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About this book

This book provides an overview of clean fuels for sustainable mobility by highlighting on world energy outlook, technic-economic assessment, and the key aspects of the fuel production processes and their possible large impact on various transportation sector segments. The content initially deals with different types of alternative fuels, for example, ethanol, methanol, butanol, hydrogen, biogas, biodiesel, etc. It also focuses on current trends in the automotive sector. Various aspects of the clean fuels production process and formulation to improve the combustion characteristics and efficiency toward sustainability are considered. Some of the important fuels like hydrogen, ammonia, natural gas etc. are discussed in detail. This volume will be useful for the industrial and research community involved in fuels, combustion engines, and environmental research.

Table of Contents




Chapter 1. Introduction to Clean Fuels for Mobility

Mobility is one of the prime requirements in the modern world. Transportation scenario cannot be imagined without having automobiles and are an essential part of society. Exponential growth in the automobile and transportation sector, other problems have risen such as fuel scarcity, pollution etc. Petroleum fuel availability and supply is important for any country to sustain transportation. Heterogeneous distribution of fuel on earth’s crust is a challenge to make it available for every part of the world.
Gabriele Di Blasio, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Giacomo Belgiorno, Pravesh Chandra Shukla

Chapter 2. Sustainable Fuels in Private Transportation–Present and Future Potential

Global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions is one of the greatest challenges the world faces. Humanity is in the age of modern transportation, where a key issue is what can and should be used to fuel our vehicles. Fossil energy sources are limited; therefore, it is crucially important to research every possible alternative fuel. Ethanol offers a promising answer (mature technology, octane booster, less negative environmental effects, etc.) Biodiesel has similar characteristics for diesel engines, especially when used oils are recycled for production. Besides biofuels, further promising renewable alternatives are electricity, biogas, and green hydrogen. All of them provide advantages; however, they also have shortcomings. Regarding pros, reduced greenhouse gas emissions and their renewable nature are the most advantageous. Cons vary among these alternative fuels. In the case of the current biofuel generations, food vs fuel production is the major problem. Fast charging, a limited range, and the number of fueling stations are the Achilles heels of electric cars. Besides, the plug-in vehicle fleet still has a marginal share within the global vehicle stock. The growth of biofuels will outpace electricity even in the next decade. Green hydrogen has high production costs, while biogas production is limited by the available raw materials. Moreover, the use of these gases requires special pumps at gas stations, as well as the modifications of the vehicles’ fuel tanks. However, achieving higher sustainability in private transportation is essential. This subchapter provides an overview of these alternative fuels by showing their advantages and disadvantages and comparing them to fossil fuels.
Tamás Mizik

Chapter 3. Fuels for Sustainable Transport in India

The fossil fuels have a 98% share in the energy consumption in the Indian transport sector. The Indian transport sector contributes to 13.2% of CO2 emissions in India. In the quest for cleaner fuels for the surface transport sector, a number of transportation energy sources fueling the vehicles (based on Internal Combustion Engines) have emerged as suitable alternatives in the 21st Century through decades of continued research and development efforts. Fuels such as natural gas (Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), hydrogen, and biofuels have been the front runners as potential alternatives to crude oil-based gasoline and diesel. These alternative fuels for cleaner transport in India are detailed and compared on the basis of their physico-chemical properties, ignition characteristics, storage requirements, and safety parameters. The technical ‘availability’ of these fuels in the context of the Indian road transport is discussed as a segment of the broader analysis of these fuels under the 4A framework of Energy Security (Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability, and Affordability). These alternative fuels are characterized from two perspectives, i.e., fuel mix for the short to medium term use (during the energy transition in transport sector) and fuel mix for the long-term use (after the energy transition has taken place). These fuels driving the transport sector are also analyzed based on their use by two contrasting yet complementary segments, viz. passenger and freight. CNG and LPG are identified to be useful in the fuel mix for the passenger segment in the short to medium term future, while biodiesel is identified as a potential freight segment fuel in the similar timeframe. For the long-term future, ethanol is identified as a potential candidate for passenger segment, while LNG and Hydrogen are found to be suitable for the freight segment.
Kumar Saurabh, Rudrodip Majumdar

