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2024 | Book

Climate Change Adaptation from Geotechnical Perspectives

Select Proceedings of CREST 2023

Editors: Hemanta Hazarika, Stuart Kenneth Haigh, Babloo Chaudhary, Masanori Murai, Suman Manandhar

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering


About this book

This book presents select proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Construction Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Technologies (CREST 2023), and focuses on sustainability, promotion of new ideas and innovations in design, construction and maintenance of geotechnical structures with the aim of contributing towards climate change adaptation and disaster resiliency to meet the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It presents latest research, information, technological advancement, practical challenges encountered, and solutions adopted in the field of geotechnical engineering for sustainable infrastructure towards climate change adaptation. This volume will be of interest to those in academia and industry alike.

Table of Contents


Innovative Techniques Towards Low Carbon Footprint

Analysis of Operational Energy Cost of Typical Residential Building (in Guwahati Located in Northeastern India) with Foam Concrete as Walling Material

The building construction sector is known around the world for its huge energy consumption with a significant proportion contributed by the building’s operations phase alone. This encourages us to investigate alternative building materials in order to reduce the energy consumption of buildings. Foam concrete (FC) is one such energy-saving material with special attributes such as low density (400–1850 kg/m3) and excellent insulating characteristics. The main facet of the present study includes investigations on operational energy cost of typical G + 1 bungalow located in the Guwahati city (in Northeastern region of India) for different scenarios of walling materials (FC, autoclaved aerated concrete block (AAC) and clay brick). Experimental outcomes indicated that thermal conductivity of AAC block and FC of density 1000 kg/m3 are found to be very much lower than that of conventional clay brick. Further results on energy simulation analysis showed that building with AAC block (density 660 kg/m3) and FC (density 1000 kg/m3) as walling material exhibited yearly energy consumption of 15,188.24 and 15,608.75 kWh, respectively, which is comparatively lower than that of clay bricks (16,187.13 kWh). Adding to above, use of better insulating walling material also results in reduction of CO2 emission by 53.99 and 31.26 tons for AAC block and FC (density 1000 kg/m3), respectively. The above results highlight that FC can serve as a better energy-efficient alternative to conventional walling material.

Chandrashekhar Dattatray Wagh, Indu Siva Ranjani Gandhi, Vishal Shrivastava
Contribution of Vetiver Grass Towards Slope Stability Via Mechanical Root Reinforcement

Soil bioengineering techniques offer an eco-friendly and practically viable alternative for slope stabilization when compared to traditional techniques. In particular, the improvement in slope stability is obtained by planting vegetation that offers an improvement in existing shear strength via mechanical root reinforcement promoted by the presence of roots along failure surface. This study was aimed at evaluating the contribution of the root cohesion for vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) on slope stabilization in a tropical and mountainous environmental setting. Various root morphological characteristics of vetiver were obtained experimentally through field and laboratory testing. In general, the vetiver root system comprises of mostly fine roots of diameter varying between 0.11 and 2.22 mm and can offer large tensile strength between 14.4 and 2000 MPa. Results show that the tensile strength offered by vetiver roots increased with decreasing root diameter and a good power-fit relationship was obtained between root diameter and tensile strength. Furthermore, the root morphological characteristics were used with root bundle theory to translate the tensile strength offered by roots into additional root cohesion. Transient seepage analysis was performed on bare and vegetated slope to generate degree of saturation and suction profiles with respect to depth, which were incorporated into a simple infinite slope stability problem to compute the FOS with respect to depth. Analysis of results show that the FOS of shallow depths with presence of vetiver roots increased many folds as compared to bare slope, which demonstrated the potential of vetiver grass in restoration of watersheds along the hill slopes in southern Guam.

Ujwalkumar D. Patil, Myeong-Ho Yeo, Else Demeulenaere, Daniel Mabagos, Surya Sarat Chandra Congress
Effect of Change in Penetration to Rotation Rate on Screw Pile Performance in Loose Sand

Sustainable engineering solutions are the key to future infrastructure development to address the devastating effects of climate change. Screw pile is a sustainable, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly piling technique that can be used more and more in future infrastructure. Therefore, this study aims to understand the effect of change in penetration to rotation rate on screw pile performance in terms of installation effort and load-carrying capacity of single-helix screw piles in loose ground conditions. Steel screw piles having a helix-to-shaft diameter ratio of 2.0 were installed into the model ground with different penetration rates; however, the rotation rate was kept the same in all the experiments to achieve different penetration-to-helix pitch ratios in one rotation. The test results showed that in all cases, the ground around the installed pile densifies with the highest densification at a penetration-to-helix pitch ratio of 1.00. The densification zone below the pile tip level is up to 2.5 times the helix diameter, but its trend is gradually decreasing. While comparing the load-settlement response of screw piles installed with different penetration-to-helix pitch ratios with no installation case, it is found that all installation ratios showed higher load-carrying capacity, with the highest for 1.00 penetration-to-helix pitch ratio.

Adnan Anwar Malik, Shekh Istiaq Ahmed, Jiro Kuwano, Tadashi Maejima
Experimental Study on the Bearing Capacities of Sheet Pile Foundation in Saturated Clay Ground

In recent years, offshore wind power has been an important way to generate renewable energy and reduce the influence of greenhouse effect. The target of this research is to investigate the bearing capacity characteristics of steel sheet piles as foundations of offshore wind farms. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the bearing capacity characteristics of a single steel sheet pile model and a sheet pile group foundation model in a saturated clay ground. According to experiment results, both single pile and pile group in vertical load test (VLT) show similar load-settlement behavior, which is related to the mechanical properties of the overconsolidated clay. Due to the difference in bending rigidity of sheet pile in the direction of the strong axis and weak axis, pile arrangement of pile group significantly influenced the horizontal load carried by each pile, and more effective pile arrangements need to be discussed in future studies.

