samples were analyzed by XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD) and SEM/EDS. The results show that the sample has two forms, one nano-Fe2O3Fe2O3 form is rod-shaped, and the rod-like structure is hexagonal columnar, the particles are closely arranged in disorder; the other nano-Fe2O3Fe2O3 is spherical, and there are clusters between particles. The formation mechanism of the nano-oxidized iron was analyzed.

Tianhao Sun, Suju Hao, Wufeng Jiang, Yuzhu Zhang

Analysis of the Effect of Marine Salinity in Durability of Red Ceramics Calcinated in Different Temperature

InMarine salinity theDurability BrazilianRed ceramics coast, the ceramic materialsCeramic materials are affected by saline exposures, which cause losses of properties. This work evaluated the alteration that the materials undergo when exposed to the marine environment. Prismatic specimens were molded by the extrusion process and then calcined at different temperatures. After burning, the chemical attack was carried out by immersion cycles using synthetic sea water and the effects on the mechanical resistance and the water absorption were verified. In the absorption of water, the marine salinityMarine salinity interfered in a superficial way. In the mechanical resistance, salinity interfered in a significant way, but not enough to cause problems as far as the normative limits. Finally, it was verified that the crystalline phases identified at all the burning temperatures studied were the same for the intact samples and for the immersion cycles, except for halite (NaCl), from synthetic sea water.

M. T. Marvila, A. R. G. Azevedo, M. S. S. Souza, E. B. Zanelato, J. Alexandre, G. C. Xavier, S. N. Monteiro, C. M. F. Vieira, G. C. G. Delaqua

Application of Nanoparticles of ZnO and ZnO-Doped-Ag in Polymeric Blend of HMSPP/SEBS for Biocide Activity

InBlend thisBiocide study, the nanoparticles of Zinc oxide (ZnO) and Zinc oxide doped with Silver (ZnO/Ag) were synthesized in laboratory. The incorporation of these nanoparticles in the blendBlend of high melt strength polypropylenePolypropylene (HMSPP) and styrene–ethylene/butadiene–styrene (SEBS) was carried by melt processing. The obtained materials were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD)), Raman Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), biocidal tests against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The nanoparticles showed size between 150 and 200 nm and spherical form. HMSPP/SEBS/AgNPs/ZnO films incorporated with the nanoparticles have demonstrated biocidal effect against the bacteria E. coli and S. aureus when irradiated at 12.5 kGy.

Luiz Gustavo Hiroki Komatsu, Washington Luiz Oliani, Camila Basseti Oliveira, Vijaya Kumar Rangari, Duclerc Fernandes Parra

Characterization and Metallurgical Performance of Titangarnet

TitangarnetTitangarnet (Ca3Fe2Si1·58Ti1·42O12), aCharacterization significantTitangarnet mineral phase in sinter with vanadium–titanium magnetite (VTM), was rarely investigated on its strength and metallurgical propertiesMetallurgical properties. In this study, high purity (95%) of titangarnetTitangarnet was firstly prepared by chemical synthesis. The results of compressive strength tests showed that the compressive strength of titangarnetTitangarnet (14.21 Mpa) is much lower than that of calcium ferriteCalcium ferrite (37.46 Mpa). The melting performanceMelting performance of titangarnetTitangarnet was measured by hemisphere method, and results indicated that the softening, melting, and flowing temperatures of titangarnetTitangarnet are 1453, 1483, and 1509 K, respectively. The reduction tests carried out by thermal analysis showed that the maximum reduction degree of titangarnetTitangarnet and calcium ferriteCalcium ferrite reached 0.65 and 0.94, respectively.

Gang Li, Xuewei Lv, Xuangeng Zhou, Guibao Qiu

Characterization by FTIR of Oxidized Pyrargyrite with Sodium Sulfide

PyrargyritePyrargyrite isCharacterization aFourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) silver-richPyrargyrite sulfosal of formula Ag3SbS3, considered a refractory species to leachingLeaching with cyanideCyanide solutions. In this research work, the characterizationCharacterization by infrared spectroscopy by Fourier transform and X-ray diffraction (XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD)) of the oxidationOxidation of pyrargyritePyrargyrite with sodium sulfide is presented. The XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD) results of the oxidationOxidation with sodium sulfide show that the pyrargyritePyrargyrite PDF 00-019-1135 is transformed into silver sulfide acanthiteAcanthite identified with PDF 96-901-1415, and the rosinckyite phase was also detected PDF 96-901-2782 as well as Ag2O3 PDF 96-150-9693. The characterizationCharacterization by FTIRFourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) shows the absorption bands in 534, 760, 1019, and 1384 cm−1 characteristics of the presence of Sb–O bonds of Sb2O3, and these oxides decisively influence the leachingLeaching of silver, due to the formation of a passivationPassivation layer on the mineral affecting the success of the leachingLeaching.