Biofuels for Sustainable Mobility


Chapter 4. Alternative Refinery Process of Fuel Catalytic Upgrade in Aqueous Media

There are severe disadvantages of using gasoline ether oxygenates (GEOs) in the refineries, in order the final fuels to be in accordance with the current specifications. GEOs disperse swiftly contaminating the environment, as well as being vastly persistent, owning to its high water solubility and volatility, its low biodegradability and its growing scale of use. An alternative fuel upgrade in aqueous media from refinery cuts could completely replace GEOs by producing in situ strong anti-knocking environmental friendly alcohol mixtures. The aforementioned process was successfully implemented by heterogenizing homogeneous catalysts, overcoming the separation difficulties of homogeneous catalysts and taking advantage of their very many benefits that are still kept inevitably apart from the petroleum industry. To that end, homogeneous catalysis is introducing to the downstream petroleum industry efficiently and effectively. The effects of reaction temperature and pressure in biphasic hydrogenation of a hydroformylated refinery cut catalyzed by Ru/P[m-C6H4SO3Na]3 complex, that was produced in situ by RuCl3 as catalyst precursor and P[m-C6H4SO3Na]3 as ligand, were thoroughly examined. Moreover, the Peng-Robinson 78 cubic equation of state, modified by the Twu’s alpha function along with the van der Waals mixing rules, was used in order to model and simulate the chemical engineering process. RuCl3/TPPTS catalyst proved to be suitable and effective for the proposed novel fuel upgrading process with high conversion of the hydroformylated fuel (98.9%). Taking into account the complication of the substrate composition and the groundbreaking characteristics of this alternative refinery process of fuel catalytic upgrade, the simulation model succeeded for the first time to develop a phase behavior of the fuel and achieved an adequate average absolute relative deviation from the experimental data offering the opportunity for scaling up the chemical process.
Nikolaos C. Kokkinos

Chapter 5. Ethanol Derived from Municipal Solid Waste for Sustainable Mobility

Rapid economic growth, especially in developing countries, directly impacts transport fuel demand, waste generation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Hence, there is an increasing need to supplement fossil fuel demand with sustainable alternative options while also addressing solid waste and GHG emissions. India generates the highest amount of annual municipal solid waste (MSW) (277 million tonnes out of the global 2.01 billion tonnes); this is estimated to double by 2050. This high MSW generation rate, inadequate management, unscientific landfilling and inefficient disposal practices is a serious concern to health and the environment. The organic fraction of MSW generated in India is estimated to be in the range of 40–60% and contains huge potential fuel value for waste to energy (WtE) options. Owning to the large availability of MSW and its associated environmental and social burdens, MSW for fuel production to support the nations’ sustainability commitments looks attractive, if done scientifically. Considering India as the case study, this chapter reviews the possible routes for converting MSW to useful automobile fuels. Additionally, through life cycle assessment (LCA), this chapter discusses the amount of fossil fuel substitution in the total mobility fuel mix by the MSW derived fuel. LCA evaluation revealed a net 85.03 kg CO2 eq. global warming potential, 0.184 mol H+ eq. acidification potential, 7.794 × 10–3 mol of N eq. eutrophication potential and 4.873 CTUh human toxicity potential, respectively, for ethanol production from 1 tonne of organic fraction of MSW. The findings can help assess the MSW utilization in a more scientific way wherein the benefits are assessed in terms of mitigation of GHG and environmental costs averted, in addition to foreign savings through the reduced import of fossil fuels. Few successful pilot projects as case studies will help getting several stakeholders together, which will be essential for taking this waste utilization option to a useful scale.
Mohd Mubashshir Naved, Amaanuddin M. Azad, Roshan Wathore, Hemant Bherwani, Nitin Labhasetwar

Chapter 6. Bioethanol from Wastes for Mobility: Europe on the Road to Sustainability