Xi Xiong, Jiayu Chen, Tatsunori Matsumoto, Yukihiro Ishihara
Hydro-Mechanical Effect of Vetiver Root on Laterite Soil

Soil bioengineering is a technique that uses vegetation in engineering design. Stabilizing slopes using grass roots can be considered as a soft type disaster mitigation measure for building a sustainable and resilient society from the perspective of its socio-economic benefits. The applicability of plant roots in slope stability can be understood by studying its hydrological and mechanical attributes. Hence the aim of this study is to identify the contribution of these two factors in stabilizing slopes by considering root–soil interaction. Plant roots act as a structural element to provide mechanical reinforcement, and when transpiration becomes significant, it induces soil suction which enhances the soil shear strength and reduces the hydraulic conductivity. Out of several grass species, vetiver grass (Crysopogon zizanioides) has various predominant qualities in its availability, faster growth and root biomass which ensure its use in geotechnical and geo-environmental engineering. Hence, the effect of vetiver grass roots on soil water retention curves (SWRC), permeability (k) functions and shear strength parameters have been experimentally investigated on lateritic soil. Thus, this paper focuses on quantifying the root contribution in improving the shear strength parameters: cohesion and friction angle along with permeability functions and further to develop SWRC to measure soil suction for different root biomass. Results of this study can be used as a tool for engineers in establishing a sustainable mitigation measure for a region where the impacts due to landslides are severe and vulnerabilities are the greatest.

T. T. Safa, D. Mahima, P. K. Jayasree, K. Balan
Influence of Relative Stiffness on Integral Bridge Design

Integral bridges are a low-maintenance form of bridge construction used worldwide. Their jointless structure eliminates bearing and expansion joint replacement bringing a reduction in lifecycle cost, carbon emissions, and socio-economic impact from road and rail disruption, therefore offering a resilient infrastructure solution in the face of a changing climate. By better understanding earth pressure ratcheting in the backfill due to repeated thermal movements of the deck, integral bridge use can increase to greater spans and skews while excessive design conservatism can be reduced. This paper explores the integral bridge problem and design code prescriptions before using analytical, numerical, and centrifuge modeling to show that soil-structure interaction, especially the relative stiffness of soil and structure, can reduce abutment bending moments by 30% and that this is largely unaccounted for in the current U.K. design code PD 6694–1. Preliminary results showed a similar influence of stiffness on seismic response.

Douglas G. Morley, Yazan B. Asia, Gopal S. P. Madabhushi, Indrasenan Thusyanthan, Dennis Sakufiwa
Study on Compaction and Unconfined Compressive Strength Characteristics of Magnesium Carbonate Mixed Soils

As the global urgency to stem global warming increases, the need to implement negative emissions technologies grows with it. This study takes into consideration one such proposed desalination brine conversion technology, capable of making use of its product magnesium oxide (MgO) to mineralize CO2 and produce magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). Recognizing the necessity to find feasible applications for the output non-plastic MgCO3, this paper outlines the study done to evaluate the performance of MgCO3 as a geomaterial by taking into account the material properties and unconfined compressive strength (qu) characteristics of a clayey soil mixed with 0–40 wt.% MgCO3. It was found that further addition of MgCO3 progressively reduced maximum dry density and increased plastic and liquid limits and optimum water content. It was also noted that the qu of soil mixtures with 10–30 wt.% MgCO3 were much greater than that of pure soil (i.e., 0 wt.% case). The probable reasons were attributed to the suction effect being lower the pure soil due to the greater than optimum water content used, and the effect instead being higher in mixtures due to increase in finer particles.

Navya Ann Eldho, Hailong Wang
Sustainable Handling of Soft Soils During the Design of Major Infrastructure Projects

This paper investigates whether cement stabilization of weak soft soils is a sustainable foundation solution, compared to traditional Danish methods used when weak soft soils are deemed unfit. Traditionally, a mass exchange, piled foundation, or pre-consolidation of the soil would be used. The paper is focused on a fictitious highway construction near Aalborg in Denmark, with a 6-m soft soil deposit below it. The effects of cement stabilization are investigated by casting specimens consisting of in-situ soft soil mixed with different cement amounts. Specimens with Aalborg Portland’s Basis cement and CO2-reduced FutureCem cement were subjected to oedometer and triaxial tests to determine stiffness and strength. To determine the CO2 emission from each foundation solution, Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) are performed. Based on the experiments performed, it is concluded that 37.5 kg/m3 FutureCem gained a sufficient stiffness increase, why this cement was used in the LCA. The LCAs showed that cement stabilization could lower the CO2 emission by 85% compared to a mass exchange, 77% for piled foundation, and 58% for pre-consolidation. Thus, cement stabilization can be a sustainable alternative to conventional soft soil remediations, and it is important to consider multiple solutions for a project to reduce CO2 emissions.

Martin Tanderup, Michael Rosenlund Lodahl, Kristina Thomassen, Lars Bo Ibsen
Transient Simulation of Ground Source Heat Pump in Tropical Region Considering Groundwater Flow

Southeast Asian countries have been experiencing rapid economic growth for decades. As a result, the regional per-capita energy demands are also increasing. Concerns about regional energy sustainability are growing as most of the electricity supplies in the region come from fossil fuels. On the other hand, space cooling is essential to electricity demands. In addition to finding the solution for sustainable energy generation, the conservation of end-user energy utilization is also an important consideration. The use of a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) may be a solution to improve household cooling efficiency in tropical regions. However, study on its application in such climate conditions is limited. This paper discusses the potential application of the GSHP system for space cooling, considering regional climate, ground temperature, and groundwater flow. The numerical simulation evaluates the performance of the GSHP system for a typical detached office building. The ground thermal parameters, building thermal properties, and climate conditions were based on the field data. A year of GSHP cooling was simulated, considering different cases of groundwater flow velocities. The simulation results indicate that the GSHP system can provide a 3.66–3.79 average Coefficient of Performance (COP) over a year of a cooling period in the tropical climate. Furthermore, the results show the effect of groundwater flow in enhancing the COP over a prolonged time.