Yessica Paulina Gómez Espinoza, M. Reyes Pérez, Elia Guadalupe Palacios Beas, J. C. Juárez Tapia, M. Pérez-Labra, Iván A. Reyes Domínguez, Mizraim Uriel Flores Guerrero, Víctor Esteban Reyes Cruz

Characterization by FTIR of Sphalerite Obtained in the Flotation Without Collector in the Presence of Ferric Iron

SphaleriteSphalerite isCharacterization generallyFourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) recoveredSphalerite byFlotation flotationFlotation; however, it has been established that the success of this stage is affected by surface contamination with ferric iron precipitatesPrecipitate during grinding. In this work, the flotationFlotation of sphaleriteSphalerite was carried out in the presence of iron precipitatesPrecipitate 5, 25, 50, and 75 mgL−1 of Fe+3 as ferric sulfate. The results show that the cumulative flotationFlotation of sphaleriteSphalerite, without collector at pH 6.4, with 60 mgL−1 of frother, improves, with the increase in ferric ion, and thus, with 75 mgL−1 and 2 min of flotationFlotation, 94% cumulative recoveries are achieved. Infrared analysis shows absorption bands of the Zn–O vibration at 1737, 1378, 1244, and 1021 cm−1, in addition, the presence of the main band of the tetragonal sulfate ion at 1115 cm−1, and an absorption band corresponding to Fe–O vibration of goethite at 619 cm−1.

J. A. Granados Oliver, M. Reyes Pérez, A. M. Teja Ruiz, E. G. Palacios Beas, M. Pérez Labra, F. R. Barrientos Hernández, J. C. Juárez Tapia, J. A. Cobos Murcia

Characterization of Bentonite Beneficiation Residue for Use in Structural Ceramics

InCharacterization thisBeneficiation workStructural ceramics, theBeneficiation of bentonite residue use of residues from the bentonite mining of the State of Bahia, Brazil, in the manufacture ofStructural ceramics structural ceramicCeramic bodies for application in bricks, blocks, and tilesTiles is studied. The methodology used in this study consisted of the preparationPreparation of common clayClay specimens with the substitution of clayClay for the bentonite beneficiationBeneficiation residue in 0, 5, and 10% in weight. After the conformation were done ceramicCeramic tests based on ABNT standards for tests such as bending stress, retraction, and water absorption. The clayClay and the residue were characterized by techniques such as DRXX-ray diffraction spectra (DRX). The beneficiationBeneficiation residue showed potential use in the manufacture ofStructural ceramics structural ceramicCeramic products.

Larissa Maia dos Santos, Vinícius Macedo Brito Medeiros, Maria das Graças da Silva Valenzuela, Francisco Rolando Valenzuela Diaz, Orley Magalhães de Oliveira

Characterization of Clay Mix with Incorporation of Granite Waste for the Production of Ceramic Tiles

TheCharacterization municipalityClay ofCeramic Cachoeiro do ItaperimirimTiles, locatedGranite waste in Espírito Santo, has a well-established ornamental stone industry, being one of the main cutting and extraction poles of this material. However, industry stimulation caused the waste produced to be disposed of in inappropriate places, threatening the environment and human life. In the present work, a study was carried out aiming at the reuse of wastes as raw material for red ceramicsRed ceramics, from chemical, physical, and mineralogical analyses, besides the characterizationCharacterization of the samples regarding the granulometry, plasticity, and basic properties, in order to better investigation of these materials. The preliminary study showed that, in general, the essentially kaolinite ceramicCeramic mass tends to enrich with the addition of ornamental rock wastes due to the presence of flux oxides.

A. R. G. Azevedo, D. Cecchin, N. F. Luiz, V. F. Cruz, M. T. Marvila, E. B. Zanelato, S. N. Monteiro, G. Morais, J. Alexandre

Characterization of Hydrogels for Release of Cosmetic Assets Containing Nanoemulsions of Mandellic Acid in Different Concentrations of Pseudoboehmite

HydrogelHydrogel isCharacterization aRelease of cosmetic assets gelPseudoboehmite formedCosmetics by a three-dimensional network of hydrophilic polymers that are used as advanced asset release systems with good biocompatibility. The use of ionizing radiation to obtain hydrogels promotes cross-linking with the concomitant sterilization of the hydrogels. Aiming at the release of the mandelic acidMandelic acid (an active cosmeticCosmetics), hydrogelsHydrogel were prepared using different concentration ofPoly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and agar containing nanoparticles of the pseudoboehmitePseudoboehmite, mandelic acidMandelic acid and Palmarosa and Rosa Mosqueta oilsOil nanoemulsions, submitted to irradiation dose of 25 kGy. HydrogelsHydrogel containing 7.5 wt% PVPPoly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) showed better absorption, slip, odor results, and those with 10 wt% PVPPoly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) were found to be inadequate. Nanoemulsions were characterized by acidity, density and optical microscopy; hydrogelsHydrogel samples were put under isothermal dehydration with air entrainment and dehydration was examined as a function of time. The results showed that the composition of hydrogelsHydrogel is stable, and the increase of the concentration of pseudoboehmitePseudoboehmite in hydrogelsHydrogel sample containing Palmarosa oilOil suffers less dehydration and those containing the two oilsOil showed an increase in dehydration. The hydrogelsHydrogel obtained with 7.5 wt% of PVPPoly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and 3 wt% of pseudoboehmitePseudoboehmite, Rosa Mosqueta vegetable oilOil and mandelic acidMandelic acid are most suitable to be used in cosmeticCosmetics products.

