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2022 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

Citizenship and State Continuity: The Example of Latvia

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Abstract

This contribution reviews the practical expression of the principle of continuity of citizenship in the context of the principle of state continuity with examples from the practice of Latvia. The continuity of citizenship is a consequence of state continuity. In the case of Latvia, the international community has recognized its claim regarding state continuity. Despite fifty years of occupation under the Soviet yoke, Latvia has retained its identity and status as an international legal person—the same state that was founded on November 18, 1918. It follows that citizenship of Latvia, as established by the August 23, 1919 Law on Citizenship, has likewise existed without interruption. After regaining independence, Latvia did not ascertain its body of citizens de novo. Rather, it legally established the continued existence of its body of citizens, taking into account the August 23, 1919 Law on Citizenship and the principle of ius sanguinis. This contribution considers the existence of Latvian citizenship during the Soviet occupation of the state by discussing the actions taken by the Latvian diplomatic and consular corps abroad to preserve the body of Latvian citizens, and then evaluating them from a legal standpoint.

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Footnotes
1
Border Treaty (2018), para. 32–34, pp. 229–238. See more: Ziemele (2005); Krūma and Plepa (2016), pp. 18–20.
 
2
The Constitutional Court, through a legal analysis of the events of 1940 in its Case No. 2007-10-0102, has concluded that the Soviet Union violated both specific norms of international treaty law and the customary international law. The international treaty norms binding upon the Soviet Union and Latvia were included in the August 11, 1920 Peace Treaty between Latvia and the Soviet Union, the August 27, 1928 Kellogg–Briand Pact, February 5, 1932 Treaty of Non-Aggression between Latvia and the Soviet Union, July 3, 1933 London Convention for the Definition of Aggression and the October 5, 1939 Soviet–Latvian Mutual Assistance Treaty. International customary law, in turn, provided for a prohibition on the use of force and threats of force, a prohibition of annexing other states by force or using threats of force, as well as the principle of ex iniuria ius non oritur that prohibited the recognition of occupation and annexation of other states as legal under international law. See more: Border Treaty (2018), para. 22–29, pp. 211–226.
 
3
Border Treaty (2018), para. 29.2, p. 226.
 
4
Hough (1985), pp. 391–446.
 
5
Crawford (2006), pp. 689–690; Crawford and Boyle, pp. 88–89.
 
6
Ziemele (2009), p. 107.
 
7
Augstākās tiesas Administratīvo lietu departamenta 2018.gada 22.jūnija spriedums lietā Nr.SKA-237/2018 [Judgment of the Department of Administrative Cases of the Supreme Court in case no. SA-1/2014 of February 12, 2014], http://​www.​at.​gov.​lv/​downloadfile/​4383.
 
8
For example: Sajó and Uitz (2019), p. 84.
 
9
The relevant elements are legally set in Article 1 of the December 26, 1933 Montevideo Convention:
The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications:
a.
a permanent population;
 
b.
a defined territory;
 
c.
government; and
 
d.
capacity to enter into relations with the other states.
 
See: Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, https://​www.​jus.​uio.​no/​english/​services/​library/​treaties/​01/​1-02/​rights-duties-states.​xml. See also: Crawford (2006), pp. 45–62.
 
10
Kelsen (2006), p. 207.
 
11
Dišlers (1930), pp. 12–18.
 
12
Wilson (1918), p. 8.
 
13
International Court of Justice. Nottebohm Case (Liechtenstein v. Guatemala), Judgment of April 6th, 1955, p. 23, https://​www.​icj-cij.​org/​public/​files/​case-related/​18/​018-19550406-JUD-01-00-EN.​pdf.
 
15
Kučs (2017), pp. 312–315.
 
16
Dišlers (1930), p. 17.
 
17
Latvijas pilsoņiem! [To the citizens of Latvia!]. Pagaidu Valdības Vēstnesis [Provisional Government Herald], 14th December, 1918, No. 1, p. 1.
 
18
Dišlers (1930), p. 77.
 
19
Latvijas Tautas padome [Latvian People’s Council]. Rīga: Satversmes sapulces izdevums [Edition of Constitutional Assembly], 1920, pp. 8–9.
 
20
Dual Citizenship (2018), para. 12.1, p. 521.
 
21
Dišlers (1930), p. 77.
 
22
Likums par pavalstniecību [Law on Citizenship]. Valdības Vēstnesis [Government Herald], 5th September, 1919, No. 31, p. 1.
 
23
Ibidem. See also: Latvijas Tautas padome [Latvian People’s Council]. Rīga: Satversmes sapulces izdevums [Edition of Constitutional Assembly], 1920, pp. 228–243.
 