Arif Widiatmojo, Youhei Uchida

Innovative Case Studies for Sustainable Design and Construction

2D Model Tests of Sheet Pile Reinforcement Method for Existing Pile Foundations

The sheet pile (SP) reinforcement method can be utilized to realize a sustainable society because it is more economical, environment friendly, and easier to construct in narrow areas than conventional methods of reinforcing pile foundations. Furthermore, the method can be used as a foundation reinforcement technique. In this study, static horizontal loading tests were conducted on a model ground using various separations between the piles and SP. Additionally, we studied the effects of increasing the overall resisting force of the foundation and the effect of decreasing the load supported by the existing piles. The results confirmed that when the distance between the existing piles and SP is small, the SP reinforcement effectively reduces the cross-sectional forces acting on the existing piles. By contrast, when the separation is large, the SP reinforcement effectively increases the bearing capacity of the entire foundation. Thus, the interaction between the pile and SP perimeter soil changed when the separation varied, and the reinforcement effect varied with the separation.

Takatoshi Sagawa, Tsubasa Ohata, Hidetoshi Nishioka
Application of Phase Change Materials for Thermal Stabilization of Soils in Cold Regions

With increasing climate change, the sustainability of geotechnical infrastructure in cold regions has become a global issue. Phase Change Material (mPCM) absorbs and releases energy in the form of latent heat under varying ambient temperatures. Hence, mPCM is an alternative to stabilizing the temperature regime of an embankment, and it improves the mechanical performance of soils under freeze–thaw cycles. This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of using PCM as a thermal controller in stabilizing the temperature regime of an embankment. Soils in seasonally frozen and degrading permafrost regions were selected in this study. Firstly, the soil temperature in these two regions was analyzed. After that, a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of various mPCM’s was performed based on the thermogram of the differential scanning calorimetry test. At last, a PCM-soil model was developed to simulate the thermophysical properties of reinforced soil mixture in both regions. The results show that mPCM was the most effective in soil temperature control during its phase transition. The maximum temperature rise in the mPCM soil layer was 1.4 ℃ under seasonal freezing conditions. With the presence of mPCM, a decrease in the maximum seasonal freezing rate and depth was observed. Under permafrost conditions, the application of mPCM at a depth of 1.2 m led to the reduction of soil temperature by 1.2 ℃. This study demonstrates the thermoregulatory effects of mPCM on the reduction of the embankment’s temperature and therefore by the application of mPCM the degradation of permafrost is prevented.

Ekaterina Kravchenko, Charles Wang Wai Ng
Case Study on Application of an Innovative Method of Pulling Out the Earth Retaining Pile with Less Ground Surface Settlement

Temporally constructed steel sheet piles to retain the excavated ground wall at neighboring construction sites have been often left in the ground even after the backfill at the open-cut was completed. This is because the pull-out of steel sheet piles causes the non-negligible subsidence of the surrounding ground. In order to suppress ground deformation caused by the extraction, “A method of pulling out the earth retaining pile and filling filler at the same time” was developed and has been applied in more than 530 cases where the surrounding ground deformation was especially concerned. In this paper, a method of pulling out the earth retaining pile and filling filler at the same time is introduced, and its application is described. From the same case, the validity of the prediction of settlement of the surrounding ground during pull-out of steel sheet pile by the simple method is examined. As an initial step to develop three-dimensional elasto-plastic finite element method for evaluating ground deformation during the application of the simultaneous pull-out filling method, the mechanical properties of the filler are investigated taking curing period into account through uniaxial compression tests.

Michiho Taoka, Yoshinori Fukubayashi, Hiroaki Watanabe, Yasuhiko Nishi
Case Studies of Vibration Method to Evaluate Residual Tensile Force of Ground Anchors

In the maintenance of slopes and infrastructures stabilized by ground anchors, it is important to evaluate the residual tensile force of the anchors. Generally, a lift-off test is used to measure the residual tensile force. The test is performed by placing a hydraulic jack on the extra part of the PC steel wire at the anchor head and loading a tensile force. The measurement principle of the test is clear, and the results are reliable. However, the test has the following problems: (1) anchors have the risk of breaking or ejection, so safety equipment is needed to protect operators from the ejection of anchors, (2) the cost of the test is expensive. To solve these problems, our group developed a non-destructive and non-loading test method to determine the residual tensile force by measuring the resonant frequency of the free part of the wire. We named the new test method “non-lift test”, and we are working toward the practical application of this method and are conducting measurements to determine its applicability. We conducted measurement tests on several standards of anchors. As the results, it is found that the discrepancy between the residual tensile forces obtained by lift-off and non-lift tests is less than 10%.

Naoto Ogawa, Takamasa Niibe, Hideki Saito, Mitsuru Yamazaki, Atsushi Yashima
Centrifuge Modeling of Highway Embankment Improved by Hybrid Type Reinforcement

The 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes destroyed a few highway embankments of the Kyushu Expressway in the Kumamoto province, located at the saturated, loose sandy foundation. To reduce the potential risk of earthquake-induced damage, such as these embankment failures, an innovative low-cost hybrid type reinforcement was developed, consisting of vertical and inclined piles. This study presents a series of centrifuge tests modeling the performance of highway embankments subjected to embankment failure. The sinusoidal wave with a peak shaking amplitude of 0.2 g was adopted. Several aspects regarding the behaviors of excess generation of pore water pressure, pile bending moment and embankment settlement under four configurations were revealed and discussed. The centrifuge test results illustrate the hybrid type reinforcement with the angle (55°) between the vertical and inclined pile which has the greater performance during the dynamic loading.