Leila Figueiredo de Miranda, Isabella Tereza Ferro Barbosa, Terezinha Jocelen Masson, Antonio Hortêncio Munhoz Junior, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e Silva, Aleksandra Aparecida Arceno Gonçalves

Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of a Cuprite–Miargyrite Ore and Proposal of Elimination of Semimetals by Alkaline Bath

ComplexMineralogical characterization sulfidesCuprite such as pyrargyritePyrargyrite and miargyriteMiargyrite containSemimetals importantAlkaline bath concentrations of silver. However, the presence of semimetalsSemimetals in its structure hinders recoveryRecovery by traditional methods. The present study shows the characterizationCharacterization of a cupriteCuprite mineral with miargyrite inclusions, with the purpose of proposing the oxidationOxidation and elimination of the antimony contained in the sulfosalt by means of an alkaline bathAlkaline bath. The chemical characterizationChemical characterization of the mineral sample reported the presence of Cu (58.6% Wt), Ag (4.4% Wt), Sb (3.8% Wt), As (1.1% Wt), and Zn (0.2% Wt). The composition of the majority species was identified by the X-ray Diffraction (XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD)) technique, whereby it was confirmed that ore matrix corresponds to Cu2O [96-900-5770] and AgSbS2 [96-900-2734]. Both species were identified using the Polarizing Light Microscopy (PLM) technique, and the elemental relation presented in the mapping was obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Dispersive Energy Analysis (SEM-EDS). Both the metallic content and the trace species were corroborated by the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique.

Aislinn Teja Ruiz, Kinardo Flores Castro, Migue Pérez Labra, Martin Reyes Perez, Elia G. Palacios Beas, Víctor Esteban Reyes Cruz, Julio Cesar Juárez Tapia

Chemical Characterization and Mineralogical Analysis of Mining-Metallurgical Tailing from the State of Morelos

The benefit of noble metals, such as silver contained in mining-metallurgical waste, is considered a challenge for the metallurgist because they are low-grade minerals, fine granulometry, and complex minerals by their refractoriness. To address this problem, a tailings characterizationCharacterization of the state of Morelos was carried out, using techniques such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Induction Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry that gave similar silver concentrations of 104.8 and 106 g ton−1, respectively. In addition, a XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD) study was carried out, which identified the presence of Xancotonite, in addition to Cu and Fe sulfides, and both species are contained in a silicon matrix. To abound in the mineralogical study, samples were observed in optical microscopy revealing mainly pyrite associated with quartz, sphaleriteSphalerite, arsenopyrite, and some particles with the appearance of a sulfosal, which were confirmed through SEM since elements such as S, Ag, As, and Sb were revealed through microanalysis to different particles.

Jesús Iván Martínez Soto, Aislinn Michelle Teja Ruiz, Martin Reyes Perez, Migue Pérez Labra, Víctor Esteban Reyes Cruz, José A. Cobos Murcía, Gustavo Urbano Reyes, Julio Cesar Juárez Tapia

Development and Characterization of a Luminescent Coating for Asphalt Pavements

InCharacterization the present study, the performance of a photoluminescent asphalt coatingAsphalt coating made from recycled expanded polystyreneExpanded polystyrene (EPS) and strontium aluminateStrontium aluminate particles deposited on asphalt pavements was characterized and evaluated, in order to give an alternative use to the problem which represents the large volumes of ESP in landfills worldwide. This study used two solvent mixtures for the degradation of recycled EPS: ethyl acetate and acetone. The characterizationCharacterization was conducted using scanning electron microscopy and tensile and shear tests. The purpose of this work was to develop a coating with particles that absorb light from the sun and became activated during the night. It is expected that this coating can be used in the demarcation of roads in order to improve road safety, reduce energy consumption at night, and give aesthetics to the roads, producing artificial lighting that does not generate electricity consumption.

Elkin I. Gutiérrez, Henry A. Colorado

Effect of Alloying Elements on Age Hardening and Coarsening of β′ Precipitates in Isothermally Aged Fe–Ni–Al Based Alloys

Precipitation and coarsening processes of Fe-10 at.% Ni-15 at.% Al, Fe-10 at.% Ni-15 at.% Al-1 at.% Cr, and Fe-10 at.% Ni-15 at.% Al-1 at.% Cu alloys were carried out during isothermal agingAging at temperatures of 750, 850, and 950 °C using experimental and numerical analysisNumerical analysis methods. Thermo-CalcThermo-Calc numerical results indicated that the Cu addition promoted higher volume fraction of β′ precipitatesPrecipitate, which caused better response to the age hardening than the other two alloys. The coarsening resistance was also detected to be higher for the Cu-containing alloy in comparison with the other alloys because of its lower solubility and volume diffusion in the ferrite matrix. The Cu and Cr alloying elements were observed to be located in the precipitatePrecipitate and matrix, respectively, according to their expected thermodynamic behavior.