24
Dišlers (1930), p. 77. See also: Dual Citizenship (2018), para. 12.1, p. 521.
 
25
Dišlers (1930), p. 16.
 
26
Kučs (2015), p. 141.
 
27
Dišlers (1930), p. 16.
 
28
Levits (2012), p. 13.
 
29
Ziemele (2005), p. 166.
 
30
Levits (2012), p. 13.
 
31
Blūzma (2000), pp. 321–322.
 
32
Augstākās padomes 1991.gada 15. oktobra lēmums “Par Latvijas Republikas pilsoņa tiesību atjaunošanu un naturalizācijas pamatnoteikumiem” [Decision of the Supreme Council 15th October, 1991 “On the Restoration of the Rights of the Citizens of the Republic of Latvia and the Basic Principles of Naturalisation”], https://​likumi.​lv/​ta/​id/​69914-par-latvijas-republikas-pilsonu-tiesibu-atjaunosanu-un-naturalizacijas-pamatnoteikumiem​. See: Ziemele (2005), p. 155.
 
33
Levits (2012), p. 13; Kučs (2017), p. 316.
 
34
Augstākās tiesas Administratīvo lietu departamenta 2018.gada 22.jūnija spriedums lietā Nr.SKA-237/2018 [Judgment of the Department of Administrative Cases of the Supreme Court in case no. SKA-237/2018, 22 June, 2018], para. 24, http://​www.​at.​gov.​lv/​downloadfile/​5466.
 
35
Levits (1991).
 
36
Dual Citizenship (2018), para. 13.1, p. 522. See more: Bilmanis (1944) and Lerhis (2015).
 
37
Border Treaty (2018), para. 34.1, pp. 235–236.
 
38
Lerhis (2017) and Beķere (2017). See more: McHugh and Pacy (2001).
 
39
This is especially true for the Heads of Latvian diplomatic and consular service—Kārlis Zariņš (1879–1963; Head of Service from 1940–1963), Arnolds Spekke (1887–1972; Head of Service from 1963–1970) and Anatols Dinbergs (1911–1993; Head of Service from 1970–1991). See more: On guard for Latvia’s statehood. Latvia’s Foreign Service Staff in Exile During the Years of Occupation, June 17, 1941–August 21, 1991. https://​www.​mfa.​gov.​lv/​en/​about-the-ministry/​history-of-the-foreign-service/​on-guard-for-latvia-s-statehood-latvia-s-foreign-service-staff-in-exile-during-the-years-of-occupation-june-17-1941-august-21-1991/​2-uncategorised/​4654-on-guard-for-latvia-s-statehood-latvia-s-foreign-service-staff-in-exile-during-the-years-of-occupation-june-17-1941-august-21-1991.
 
40
Augstākās tiesas Administratīvo lietu departamenta 2018.gada 22.jūnija spriedums lietā Nr.SKA-237/2018 [Judgment of the Department of Administrative Cases of the Supreme Court in case no. SKA-237/2018, 22 June, 2018], para. 10, http://​www.​at.​gov.​lv/​downloadfile/​5466.
 
41
Rinkēvičs (2020), p. 14.
 
42
Augstākās tiesas Administratīvo lietu departamenta 2018.gada 22.jūnija spriedums lietā Nr.SKA-237/2018 [Judgment of the Department of Administrative Cases of the Supreme Court in case no. SKA-237/2018 of June 22, 2018], para. 10, http://​www.​at.​gov.​lv/​downloadfile/​5466.
 
43
Dual Citizenship (2018), para. 13.1, p. 523.
 
44
Augstākās tiesas Administratīvo lietu departamenta 2018.gada 22.jūnija spriedums lietā Nr.SKA-237/2018 [Judgment of the Department of Administrative Cases of the Supreme Court in case no. SKA-237/2018 of June 22, 2018], para. 11, http://​www.​at.​gov.​lv/​downloadfile/​5466.
 
45
Dual Citizenship (2018), para. 15.2.2, p. 533.
 
46
Dual Citizenship (2018), para. 13.2., p. 525.
 
47
Dual Citizenship (2018), para. 13.3, pp. 525–526.
 
48
Augstākās tiesas Administratīvo lietu departamenta 2018.gada 22.jūnija spriedums lietā Nr.SKA-237/2018 [Judgment of the Department of Administrative Cases of the Supreme Court in case no. SKA-237/2018 of June 22, 2018], para. 12, http://​www.​at.​gov.​lv/​downloadfile/​5466.
 