Chengjiong Qin, Hemanta Hazarika, Yoshifumi Kochi, Masanori Murai, Hideo Furuichi, Guojun Liu, Naoto Watanabe, Shinichiro Ishibashi, Daisuke Matsumoto
Comparative Study of Evaluations of Bearing Capacity Using Conventional Method and Finite Element Method

Kathmandu Clay, also called the black clay, found near the sub-surface of the valley sediments, incorporating with its low strength and high compressibility. In this research, the vertical bearing capacity of strip footing on Kathmandu Clay was analyzed using Mohr–Coulomb soil model both in drained and undrained conditions through finite elements. The analyses were focused on the failure patterns of the footing for both drained and undrained conditions. The failure analyses showed a varying degree of effects of the friction angle of the soil both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were further compared with Vesic’s and Prandtl’s methods of evaluating bearing capacities. Hence, obtained results of simulated failure plane and the conventional one preceded by Prandtl show a good agreement between each other and validated the results.

Suman Manandhar, Sunny Karmacharya, Panich Vootripruex, Salisa Chaiyaput
Effects of Climate Change on Landslide Slope Stability and Case Studies

In recent years, disasters caused by torrential rains and floods that exceed the planned scale are occurring in Japan due to climatic change. In response to it, Japan has been improving and reinforcing existing infrastructure to withstand more severe disasters. For example, in river projects, widening river width through channel excavation to increase flow capacity, and in road projects, lane widening and reinforcement of existing embankments to enhance the traffic network during disasters are occurring. At these project sites, there is concern that artificial topographic modification (changes in stress conditions due to excavation and embankment), which was conducted as a countermeasure, will affect potential weak surfaces in the ground, which, combined with the effects of increased rainfall caused by climate change, will destabilize the existing slopes and cause new slope changes (Kaneko in A collection of papers from the China Branch of Geotechnical Society, pp.161–168, 2018). In this wise, the demand for the assessment of landslide slope stability associated with increased rainfall caused by climate change and artificial modification is increasing; in this study, we examined a method for the assessment of landslide slope stability that takes into account the change in the strength of the slip surface associated with increased rainfall and artificial modification targeting a landslide area near a planned site for excavation of a river channel.

Shiro Ota, Masafumi Okawara, Nobuo Sakakibara, Takamasa Yamaji
Efficient Construction of Groundwater Level Observation Holes for Monitoring of Slope Disasters

Slope disasters caused by heavy rain are triggered by an increase in pore water pressure due to a rise in groundwater level. Therefore, by understanding the relationship between rainfall on the slope and rise in the groundwater level, the signs of a disaster are monitored in order to detect the possibility of slope disasters. For general groundwater level monitoring, a observation hole with a water level meter installed in the drilling hole is used. However, the installation of the observation hole by drilling requires procedures such as bringing in the machine and drilling by the boring machine, and due to budgetary concerns, it is often limited to implementation at several representative points. Therefore general method, even when the area where there is a risk of landslides blocks or surface collapse is wide, it is difficult to grasp the whole picture because the observation results are predicted from limited information. Instead of drilling, we will introduce a method of making a observation hole by inserting a φ10 mm water level meter into the screw weight sounding test hole. The screw weight sounding test is a test that can evaluate the hardness, tightness, and soil layer composition of the ground by measuring the number of rotations at the time of penetration, and can penetrate up to about 10 m. The work efficiency is good and it is possible to install at multiple locations in a day. The observation hole was installed on the slope using this method and the groundwater level rise was observed, it was confirmed that the groundwater level was formed near the surface layer in conjunction with the rainfall.

Yoshikazu Ochi, Atsushi Sonoda
Evaluation Case of Characteristics for Improved Soil by Elastic Wave Velocity Test

In Japan, quality inspection of ground improvement is based on strength to confirm the required performance. Since strength is the target, the testing method is limited to unconfined compression test, and there is no alternative testing method, nor is there a clearly defined method for analyzing the factors that may cause the lack of required performance. Because of this, there is a problem of economic sustainability, such as re-executing a series of work from core sampling to testing. Therefore, we decided to study a method to deal with this problem by adding criteria such as defect factors to the inspection target. The purpose of this paper is to collect basic data for analyzing the factors that cause variations in strength and defects in quality inspections, as well as for analyzing and evaluating the results of such analysis and evaluation methods. The results of elastic wave velocity and needle penetration tests, in addition to unconfined compression test, on core specimens taken from the improved ground were briefly analyzed. The results indicated that one of the factors causing the variation in unconfined compression strength was the occupancy of voids and clods on the shear surface, which could be analyzed by the elastic wave velocity test. The correlation between unconfined compression strength and elastic wave velocity was also obtained, which could be used to estimate the unconfined compression strength. These results may suggest that the elastic wave velocity test is an effective alternative method to the unconfined compression test.

Takaaki Ariki
Groundwater Control Measures for Deep Excavation of Bangkok MRT

Over the past few years, Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) Projects have been implemented in Bangkok as part of a master plan for the city and its surrounding areas. However, the underground construction of the MRT in Bangkok has become increasingly complicated due to the effects of the groundwater rebound in underlaid sand layers, which has posed a significant challenge in designing and building underground structures. Most of underground structures in the MRT projects are located deeper than the piezometric profile within the sand aquifer, which is currently at approximately 13 m deep from the ground level, making them vulnerable to hydraulic uplift and piping failures. Depending on factors such as station configuration, excavation level, and soil strata at the site, various methods including diaphragm cut-off wall, staged excavation, blanket grouting, and dewatering have been considered on a site-by-site basis and presented in this paper. This paper focuses on groundwater control measures for the MRT Blue Line Extension Project Contract 2 and the MRT Orange Line East Project Contract E1 and E2 and aims to serve as a reference for practitioners in the construction industry who are involved in deep excavation work with high groundwater pressure.