Victor M. Lopez-Hirata, Hector J. Dorantes-Rosales, Nicolas Cayetano-Castro, Maribel L. Saucedo-Muñoz, Jose D. Villegas-Cardenas

Effect of Different Ti-Sn Intermetallic Compounds Addition on Synthesis of Ti2SnC by Self-Propagating High-Temperature Combustion Technique

The higher purity of Ti2SnCTi2SnC ternary compounds has been successfully synthesized by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) technique with elemental Ti, Sn, C, and some different Ti-Sn intermetallic compounds powders as raw materials. The molar ratio of Ti/Sn/C was set 2:1:1. The results show that the additions of Ti5Sn3Ti5Sn3 and Ti2SnTi2Sn play a different role in the synthesis of Ti2SnCTi2SnC and the optimum addition content are both 20%. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanismReaction mechanism for the formation of Ti2SnCTi2SnC in the system is confirmed that the Ti5Sn3Ti5Sn3 intermetallic compound reacts with TiC to form Ti2SnCTi2SnC , rather than Ti2SnTi2Sn . And Ti2SnCTi2SnC will partly decompose into Ti5Sn3Ti5Sn3 and TiC at higher temperatures.

Hongyan Sun, Xin Kong, Guiyang Liu

Dynamic Mechanical Behaviour of Lean Duplex Stainless Steel 2101

The effect of the history of plastic deformation on the mechanical response of hot rolled Lean Duplex Stainless SteelSteel 2101 (LDSS2101LDSS2101) was investigated at high strain rates. Samples of LDSS2101LDSS2101 were quasi-statically compressed up to 25% strain to introduce an intermediate state of plastic deformation before high strain rate compressionCompression. Microstructural analyses were conducted using optical microscopy to correlate the mechanical responses with microstructural evolution. Results show that the dynamicDynamics yield stress of LDSS2101LDSS2101 increases with pre-deformation. However, significant work-softening was also observed at high strain rates. Microstructural analyses of LDSS2101LDSS2101 revealed the phase transformationsPhase transformation which likely affect the mechanical response. Our findings support the use of LDSS2101LDSS2101 in applications that involve a combination of serial quasi-static and dynamicDynamics loadings.

E. C. Yeo, J. P. Escobedo-Diaz, A. A. H. Ameri

Capillary Absorption Evaluation of Different Mortars Applied in Civil Construction

The absorption by capillarity is one of the main characteristics of the mortarsMortar, connected directly to the internal flow of water through their poresPores and consequently their durabilityDurability over time. The objective of this work is to evaluate the influence of the conditions of the materials, as the granulometry of the sand, in the internal capillary flow of cement- and lime-based mortarMortar, according to the Brazilian standard. Thus, prismatic specimens (4 × 4 × 16 cm) with sands of different particle sizes (Dmax = 1.2 and 2.4 mm) were made, evaluating the capillary absorption and the capillary coefficient of the mortarsMortar with 1:1:6 (cement: lime: sand), following the Brazilian regulations. The results showed that the larger the average grain size, the greater the number of voids indicating an increase in the capillary flow, damaging applications of these mortarsMortar in construction.

A. R. G. Azevedo, M. T. Marvila, J. P. Reis, E. B. Zanelato, A. L. F. Manhães, S. N. Monteiro, L. G. Pedroti, B. C. Mendes, N. A. Cerqueira, V. Souza

Fundamental Study on Wettability of Pure Metal by Liquid Sodium

Liquid sodiumLiquid sodium is used as aWettability coolant of a fast reactor owing to its high thermal conductivityThermal conductivity and high melting temperature. WettabilityWettability is an important property for designing the apparatus of the fast reactor. It is well known that the wettabilityWettability of liquid sodiumLiquid sodium changes owing to factors such as surface roughness and type of metal. This study proposes an atomic interaction between metal and liquid sodiumLiquid sodium related to wettabilityWettability. The purpose of this study is to understand the wettabilityWettability of pure metal by liquid sodiumLiquid sodium by using both experimental and theoretical approaches. High-purity metal plates of titanium, vanadium, iron, nickelNickel copperCopper, and molybdenum were used in the experiment. WettabilityWettability was evaluated using the contact angleContact angle obtained using the tangent method, and simple surface models were constructed for theoretical calculation. The contact angleContact angle was evaluated using two kinds of atomic bonds, and the result showed a relation between the contact angleContact angle and the atomic bond.