Currently, the world is facing an energy transition, with governments pushing for a switch from fossil to bio-based fuels. The transport sector is responsible for about 30% of the European energy consumption, which is still mainly obtained from burning fossil fuels, accounting for 25% of the greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, the European Union established a Renewable Energy Directive II, setting a target of 3.6% blending for advanced biofuels in 2030. The biomass-derived fuels can play an important role, particularly for medium and long distances, being considered one of the main drivers to achieve decarbonisation targets in the transport and mobility sector, recognised as a roadmap for carbon neutrality. Bioethanol is the most produced biofuel at an industrial scale level. However, it is mainly obtained from corn and sugarcane, competing directly with the food chain. Therefore, research focused mainly on ethanol production from lignocellulosic sources, the most abundant and cheapest form of biomass. This approach contributes to a more efficient waste management system according to the circular economy model. Within the European Union context, the predominant feedstock used in biorefineries comes from agricultural resources. The main disadvantage of these residues is related to seasonality. In countries such as Finland, Sweden, and Portugal, forestry-derived feedstocks dominate. Nevertheless, by-product and waste streams derived from other industrial sectors, namely dairy, brewery, pulp and paper, and food, have been evaluated. This chapter overviews the role of biofuels in the transport sector, with a particular focus on the European context. First, a brief introduction explains the main concepts and policies pushing the biofuels market. Then, the current scenario regarding bioethanol production from wastes in Europe is reviewed, listing the feedstocks and the biorefineries currently in operation. The particular case of Portugal and its potential for a successful transition to a bio-based economy is also discussed. Finally, some of the main challenges regarding the production of cellulosic ethanol were analysed. The main conclusions demonstrated that R&D and technological efforts should continue reducing production costs and making ethanol economically more competitive and attractive to investors. Investing in this area will support more technology implementation in the existing industrial plants. This is the only way to attain the EU targets regarding carbon neutrality for 2050, contributing to sustainability and circular economy.
Mariana S. T. Amândio, Jorge M. S. Rocha, Luísa S. Serafim, Ana M. R. B. Xavier

Chapter 7. Bio-derived and Waste Fats Use for the Production of Drop-In Fuels

The global energy transition has started and the mankind actively looking for new way to replace the fossil fuels based technology. This paradigm change is quite hard to accomplished due the many drawbacks related to a complete rethinking of the engines. So, a solid solution could be represented by the use of oil derived analogue fuels produced using renewable sources known as drop-in fuels. In this field, the thermal conversion of fats has played a main role due the easily conversion in hydrocarbon mixture very close to diesel fraction.
In this chapter, we overview the use of lipid as feedstock for the production of drop-in fuels through pyrolytic conversions. We overview the main mechanisms behind the cracking of fatty acids and triglycerides, providing a reference point for understanding the process described. We have also reported the most relevant achievement in this field. We included both the early studies and the most recent advancements. A section is also dedicated to catalytic conversions and upgrading to provide a solid background to the reader.
Mattia Bartoli, Mauro Giorcelli, Ruggero Vigliaturo, Pravin Jagdale, Massimo Rovere, Alberto Tagliaferro

Chapter 8. Biodiesel as a Clean Fuel for Mobility

Conventional fossil fuel sources are limited and their combustion leads to emissions. For these reasons, more eco-friendly alternative fuels are needed. Biodiesel has been known as a suitable alternative fuel for the last few decades. This fuel is produced from various sources including vegetable oils, animal fats, and waste oils, which are all renewable. The use of biodiesel in conventional diesel engines leads to a considerable reduction in PM, HC, and CO emissions. The use of biodiesel results in a significant reduction in PM, HC, and CO emissions, along with an insensible power loss, increase of fuel consumption, and rise of NOx emission in conventional CI engines. Besides, the engine performance parameters, including brake thermal efficiency, brake-specific fuel consumption, and braking power, are virtually maintained. This chapter properly examines the impacts of using biodiesel fuel in CI and LTC engines on the main parameters, such as combustion phase, combustion characteristics, fuel consumption, and power output. It is noteworthy that the use of the LTC combustion strategy is more useful compared to other methods. This method can significantly reduce PM and NOx production by up to 98% and 95%, respectively, while the reduction of the engine performance is inconsiderate. The most efficient mode of LTC combustion is the RCCI strategy. Using the RCCI combustion model may increase the level of CO and HC pollutants, but this can be simply controlled with some existing technologies. In general, the combination of biodiesel and RCCI combustion is useful both in terms of improving RCCI engine performance and in terms of solving the NOx challenge in biodiesel combustion.
Ayat Gharehghani, Amir Hossein Fakhari