Pastsakorn Kitiyodom, Woraphon Wiriyatharakij, Anucha Yamchoo
Influence of Nano-Clay on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Cement Mortar at Elevated Temperature

A detailed experimental studies on use of cement as partial replacement with ground granulated blast furnace slag along with nano-clay and polypropylene fibers to improve bonding properties and shrinkage properties of cement mortar at elevated temperature were carried out in the Department of Civil Engineering, Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The testing specimens casted and tested as per IS specifications, cubes (70.6 mm), cylinders (100 mm diameter and 200 mm height), prisms (160 mm length, 40 mm width, and 40 mm depth), with cement mortar mix 1:3, and polypropylene fibers (0.25% by weight of cement) all the test specimens are subjected to at elevated temperature varying from 200, 400, 600 and 800 ℃, respectively. Retention time of 2 h is considered in the oven with respect to temperature and then strength properties at normal temperature as well as at elevated temperature were studied. The test results show that there is significant resistance in the strength properties can be resisted up to 400 ℃ then decrease in strength with rise of temperature. Scanning electron microscope and EDX were considered for morphology and mineral composition of modified cement mortar at normal temperature and elevated temperatures.

S. Kiran, Sadath Ali Khan Zai, Mallikarjun. A. Indi, Amruth.R. Naik
Predicting Hydro-Thermal Environment Characteristics in Underground Spaces of a Tumulus Mound

Cultural properties, such as mural paintings in underground spaces, are sensitive to hydro-thermal environments. Heat transfer analysis is useful for elucidating the mechanism behind the environment-induced deterioration of cultural properties and developing countermeasures. This study measured the temperature in the stone chamber of a tumulus mound for 500 days and validated the numerical simulation of heat transfer in the tumulus mound using the response factor method. The numerically predicted temperature values were almost consistent with the measured values. However, a numerical model that does not consider the solar radiation effects causes minor deviations from the measured values in the high-temperature period. In addition to temperature prediction, the water vapor transfer and dew condensation on the stone surfaces were calculated. The results indicated that the faces where dew condensation occurred varied seasonally. A larger amount of dew is generated on the ceiling that is not covered with soil compared with other faces, which indicates that excavation of the tumulus mound for exhibition of the stone chamber can promote dew condensation and damage the stone surfaces. The heat transfer analysis conducted in this study is useful for developing measures to sustainably control the hydro-thermal environment in the stone chamber to achieve a good balance between preservation and exhibition.

Mai Sawada, Sumire Tani, Mamoru Mimura
Prediction of Failure of Embankment on Soft Clay from Construction Control Chart

The stability of an embankment during and after construction is mainly dependent on the displacements under the embankment. There are numerous studies on the detrimental effect on the behavior of the proposed embankment or adjacent structures around the embankment. Different ground treatment techniques are implemented, and concurrent ground instruments are also deployed to control immense effects such as huge displacements and the collapse of embankments. Matsuo et al. (1977) proposed a stability chart to control the failure of the embankment based on the settlements at the center and lateral deformations at the toe of the embankment. The present study analyzed the data provided by different case studies on embankments and found the displacements using finite element software PLAXIS 2D. The lateral displacements and settlements obtained from PLAXIS 2D are plotted in the Matsuo stability chart to know the factor of safety at each stage of construction. Hence, the prior prediction of failure of the embankment can be possible with the Matsuo plot by observing the displacements. The lateral displacements and settlements from finite element analysis (FEA) are compared with the parameter obtained from the experimental, numerical, and observational methods existing in the case histories.

M. Bhanuchitra, V. Padmavathi, P. N. Rao
Proposed Classification of Degradable Muddy Rocks Using Physical and Chemical Properties

It is well known that muddy rocks such as mudstone and shale are susceptible to degradation over time, as symbolized by slaking, which can cause problems in the maintenance and management of earthwork structures such as cut slopes. In addition to the chemical properties of the clay minerals contained in the mudstone, which have been shown in many previous studies, the accelerated deterioration may be due to the effects of heavy rainfall, earthquakes, and stress release during and after construction. However, while there are cut slope faces with similar mudstone distribution that have achieved long-term stability without any measures, there are also cases in which the cut slopes have collapsed over time. Against this background, the authors have been conducting research on “classification of mudstone susceptible to deterioration using physical and chemical properties,” “effect of stress release on shear strength of mudstone discontinuities, “and” evaluation of the soundness of cut slope surfaces” for mudstones distributed in Miyazaki. This paper presents the physical and chemical properties and unconfined compression strength of mudstones, summarizes the relationships among them, and proposes a classification method of mudstones susceptible to degradation that reflects these results and discusses its usefulness.

Koji Yamashita, Xiangyu Wang, Noriyuki Yasufuku
Single Pile Behavior Under Repeated Horizontal Loading

Over the years, several marine structures with pile foundations have been proposed. Typically, such structures are repeatedly subjected to horizontal loading along numerous directions and at various load levels under the effects of waves or winds. However, the current Japanese design method examines these structures at the maximum load of virgin loading and rarely considers the deformation change of the pile owing to repeated loading. In this study, repeated horizontal loading experiments were conducted on single piles to examine the deformation behavior of such piles with respect to the loading directions and the preceding repeated loading. The maximum load was fixed, the minimum load was varied in each experimental case, and the unloading ratio (= minimum horizontal load/maximum horizontal load) was varied. Consequently, in the positive ratio, the increase in the ground surface displacement corresponded with the increase in the number of cycles. However, in the negative ratio, unexpected changes were observed in the behavior of the piles during monotonic loading. The results of the ground surface displacement and the bending moment distributions in the two-stage loading experiments, with regard to the behavior of piles subjected to preceding repeated loading demonstrated that, the considerable attention should be paid to the behavior of piles at the maximum load level when subjected to repetitive actions at different load levels. In particular, when the preceding load was smaller, the effect of the preceding load was negligible.