Jun-ichi Saito, Hideo Shibutani, Yohei Kobayashi

How to Measure High-Temperature Heat Capacity Reliably by Drop Calorimetry

High-temperature heat capacity measurements can be a very powerful means to investigate and understand the properties of materials, and high-temperature heat capacity values are also the key thermodynamic data can be used for calculating phase diagramPhase diagram, chemical reaction, and multi-phase equilibrium. As one of the most promising method, drop calorimetry has attached much attention during the past years due to its special 3D thermal sensor, which provides more accurate measurement of high-temperature heat capacity. All the subsequent insightful analyses and further discussion should be based on correct experimental data. A few critical concerns about high-temperature heat capacity measurements by drop calorimetry were summarized in this study. Various possibilities in the measurements will be given to show how much the experimental data deviated from their exact values, and those concerns should be taken seriously during actual measurements in order to obtain reliable high-temperature heat capacity values. The sample propertiesSample property such as water absorption capability, particle size, weight test, surface roughness are critical for Drop calorimetry. The stable room temperature is essential for measuring heat content of the sample. Various integration methods should be carefully considered and selected when face the different heat flow types before and after the Drop test.

Guishang Pei, Junyi Xiang, Lilian Yang, Dapeng Zhong, Gang Li, Feifei Pan, Xuewei Lv

Improvement Properties of Polypropylene by Graphene Oxide Incorporation

Due to the remarkable properties of graphene oxideGraphene oxide (GO) and its possibility of functionalization, GOGraphene oxide has been used in many applications such as nanocompositesNanocomposite. GOGraphene oxide nanosheets have been shown to improve the properties of the polypropylenePolypropylene (PP) matrix, for instance, its strength, gas barrier, thermal, and electrical conductivity. As PP has relatively low cost and varied applications, this work aims to study the changes in its thermal, morphological, and mechanical propertiesMechanical properties, due to the incorporation of GOGraphene oxide in the PP matrix. GOGraphene oxide was synthesized from graphite by a modified Hummers method. The nanocompositesNanocomposite PP/GOGraphene oxide with 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 wt% of GOGraphene oxide in the PP matrix were obtained using a twin-screw extruder and an injection molding machine via a melt blending process. The nanocompositesNanocomposite PP/GOGraphene oxide were characterized by FE-SEM and Izod impact test. In addition, the GOGraphene oxide nanosheets were also characterized by Raman spectroscopy, ATR-FTIRFourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), FE-SEM, and XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD), therewith correlation between properties was discussed.

Tatiane Yumi Tatei, Eric Hossein Fontes, Renan Paes Moreira, Francisco Valenzuela Días, Rene R. Oliveira, Vijaya Rangari, Esperidiana A. B. Moura

Influence of Sealing Mortar in the Strength of Compression of the Structural Masonry Ceramic

SeekingStructural masonry ceramic to reduce costs, one of the constructive alternatives that have been employed in Brazil is structural masonry. In this study, the influence of the mortarMortar on the strength of the masonry was analyzed by two block prisms. The thickness of the joint was varied in five levels and the unit used was the ceramicCeramic structural block 14 × 19 × 29 cm. After the 28 days of age of the prisms, their resistance to simple compressionCompression and the modules of longitudinal deformation were determined. According to the results of the average resistance of the samples, the resistance of the prism is inversely proportional to the thickness of the mortarMortar. However, after analysis of variance tests, it was concluded that the resistance of the prism to the thicknesses of 10, 15, and 20 mm are significantly equal; the same was concluded for the grouping of the thicknesses of 15, 20, and 25 mm.

M. T. Marvila, A. R. G. Azevedo, J. Alexandre, R. P. Oliveira, M. P. Oliveira, E. B. Zanelato, S. N. Monteiro

Influence of the Reduced Graphene Oxide Incorporation on Properties of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of incorporation of the reduced graphene oxideGraphene oxide on properties of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) . The incorporation of 0.5 and 1.5 wt% of RGOReduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) into ABSAcrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) matrix was carried out by melting extrusion process using a twin-screw extruder and injection molding machine. The properties of ABSAcrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) /RGOReduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) nanocompositeNanocomposite samples were investigated by tensile and impact Izod tests, FE-SEM, and XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results showed that the incorporation of small amount of RGOReduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) into ABSAcrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) matrix led to obtaining of polymeric nanocompositeNanocomposite with superior mechanical propertiesMechanical properties when compared with original properties of ABSAcrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) matrix.

Bianca S. Santos, Andre L. N. Inácio, Suellen S. Bartolomei, Taise B. S. Silva, Karina L. S. Carmo, Rene R. Oliveira, Esperidiana A. B. Moura

Inhibition of Flame Propagation in Nanocomposites with Expanded Polystyrene Recycled Clay, Gypsum, and Titanium Dioxide

TheExpanded polystyrene largeClay amountGypsum ofTitanium dioxide plasticNanocomposite waste found in the environment, landfills, and dumps boost research into the recyclingRecycling of polymer materials, which could reduce the amount of polymer discarded. In Brazil, the sector that most consumes polymers is the civil construction that could consume recycled polymersRecycled polymer without concerns with the properties due to applications of low mechanical exigency. However, for applications in this sector, it is necessary that the materials have some resistance to the propagation of flames. This work discusses the flame retardanceFlame retardance in nanocompositesNanocomposite with recycled polystyrene matrix and particles of nanoargila, titanium dioxideTitanium dioxide, and gypsumGypsum. The results of the X-ray diffraction (XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD)), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and flammability test. The results showed that glycerol, added during recyclingRecycling, can plasticize recycled expanded polystyreneExpanded polystyrene while maintaining the flame resistance properties of the material with flame retardant. It can also be concluded that some particles may delay the propagation of the flame in the composite.