Biogas for Sustainable Mobility


Chapter 9. Ammonia for Decarbonized Maritime Transportation

Carbon emissions are one of the important topics in maritime transportation recently since International Maritime Organization (IMO) implemented stricter regulations. IMO announced Initial Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Strategy in 2018 for decarbonization of maritime transportation. International shipping consumed 300 million tons of high carbon content fossil fuels annually and it is increasing year by year. Maritime transportation constitutes 3.1% of the total global CO2 emissions which depends on the usage of high carbon content fossil fuels. The Initial GHG Strategy aims to reach zero-carbon shipping in the future. One way to achieve this aim is the usage of alternative fuels with zero-carbon content. Ammonia is one of the alternative fuels that can be either used for fuel cells on ships and at marine diesel engines. Ammonia has a carbon-free and sulfur-free structure and it can be combusted by the dual-fuel combustion concept at marine diesel engines as same as other alternative marine fuels. In this chapter, a review study is conducted on ammonia to show its importance for decarbonized maritime transportation. The outcomes of the chapter reveal that although there are some barriers to ammonia as a marine fuel, the existing experience of the maritime industry, supply chains and infrastructures of fertilizer industry, low modification requirement on engines, and achievement of significantly lower CO2 and soot emissions, and almost zero SOX emissions will facilitate the use of ammonia, and it can be one of the options for full decarbonized maritime transportation by 2050.
Burak Zincir

Chapter 10. Biogas as a Sustainable and Renewable Energy Source

The generation of waste is an inseparable element of human functioning. Among all produced waste, biodegradable waste plays a specific role. This is because waste is formed in every area, every day. One of the methods of biodegradable waste management is the anaerobic digestion process. The product of the discussed process is biogas, which is a source of sustainable and renewable energy. Anaerobic digestion is a biochemical process consisting of four phases: hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis. As a result of numerous changes, biogas is produced from various substrates rich in organic matter. The advantage of biogas is its many possible uses. The biogas can be used to produce electricity and heat in cogeneration and it can be used as fuel for vehicles or pump to the natural gas grid after purification to biomethane. The paper will include, among others, such information as: construction and operation of biogas plant, biogas production process, substrates and product of anaerobic digestion process, the use of biogas taking into account the possible use in sustainable mobility. Special attention has been targeted at environmental aspects of biogas production and management. The production of renewable energy following sustainable development is one of the tools in the fight against global warming. The effect of rational biodegradable waste management will be energy production, directly related to reducing of the amount of waste intended for landfills. Biogas is a renewable energy source with many advantages. Its production fits perfectly into the activities of sustainable development. Therefore, the growth of the biogas market is expected all over the world.
Wojciech Czekała

Chapter 11. Natural Gas as a Clean Fuel for Mobility

Regarding the rise of concerns about the emissions of diesel engines, including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM), and also the increasing energy demand, the application of alternative fuels in diesel engines has been known as an influential solution. Natural gas is a considerably promising fuel for use as a transportation fuel due to its availability, extensive infrastructure for distribution, low cost, and cleaner combustion. Using natural gas, SI engines can operate at a higher compression ratio than the conventional gasoline-fueled engines, so they present higher thermal efficiency and while they increase NOx emissions, they produce lower levels of greenhouse gas emissions, carbon dioxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. CI engines can also use natural gas fuel in dual-fuel mode, where a high-Cetane fuel is injected along with natural gas to provide a source of ignition for the charge. The dual-fuel mode generally maintains the thermal efficiency of the conventional CI engines while it significantly reduces soot emission levels. Also, in these engines, at low and medium loads, NOx emission level decreases, but HC and CO emissions rise compared to those emissions of the conventional CI engines. It is noteworthy that the dual-fuel mode exhibits longer ignition delays and lower CRs in comparison to the conventional diesel mode. In the dual-fuel mode, the engine power is reduced by almost 2.1%, however, this power reduction can be decreased by changing some operating parameters. This chapter focuses on analyzing the advantages, challenges, and different strategies of using NG in SI and CI engines.
Ayat Gharehghani, Amir Hossein Fakhari
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