49
See more: Dual Citizenship (2018), para. 13.2, pp. 524–525.
 
50
Likums par pavalstniecību [Law on Citizenship]. Valdības Vēstnesis [Government Herald], 5th September, 1919, No. 31, p. 1.
 
51
Likums par ārzemju pasēm [Law on Travelling Passports]. Valdības Vēstnesis [Government Herald], 26th February, 1936, No. 47, p. 1.
 
52
Dual Citizenship (2018), para. 13.4, p. 527.
 
53
Augstākās tiesas Administratīvo lietu departamenta 2018.gada 22.jūnija spriedums lietā Nr.SKA-237/2018 [Judgment of the Department of Administrative Cases of the Supreme Court in case no. SKA-237/2018 of June 22, 2018], para. 15, http://​www.​at.​gov.​lv/​downloadfile/​5466. See also: Levits (2018).
 
54
Likums par pavalstniecību [Law on Citizenship]. Valdības Vēstnesis [Government Herald], 5th September, 1919, No. 31, p. 1.
 
55
Dual Citizenship (2018), para. 13.4, pp. 526–527.
 
56
Jundzis (2018). See more: Deksnis and Jundzis (2015).
 
57
See more: Border Treaty (2018).
 
59
Augstākās padomes 1990.gada 4.maija deklarācija “Par Latvijas Republikas neatkarības atjaunošanu” [Decision of the Supreme Council 4th May, 1990 “On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia”], https://​likumi.​lv/​ta/​id/​75539-par-latvijas-republikas-neatkaribas-atjaunosanu. See more: Levits (2000).
 
60
Constitutional Law “On the Statehood of the Republic of Latvia”, https://​likumi.​lv/​ta/​en/​en/​id/​69512-law-on-the-statehood-of-the-republic-of-latvia. See more: Ziemele (2005), pp. 32–35.
 
61
Deksnis and Jundzis (2015), pp. 89–90.
 
62
Jelāgins (1997).
 
63
Border Treaty (2018), para. 61, pp. 272–274.
 
64
Augstākās padomes 1991.gada 15. oktobra sēdes stenogramma [Minutes of the Meeting of the Supreme Council on 15th October, 1991], https://​www.​saeima.​lv/​steno/​AP_​steno/​1991/​st_​911015.​htm.
 
65
Dual Citizenship (2018), para. 14, pp. 527–530.
 
66
Augstākās padomes 1991.gada 15. oktobra lēmums “Par Latvijas Republikas pilsoņa tiesību atjaunošanu un naturalizācijas pamatnoteikumiem” [Decision of the Supreme Council 15th October, 1991 “On the Restoration of the Rights of the Citizens of the Republic of Latvia and the Basic Principles of Naturalisation”], https://​likumi.​lv/​ta/​id/​69914-par-latvijas-republikas-pilsonu-tiesibu-atjaunosanu-un-naturalizacijas-pamatnoteikumiem​. See: Ziemele (2005), p. 155.
 
67
Kučs (2017), pp. 316–317.
 
68
Levits (2012), p. 13. See more: Ziemele (2005), pp. 155–156.
 
69
Ziemele (2012); Krūma and Plepa (2016), pp. 151–152.
 
70
Augstākās padomes 1991.gada 27.novembra lēmums “Par Latvijas Republikas Augstākās Padomes 1991.gada 15.oktobra lēmuma “Par Latvijas Republikas pilsoņa tiesību atjaunošanu un naturalizācijas pamatnoteikumiem” piemērošanu ārvalstīs dzīvojošajiem Latvijas Republikas pilsoņiem” [Decision of the Supreme Council 27th November, 1991 “On application of 15 October 1991 Decision of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Latvia “On the Restoration of the Rights of the Citizens of the Republic of Latvia and the Basic Principles of Naturalisation” to the Citizens of the Republic of Latvia Residing Abroad”], https://​likumi.​lv/​ta/​id/​70516-par-latvijas-republikas-augstakas-padomes-1991-gada-15-oktobra-lemuma-par-latvijas-republikas-pilsonu-tiesibu-atjaunosanu-un-naturalizacijas-pamatnoteikumiem​-piemerosanu-arvalstis-dzivojosajiem-latvijas-republikas-pilsoniem.
 
71
Dual Citizenship (2018), para. 14.2, p. 528.
 
73
Kučs (2017), p. 318.
 
74
Ziemele (2012).
 
75
Krūma and Plepa (2016), p. 152.
 
76
Dual Citizenship (2018), para. 11, pp. 520–521.
 
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Metadata
Title
Citizenship and State Continuity: The Example of Latvia
Author
Jānis Pleps
Copyright Year
2022
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-97917-1_9

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