S. S. Bartolomei, E. A. B. Moura, H. Wiebeck

Investigating the Effect of Sintering Temperature on Structural and Tribological Properties of a Nanostructured Ti–20Nb–13Zr Alloy for Biomedical Applications

β-type Ti–20Nb–13Zr alloys with low Young’s modulusSINTERING TEMPERATURE wereBIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS prepared at different sinteringSintering temperatures (950, 1050, 1150, and 1250 °C). The morphological and structural characteristics of as-prepared samples were investigated by several methods. Wear tests were conducted using a ball-on-plate type oscillating tribometer under different applied loads (2, 10, and 20 N). The morphological characterizationCharacterization indicated that the mean porePores and crystallite size continuously decreased with increasing sintering temperatureSintering temperature to reach lowest values of 40 nm and 38 nm at 1250 °C, respectively. The relative density of the 1250 °C sintered sample was as high as 98.7%. Moreover, the higher sintering temperatureSintering temperature resulted in higher relative density and closed porosity of the sample. Both the friction coefficient and wear rate were lower in the sample sintered at 1250 °C as compared to other samples. This enhancement in tribological properties was attributed to a closed porosity.

Mamoun Fellah, Naouel Hezil, Karima Abderrahim, Mohammed Abdul Samad, Alex Montagne, Alberto Mejias, Alain Iost, Stephania Kossman, Timofey Chekalkin, Aleksei Obrosov, Sabine Weiss

Investigation on Mechanical and Thermal Behaviours of PBAT/PLA Blend Reinforced with Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets

TheGraphene oxide aim of this study was to process and investigate the changes in the mechanical and morphological properties of the biodegradable nanocompositesNanocomposite based on polybutylene adipate-co-terephthalatePBAT (PBAT)/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blendBlend (PBAT/PLA blendPBAT/PLA blend ) due to the incorporation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) nanosheets. The biodegradable polymeric nanocompositesNanocomposite were prepared by melting extrusion process using a twin-screw extruder machine. The influence of the RGOReduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) nanosheets incorporation on mechanical and thermal properties ofPBAT PBAT/PLA blendPBAT/PLA blend was investigated by tensile Thermogravimetric (TG), X-Ray diffraction (XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD) ), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile testTensile tests analysis. Results showed that incorporation of the small amount of RGOReduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) (0.1 wt.%) of RGOReduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) nanosheets in the blendBlend matrix ofPBAT PBAT/PLA resulted in an important gain of mechanical propertiesMechanical properties of the blendBlend . This result indicates that a very small amount of RGOReduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) nanosheets addition in the PBAT/PLA can lead to obtaining materials with superior properties suitable for several industrial applications.

Marcio R. X. Bartolomei, Karina H. S. Carmo, Bianca S. Santos, Suellen S. Bartolomei, Rene R. Oliveira, Esperidiana A. B. Moura

Iron Ore Fines Granulation in a New High Speed Mixing Granulator

A new type of mixing granulation equipment is proposed, which can improve the mixing degree of raw materials, improve the granulation efficiency, and have the function of “self-purification”. The results show that the particle size is uniform and chemical composition segregation of particles is decreased after granulation. The strength of the granules can be effectively improved to control the particle size distributionParticle size distribution of the particles. With the rotational speed increasing, the particles of +10 mm increase and the fractions of −1 mm are few. As the rotational speed is 70 rev. min−1, the median particle size D (50) of granules is the maximum value. The fractal dimensionFractal dimension tends to decrease gradually with the increase of rotating speed. It indicates that the particle size distributionParticle size distribution in the high speedHigh speed granulating stirring granulator is very concentrated. The particle size grading is very small and the fine powder particles mostly adhere to the mother particles.

Shanshan Wu, Zhongci Liu, Xuewei Lv

Leaching of Pre-Oxidated Pyrargyrite with Na2S2O5

Recently, MexicoLeaching hasPyrargyrite established itself as the largest producer of silver in the world; however, the minerals extracted have a very complex mineralogy. PyrargyritePyrargyrite presents problems of leachingLeaching with cyanideCyanide. For this reason, the effect of oxidationOxidation with metabisulfiteMetabisulfite prior to leachingLeaching with cyanideCyanide is studied. The characterizationCharacterization of the mineral confirmed the presence of a single phase of Ag3SbS3, identified in the pattern of DRXX-ray diffraction spectra (DRX) PDF 00-019-1135. The MEB–EDS analysis shows the elements of pyrargyritePyrargyrite, antimony 22.90, sulfur 17.4, and silver with 59.6%. From analysis by FTIRFourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), the presence of antimony oxides was found and the formation of sulfates. The leachingLeaching of silver with cyanideCyanide [0.03]M pre-oxidized with metabisulfiteMetabisulfite [0.105]M and 96 h, reaches a percentage of silver extraction of 25% in 68 h. The increase in the concentration of oxidizing agent at [0.210]M and the leachingLeaching time contributes to achieve recoveriesRecovery of 37%.