Yuka Sakoda, Atsushi Mohri, Yoshiaki Kikuchi, Shohei Noda, Tetsuo Okuno, Hirokazu Sugiyama, Kiyoshi Fukutake
Visualization of Seepage Behavior in a Model Ground Around Sheet Pile Using μ-Focused X-Ray CT System

River levees are used for not only flood control, but also for flood inundation. In recent years, river floods caused by short duration torrential rains and large typhoons have occurred in Japan. The principle that river dikes must be constructed using only soil is still followed. This is due to the availability of materials, the fact that the structure does not deteriorate, and the ease of restoration if the structure fails. Meanwhile, the entire function of a continuous dike can be lost when a localized weak point causes a breakout. In this study, an experimental apparatus was developed to investigate the formation of “localized” water channels at the boundary between unsaturated soil and steel sheet piles in a river dike, which is caused by the fluctuation of water level in the river due to rainfall. A seepage test was performed using the experimental apparatus, and the results confirmed that the permeability increased with the penetration of the steel sheet piles. In addition, an analysis of CT images showed an increase or decrease in the pore space in the model ground. Changes in the modeled unsaturated ground was successfully visualized using a X-CT scanner.

Hikaru Mouri, Takahiro Sato, Toshifumi Mukunoki, Jun Otani

Socio-Economic and Environmental Aspects in Sustainable Construction

Development of Ground Freezing Method Using Natural Refrigerants and Its Application

This paper presents a newly developed ground freezing method in Japan. Instead of HCFC or HFCs, it uses NH3 and CO2 for freezing; both are natural refrigerants. Thanks to the use of natural refrigerants, the new method (CO2 freezing method) is not only good for the environment but also more effective in ground freezing than the conventional method. The two fundamental experiments conducted to verify the effectiveness of the ground freezing by natural refrigerants, and the outlines and the results are shown in this paper. Moreover, the application of the CO2 freezing method is also shown. The application was ground improvement work for shield tunneling at a depth of about 66 m, and the first use of newly developed flat-shaped perforated freezing pipes. Finally, the most recent experiment is introduced. It was a long-distance pumping experiment of CO2 refrigerant, and its purpose was to expand the scope of application to respond to social demands in Japan for use of a great depth underground. The result proved that CO2 refrigerant could be circulated in the distance of 1500 m from the plant to the freezing area, instead of about the typical 100 m.

Kosuke Maejima, Hiroshi Soma, Yuta Shioya
Estimation of Inundation Mitigation Potential Due to Time Variability in Japan

Climate change has led to an increase in precipitation and the number of rivers exceeding their flood levels in all regions of Japan. It is pointed out that the amount of precipitation and the frequency of flooding will continue to increase in the future, and there is concern that the number of disasters that cannot be prevented simply by improving river channels will increase. In recent years, basin-based flood control measures have been promoted in Japan to reduce flood damage throughout the entire basin, and estimating the effect of water storage outside the river channel can help in the planning of basin-based flood control measures. In this study, data on off-channel water storage capacity for paddy fields, parks, and school reservoirs were collected on a national scale, and their functions were evaluated. In Fukushima Prefecture, the contribution of internal and external water storage was determined in consideration of future population changes, and priority areas were selected for countermeasures.

Sora Maruta, Seiki Kawagoe
Evaluation of the Erosion Control Performance and Vegetation of Natural Vegetation Recovery Promotion-Type Mat Incorporated with Soil Algae (BSC Mat)

In this study, we evaluated the erosion control performance and vegetation of natural vegetation recovery promotion-type mat incorporated with soil algae (BSC mat). The tests were conducted by applying rainfall of 50, 100, and 150 mm/h to the slope for 30 min, respectively, and evaluating the ratio of soil loss in the unprotected soil to that in the soil covered by it (soil loss ratio: SLR). The results showed that the SLR was 192, indicating that it had a higher erosion prevention function compared to the unprotected soil. In addition, we observed the vegetation by natural invasion and measured soil loss on an outdoor embankment slope in the field test. The number of invasive plants in the mat was about 2.5 times higher than that in the unprotected slope, and the plants were established evenly in the whole area, unlike the unprotected slope where vegetation was found only in the eroded area. The amount of soil loss in the BSC mat plots was less than 1/4500. It was indicated that the mat formed vegetation faster and better than the unprotected soil, and that the amount of soil loss was also suppressed.

Nobuyuki Kohno, Aki Matsumoto, Mineto Tomisaka, Tetsushi Ozeki, Kohei Araki
Roles of Coarser-Grained Soil Layers in Capillary Barrier System

Water diversion occurring at the interface between finer- and coarser-grained soil layers is referred to as capillary barriers, which are used for soil covers to restrict water infiltration into waste facilities and improve slope stability. However, methods for selecting optimum soils for capillary barriers have not been established. This study aims to develop measures to select optimum soils for capillary barriers by focusing on the roles of coarser-grained soil layers. Water diversion occurring at the bottom of a sandy soil layer exposed to the atmosphere, which corresponds to a capillary barrier when the pore spaces of the underlying coarser-grained soil layer are infinitely large, is investigated via rainfall tests and numerical simulations. The results reveal that the porewater pressure at the soil–atmosphere interface where water diversion occurred is close to or less than the air entry value but remains negative. This indicates that the negative porewater pressure is a key component for the water diversion at the soil–atmosphere interface, thus providing a novel perspective on the mechanism of capillary barriers. Capillary barriers can be caused by negative porewater pressure generated at non-contact zones between finer- and coarser-grained soil layers. Essentially, the role of coarser-grained soils can make a soil–atmosphere interface by installing spaces under the finer-grained soil layer. This study is useful for reconsidering the mechanism of capillary barriers and developing reasonable measures to select optimum soils.

