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About this book

This book proposes a new concept of “International Leadership with Chinese Characteristics” (ILCC) to interpret China’s role in global governance. The author illustrates how the concept of ILCC is built on the basis of the discussion of Chinese political culture and Chinese worldview of international relations and develops a four-step interpretive process as a guidance for conducting the empirical analysis of the ILCC. The book also shows how Chinese elites conceptually construct and practically implement the ILCC in four case studies – G20, BRICS, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), and Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
This chapter provides a comprehensive introduction regarding the ongoing parallel phenomena in contemporary international relations: China’s rise and its increasing participation in global governance on the one hand; and the weakening of the existing Western-based global governance in the form of crises of functionality, scope, legitimacy, and authority on the other hand. The two events have motivated a large number of scholars to hotly debate the relationship between the rise of China and the existing world order. By identifying the deficiencies of the mainstream Western-based IR theories on interpreting China’s impact on the existing world order, the chapter proposes a culture-oriented approach to China’s role in contemporary international relations.
Peng Bo

Chapter 2. The Concept of ‘International Leadership with Chinese Characteristics’

Abstract
In line with the culture-oriented approach, the major contribution of this chapter is to establish a new concept of “International Leadership with Chinese Characteristics” (ILCC). More specifically, this chapter identifies that “the logic of relationality,” derived from three Chinese IR-related political culture (Tianxia, Humane Authority, and the State of Equilibrium and Harmony), is the core element of shaping the Chinese worldview of IR that is characterized by three major features of relationality, processuality, and inclusiveness. Based on the Chinese worldview of IR and the logic of relationality, the chapter conceptualizes the ILCC as a triad framework consisting of facilitative leadership, constructive leadership, and exemplary leadership. This conceptual framework is regarded as an interpretive approach to understanding China’s influence on the existing architecture and process of global governance.
Peng Bo

Chapter 3. Empirical Studies of “International Leadership with Chinese Characteristics” in Global Governance

Abstract
This chapter discusses the layout of the empirical analysis of ‘International Leadership with Chinese Characteristics’ (ILCC). First of all, G20, BRICS, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), and Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) are selected as four empirical cases due to their strong relevance to both China’s international leadership and global governance. Then, with respect to the operationalization of these four cases, role theory provides two empirical lenses—national role conception (NRC) and national role performance (NRP)—to explore and verify the manifestation of the ILCC. Accordingly, textual analysis and practice analysis are identified as two major empirical methods. Based on the above discussion of the selection and operationalization of cases, this chapter develops a four-step interpretative process for empirically analyzing the ILCC.
Peng Bo

Chapter 4. Case I: Empirical Analysis of the ILCC in the G20

Abstract
This chapter applies the concept of ILCC to interpret China’s role in the G20. By investigating China’s decision-makers’ discourse and China’s institutional, ideational, material, and policy practice in the G20, it depicts how China over the years has succeeded to put more development issues on the agenda and advocated the voice of developing countries in global governance. The chapter argues that China’s construction and practice of facilitative leadership and constructive leadership are more prominent than China’s exemplary leadership in the case of G20.
Peng Bo

Chapter 5. Case II: Empirical Analysis of the ILCC in the BRICS

Abstract
This chapter applies the concept of ILCC to interpret China’s role in the G20. By investigating China’s decision-makers’ discourse and China’s institutional, ideational, material, and policy practice in the G20, it depicts how China over the years has succeeded to put more development issues on the agenda and advocated the voice of developing countries in global governance. The chapter argues that China’s construction and practice of facilitative leadership and constructive leadership are more prominent than China’s exemplary leadership in the case of G20.
Peng Bo

Chapter 6. Case III: Empirical Analysis of the ILCC in the SCO

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the role of ILCC on the development of China’s major regional initiatives, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), from its diversification of cooperative areas during 2008–2012 to its deepening cooperation during 2013–2016 and onto its contributions to global governance during 2017–2018. This chapter suggests that it is the largest China-led regional organization and that China is central within it. It has advanced from regional cooperation to global governance but its expansion to South Asia in 2017 complicates regional development. The chapter argues that the three elements of ILCC have been well constructed and implemented by China in the case of SCO.
Peng Bo

Chapter 7. Case IV: Empirical Analysis of the ILCC in the BRI

Abstract
This chapter studies the most extensive and recent China’s initiative—Belt and Road Initiative—through the concept of ILCC. It argues that BRI is both of importance to global governance than regional development, and BRI builds on an innovative regionalism advanced by ILCC. However, its inter-regional framework is challenged by the decline of multilateralism globally as well as competition from other global and regional powers, such as the US, Japan, and India. The chapter still suggests that since BRI is the first China’s active initiative, rather than a mere passive response, on shaping the process and architecture of regional cooperation and global governance. Thus, it argues that the BRI can be the best reflection to the ILCC, and the three elements of the ILCC are well constructed and implemented by China in the case of BRI.
Peng Bo

Chapter 8. Conclusion

Abstract
In the conclusion chapter, the book argues that the “International Leadership with Chinese Characteristics” (ILCC) provides a useful conceptual tool and is a contribution to supplement the existing Western-based IR concepts and theories on interpreting China’s role in international relations. By conducting the empirical verification of the ILCC and making a comparative assessment of the strength and weakness of the ILCC among the four selected cases, this chapter supposes that the different extent to which the ILCC is manifested in various issue-areas. However, the conclusion also points out the explanatory limitations of the ILCC in terms of its inapplicability of analyzing the issues related to China’s national core interests including national sovereignty, national security, and territorial integration.
Peng Bo

Backmatter

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