Vicente Gonzáles Martínez, Isabel Hernández Martínez, M. Reyes Pérez, M. Pérez Labra, J. C. Juárez Tapia, Iván A. Reyes Domínguez, Mizraim Uriel Flores Guerrero, Gustavo Urbano Reyes

Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Hybrid Composites Based on Recycled LDPE/EVA Blend Reinforced with Clay and Babassu Fiber Residues

Over the years the consumption of plastic products made of conventional polymers has produced a large amount of waste which has led to disposal problems worldwide. Among the alternatives to minimize these problems are reuse and recyclingRecycling practices. Then, the recyclingRecycling of plastic and the use of recycled materials to produce new materials reinforced with nanoparticles from natural resources can be an alternative to reduce inappropriate waste disposal. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the addition of clayClay and non-treated babassu fiber residues on the mechanical and morphological properties of composite based on recycled LDPE/EVA blendBlend . Composite materials containing 1–3 wt% of babassu residuesBabassu residues and 1 wt% of clayClay were prepared using a twin-screw extruder machine and flat die single extrusion process, in order to prepare hybrid compositesHybrid composite sheets. The sheets prepared by recycled LDPE/EVA blendBlend and its composites were characterized by tensile testsTensile tests , XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD) , and FE-SEM analysis and the correlation between properties was discussed.

Caroline S. Tamura, Mariana Arantes, Karina H. S. Carmo, Bianca S. Santos, Rene R. Oliveira, Esperidiana A. B. Moura

Preparation of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials from Precipitation Flotation Product

ThePreparation anode materialsAnode material forLithium ion battery lithium ionAnode material batteryPrecipitation flotation can be prepared from the heavy metal ionMetal-ions flotationFlotation product in the metal-containing wastewater. Porous Cu–Fe–metal organic frameworks (MOFs) were pyrolyzed and synthesized from precipitation flotationPrecipitation flotation product in this study. When treated as a self-template by pyrolysis of Cu–Fe–MOFs at 750 °C for 1.0 h in an air atmosphere, the porous composite oxidesComposite oxides containing CuFe2O4 and Fe2O3Fe2O3 were prepared and tested as anode materialsAnode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the composite oxidesComposite oxides released an initial discharge capacity of 1453.4 mAh g−1 at the current density of 100 mA g−1 and remain reversible capacity of 519.5 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles, together with superior cyclic stability and unique structure. The composite oxidesComposite oxides can be seen as to be a promising anode materialAnode material for LIBs. This work can realize the effective utilization of heavy metal resources from wastewater recyclingRecycling.

Huanhuan Miao, Wenjuan Wang, Yanfang Huang, Guihong Han

Processing and Characterization of Polyethylene-AgNPs Films—Biocide Effect

Low-density-polyethylenePolyethylene (LDPE) andCharacterization Linear-low-density-polyethylenePolyethylene (LLDPE) nanocompositesPolyethylene filmsNanocomposite containing silver nitrateSilver nitrate (AgNO3) and surfactant oleic acidOleic acid (AO) were manufactured viaBiocide extrusion and subsequently characterised. The films were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and infrared spectroscopy (FTIRFourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) ). Further, the antibacterial properties of the films were investigated against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria. The results indicated that LDPE nanocompositeNanocomposite films containing AgNPs have the potential to be used in antimicrobial packaging for food applications.

Washington Luiz Oliani, Luiz Gustavo Hiroki Komatsu, Ademar Benevolo Lugao, Vijaya Kumar Rangari, Duclerc Fernandes Parra

Production and Characterization of PBAT Reinforced with Clay and Graphene Oxide Nanosheets—A Comparative Study

The poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), a biodegradable polymerBiodegradable polymer , is among the most promising materials to be considered as environmentally friendly high performance biodegradable plastics. However, the mechanical propertiesMechanical properties of PBAT are not the best for several applications. According to the literature, the properties of the biodegradable polymerBiodegradable polymer can be improved by addition of a small amount of nanofillers, such as clayClay , silica, and graphene. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of the addition of Cloisite clayClay and graphene oxideGraphene oxide (GO) on the properties of flexible filmsFlexible Films based on PBAT matrix. The composite films based on PBAT with addition of Cloisite (2.0 wt%) and PBAT composite films with addition of Cloisite and GOGraphene oxide (0.1–0.2 wt%) were prepared by extrusion, using a twin-screw extruder and a flat die single extruder. The effects of the addition of Cloisite clayClay and graphene oxideGraphene oxide on mechanical and thermal properties of films were evaluated by mechanical and water absorption tests, FE-SEM, XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD) , and Raman analysis.