Mai Sawada, Mamoru Mimura, Shigemasa Murai
Technology to Reduce Environmental Impact of Jet Grouting Technology

Jet grouting technology has been applied worldwide since the 1970s to improve soft ground. This paper discusses the reduction of environmental impact achieved by a technology to treat waste mud (hereinafter referred to as “spoil return”) generated in jet grouting technology, as well as that achieved by contributing to the longevity of buildings. We also discuss in-situ remediation using water jet technology. The in-situ remediation method using jet grouting technology combined with bioremediation technique is an innovative soil remediation method applicable to clayey soil, which is difficult to be treated by conventional in-situ remediation methods.

Junichi Yamanobe, Toshiyuki Kamata, Kazutoshi Ishikawa, Toshiaki Jin, Yosuke Watanabe, Keisuke Ohkubo

Geological and Hydrological Aspects

A Case Study of Multi-point Temperature Logging for Effective Groundwater Drainage in High Embankment

As is often experienced in the field of mountain ground disasters, groundwater in a formation is rarely uniformly distributed and flowing. Groundwater is composed of several fluidized layers, which are affected by the complex geological and soil conditions in the subsurface, and the water level and hydraulic head of each fluidized layer form the groundwater table. Without sufficient information on the location and depth of the groundwater flow layer, it is difficult to achieve effective results when implementing countermeasure works to lower groundwater. To prevent this from happening, it is very important to know the location of the groundwater flow layer in advance, both in plan and in three dimensions. The depth of the groundwater flow layer and its thickness can be obtained by performing a “multi-point temperature logging” developed by Dr. Atsuo Takeuchi. The greatest advantage of this logging method is that it can obtain information on the groundwater leachate layer above the borehole water level even when the water level in the borehole is extremely low. The commonly used method for detecting fluidized layers is the saline dilution method, but the information on fluidized layers is limited to the depth below the water level in the borehole. To solve this problem, logging while drilling exploratory boreholes in stages is another method, but it is quite difficult to apply because of its high cost and time burden. The built-up area under study is 30 m layer-thick embankment. Groundwater is present within the fill of this built-up area due to poor drainage. In order to ensure the stability of the embankment, groundwater exclusion using collection wells was considered. Multi-point temperature logging was conducted at two locations to determine the drainage pipe layout of the water collection wells. As a result of this survey, several groundwater seepage points and groundwater flow layers could be detected and effective drainage pipe placement could be planned.

Masanori Murai, Masaya Kawata, Yuta Ichikawa, Atsuo Takeuchi
Effect of Groundwater Filtering on Clogging of Recharge Well

At the construction site for a rainwater storage facility in Niiza City, Saitama Prefecture, the plan includes recharge groundwater into wells outside the excavation area in order to prevent subsidence in the surrounding residential areas. This paper reports on the application of a pumped filtration system for groundwater that is to be injected into recharge wells as a method to reduce clogging. Five recharge wells were constructed, three of which were recharged with filtered groundwater and two with untreated groundwater. After continuously injecting groundwater at a constant rate for about six months, the injection efficiency of the three wells recharged with treated water remained almost unchanged. On the other hand, the two wells recharged with untreated water were more severely clogged, with efficiency dropping by about 10% or less of the initial level. During the construction work, the groundwater level in an observation well outside the excavation area remained unchanged and no land subsidence was observed.

Hidehiko Hayashi, Akira Ishikawa, Nobuaki Kohsaka
Infiltration Depth Prediction Model Considering Soil Properties and Rainfall Conditions for Aeolian Sand Subgrade

Aeolian sand serves as the primary filling material for highway and railway in the desert area of Inner Mongolia, China. Usually, aeolian sand subgrade is stable in the natural state. Nevertheless, the infiltration caused by rainfall events disrupts the original balance within the subgrade. The hydraulic properties of aeolian sand subgrade change substantially in a short period, which results in a decrease in shear strength and subsequent deformation or landslide of the subgrade. Based on the analysis of soil properties and structural characteristics of aeolian sand subgrade, a prediction model for rainfall infiltration depth considering soil properties and rainfall levels of aeolian sand subgrade was proposed based on the linear approach of soil water characteristic curves (SWCCs). This study further used the aforementioned prediction model to predict the infiltration depth of aeolian sand with three different dry densities under an extreme rainfall event and compared it with numerical simulation results to verify the applicability of the prediction model. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the study of the hydraulic behavior of aeolian sand subgrade soil.

Xintong Song, Yaqi Zhang, Pengcheng Wang, Li Zhang, Peng Jing
Integrated Water Resources Management Considering Geologic Features Under Climate Change: Development of an Analytical Tool for Langat River Basin in Malaysia

For integrated water resources management in the Langat River basin in Malaysia, which has water quality problems, we evaluated the water retention function of the forest area from a geological perspective and reflected it in a hydrological analysis model of the basin and analyzed the water resources in the target basin based on climate prediction datasets with representative concentration pathways of greenhouse gases. We also introduced a dedicated tool that stores the analysis results as a database and displays them visually on a GIS. In the analytical modeling, we found that evaluating water retention based on the geological characteristics of granite distributed over the forest area and reflecting it in the modeling contributes to the accurate identification of river discharge, especially during the dry seasons when water pollution becomes apparent. Runoff analysis on datasets with representative concentration pathways RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 for climate change scenarios revealed that the impact of climate change on changes in river flow in the Langat River after 50 years was relatively insignificant.

Mitsuru Yabe, Hiroki Ohashi, Tadashi Yoshioka
Multiphysics Numerical Modeling of Transient Transport of PFAS

Per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of very persistent chemicals, labeled forever chemicals, because of their indestructibility due to their strong C-F bond. PFAS are among emerging contaminants of high concern due to their widespread contamination in the geoenvironment. PFAS are mobile, toxic, manufactured chemicals with very stable molecules and, hence, persistent in the environment. The more persistent presence of PFAS in the vadose (i.e., unsaturated) zone of soil complicates their transport due to their adsorption onto the air–water interface. The micelles formation on the air–water interface can significantly increase the retention of PFAS during its transport and turn the vadose zone into a long-term source of PFAS, slowly releasing PFAS into groundwater. This paper describes the development and testing of a one-dimensional (1D) numerical model that simulates PFAS transport, accounting for diffusion, advection, solid-phase adsorption, and air–water interface adsorption. The code is one-way coupled with a transient seepage model to account for the seepage impact on the PFAS transport, but not vice versa). After testing, the numerical model was then used to study various scenarios to evaluate the impact of solid adsorption and micelle formation on the PFAS transport.

Arvin Farid, Pierrette Iradukunda
Observations and Analysis of Vertical One-Dimensional Rainfall Seepage Flow Phenomenon

Heavy rainfall due to climate change such as global warming exceeds our expectations every year in Japan, and slope failures occur due to heavy rainfall. The heavy rain disasters in Japan tend to result in human and economic loss. Therefore, in this paper, focusing on Horton's infiltration capacity theory, we have developed a proposed formula that takes into account rainfall seepage flow when bare ground or nonwoven filters are installed. We have created an artificial slope as a slope for field experiments and installed a rain gauge and a soil moisture meter for on-site measurement. Furthermore, numerical calculations were performed based on the vertical one-dimensional seepage flow phenomenon. We compared the results of numerical analysis and on-site measurement and examined the effect of the presence or absence of nonwoven filters on the infiltration capacity in the rainfall. In conclusion, when the ground surface is bare, the infiltration capacity tends to decrease due to surface erosion of the slope and the impact of raindrops. Secondly, we are able to determine the constant of the proposed formula from the field observations. Finally, if a nonwoven filter is applied to the ground surface, it has infiltration capacity and improves the water resource recharge function compared to the case of bare ground.

Koichi Tsubogo, Kohei Araki, Yasushi Fukuda, Keiji Kuajima, Kosuke Katayama, Shunji Ue
Seepage Model Experiment of Earth Fill Dam Due to Heavy Rains

In recent years, a lot of small earth fill dams have collapsed by occurring torrential rain. It is considered that rainfall infiltration causes the weakening of the levee, which is accompanied by a complex of failure phenomena such as sliding and seepage, but the main cause of the failure has not yet been identified. In this paper, we conduct the model experiments in a 1G gravity field to verify the failure mechanism of small earth fill dams during rainfall. The model experiments are conducted under the assumption of continuous heavy rainfall on the levee composed of sandy soil. The experiments confirmed the development of intermittent small-scale slip failures associated with the increase of pore water pressure and pressure hydraulic head in the levee and the erosion of the slope due to rainfall. The series of results indicate that the erosive failure of the surface soil due to rapid saturation of the surface soil and the development of intermittent slip failures are the main causes of failure when highly permeable levee soils are subjected to very heavy rainfall in a continuous manner.

Namihiko Tanaya, Shuichi Kuroda, Kentaro Kuribayashi, Tadashi Hara
The Use of Field Water Retention and Ambient Temperature for Developing the Soil Water Characteristic Curve

The integrity and performance of geo-infrastructures have been receiving growing attention in the last two decades. Differential settlements are critical forms of distresses that lead to loss of functionality and even failures. Differential settlement is typically initiated by uncontrolled waste dumping and uncompacted fills coupled–exacerbated seasonal volumetric soil changes triggered by wetting and drying cycles. Therefore, it is paramount to continuously monitor load-deformation patterns without interrupting usage. It is also vital to consider the effect of vegetation and meteorological factors on soil properties. More data is needed to build robust correlations between basic soil properties/characteristics, vegetation, weather, and hydraulic properties of soils. Despite recognizing the significance of the long-term effects of vegetation and climate on soil’s behavior, very modest effort has been invested in developing intelligent systems and models that allow for the prediction of soil parameters in relation to water retention and stress-deformation characteristics using the input of vegetation and atmospheric parameters. This study uses field and laboratory testing to develop a predictive model encompassing quantified environmental and vegetation factors. The program employed field monitoring sensors measuring soil water potential and soil moisture with varying proximity to the vegetation. Real-time data collected by the field sensors and thermal imaging assisted in postulating a quantified relation between a radial fluctuation of the soil suction from the tree roots and the vegetation parameters. Upon laboratory verification, these relationships were processed to develop a graphical model to represent the quantification of the varying soil suction with climatic and vegetative parameters. The model’s outcome supports the design of geotechnical infrastructure, especially through evaluating soil water retention without disrupting the natural habitat.

Randhilini Liyanage, Ahmad Mousa, Ankit Garg, Fauziah Ahmad, Vivi Anggraini
Climate Change Adaptation from Geotechnical Perspectives
Hemanta Hazarika
Stuart Kenneth Haigh
Babloo Chaudhary
Masanori Murai
Suman Manandhar
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