Robson S. Costa, Danielle Garcia Araujo, Marcio S. de Andrade, Rene R. Oliveira, Vijaya Rangari, Esperidiana A. B. Moura, Francisco Valenzuela Días

Study of Styrene Effect on Non-radiation Grafting of Vinyl Benzyl Chloride on to Polyethylene-Based Anion Exchange Membrane

AChloride non-radiationPolyethylene polyethylenePolyethylene-based anion exchange membrane (AEM) was synthesized by chemically grafting 4-vinylbenzyl chlorideChloride (VBC) onto it. The resulting AME with a 10% styrene addition has peak IEC value, 57% higher than the non-styrene AEM. Water uptake and mechanical propertiesMechanical properties were slightly enhanced with the presence of styrene. The addition of styrene improves the compatibility between VBC and low-density polyethylenePolyethylene due to the formation of compatibilizer of poly(styrene-co-VBC). These were evidenced by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, [1] H NMR, and Field Emission-SEM.

Di Huang, Jiann-Yang Hwang, Zhichao Chen

Study on the Separation of Zinc and Iron in Electric Arc Furnace Baghouse Dusts and Its Kinetics

In order to utilize theKinetics zinc–iron resources rich in the bag ash of a steelSteel mill’s electric furnace, the reaction rate and degree of zinc ferrite in the solid–solid reduction reaction are analyzed from the kineticKinetics point of view, and the electric furnace bag is treated by the carbon-containing pellet reduction roasting method. Ash, the effect of zinc–iron separation during the reduction process, and the comprehensive utilization method of product greening were studied. The results show that in the process of reduction of zinc and iron in the bag ash of electric furnace, the weight loss rate and dezincification rate are positively correlated with the increase of reduction temperatureReduction temperature and reduction timeReduction time within a certain range. Under the condition of not considering the metallization rate, the reduction temperatureReduction temperature of 1300 °C was determined, and the reduction rate of zinc in the electric bag ash was 98% when the reduction timeReduction time was 15 min. The research on the kineticsKinetics of reductive dezincification shows that under certain process conditions, the ratio of decarburization with fixed carbon proportions is relatively fast. At this time, the dezincification rate can reach more than 90%, and the zinc removal rate is 98%.

Zhao-ran Wang, Cheng-Cheng Huo, Yu-hong Zha, Can-hua Li

Synthesis and Characterization of BaTiO3 Doped with Eu3+ by the Reaction Solid-State Method

BariumCharacterization Titanate (BaTiO3BaTiO3) doped withEu3+ Eu3+ was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The milling of BaCO3, TiO2 and Eu2O3 was carried out in an agate mortarMortar with acetone as a control medium for 25 min and compositions of x = 0.001, 0.007, 0.05 and 0.1% by weight of Eu3+Eu3+. The precursor powders TiO2, BaCO3 and Eu2O3 were mixed and calcined at 800 ℃ for 8 h and sintered at 1200 ℃ for 5 h. X-ray diffraction results revealed the predominant ferroelectric tetragonal BaTiO3BaTiO3 phase for low compositions, and secondary phases (Eu2TiO5) for mixtures with high concentrations of Eu3+Eu3+. The X-ray mapping images showed a uniform distribution of Ti, Ba and Eu in the samples. The incorporation of Eu3+Eu3+ ions into the BaTiO3BaTiO3 system could greatly manifest dielectric properties and can find immense scope in electronic elements including ceramicCeramic capacitors.

J. P. Hernández-Lara, M. Pérez-Labra, F. R. Barrientos-Hernández, J. A. Romero-Serrano, A. Hernández-Ramírez, M. Reyes-Pérez, J. C. Juárez-Tapia, A. M. Teja-Ruiz, Víctor E. Reyes-Cruz, J. C. Ramírez-Castellanos

Synthesis and Characterization on Copper Oxide Anode of Lithium-Ion Battery

Ultra-thin CuO nanomaterialNanomaterials wasCharacterization easilyCopper prepared by calcining the copperCopper hydroxide precursor which was obtained from solution route. X-ray diffraction (XRDX-ray Diffraction (XRD)) and scanning electron microscopeScanning Electron Microscope (SEM) (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of annealed samples. The results demonstrate the material exists as uniform nanosheets with a nominal thickness of 5 nm. The electrochemical performances were measured and analyzed via cyclic voltammetric curves (CV), electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), charge/discharge curves, and cycling performances. The discharge capacity of the CuO nanosheets in the first cycle can achieve 826.7 mAh g−1 with the coulombic efficiency of 57.45%. The first cycle has a charge specific capacity of 475 mAh g−1. The charge capacity maintained 376.1 mAh g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1 even after 40 cycles.

Xuechun Han, Shuzhen Yang, Huina Sun, Yanfang Huang, Guihong Han

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